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BEQUEST OF 

REV. CANON SCADDING, D. D. 
TORONTO, WOT. 



MEMORIALS OF CAMBRIDGE 



t. 



10 



GREATLY ENLARGED FROM THE WORK OF J. LE KEUX 
BY 

CHARLES HENRY COOPER, F.S.A, 

WITH STEEL AND COPPER PLATES 

BY LE KEUX AND STOKER 
AND ETCHINGS ON COPPER BY ROBERT FARREN. 



, *t*r's 



t0 Jesus 



MACMILLAN & CO. 




HONOURABLE AND REVEREND 

LATIMER NEVILLE, M.A., 

VICE-CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, 



is (BY PERMISSION) 
MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED. 



WHEN, at the request of the publisher, I under- 
took to revise the Memorials of Cambridge, by 
Mr. Thomas Wright and the Rev. H. Longueville 
Jones, I was under the impression that only a 
slight amount of labour would be imposed upon me. 
I found however that I was much mistaken in this 
respect. The work has in fact been so exten- 
sively altered that it may be considered as entirely 
re- written. 

In the compilation of this volume I have specially 
to acknowledge the kind assistance of the Rev. the 
Master of S. Peter's college, the Rev. the Master 
of Clare college, the Rev. the Master of Pembroke 
college, the Rev. John Lamb, M.A., fellow of Caius 
college, Charles Spencer Perceval, esq., LL.D., fellow 
of Trinity hall, the Rev. the Master of Corpus 
Christi college, the Rev. Thomas Brocklebank, M.A., 
fellow of King's college, the Rev. William George 
Searle, M.A., vicar of Oakington and late fellow 
of Queens' college, the Rev. the Master of 



S. Catharine's college, and the Rev. the Master 
of Jesus college. 

For additional illustrations the publisher is under 
obligations to the Rev. the President of Queens' 
college, the members of Trinity hall boat club, 
C. C. Babington, esq., M.A., of S. John's college 
and the Cambridge Antiquarian society. 



C. H. C. 



CAMBRIDGE, 

January, 1860. 



CONTENTS OF VOL I. 





S. PETER'S COLLEGE, 

(FOUNDED 1284.) 



THE FOUNDER 

THE FOUNDATION 

BENEFACTORS 

EMINENT MEN 

BUILDINGS 

CHAPEL 

HALL 

LIBRARY 

MASTER'S LODGE . 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS 

PATRONAGE 



PAGE 

1 
3 

8 
9 
15 
18 
20 
21 
24 
ib. 
ib. 



CONTENTS, 





CLAEE COLLEGE, 

(FOUNDED 1326.) 



THE FOUNDRESS 

THE FOUNDATION 

BENEFACTORS 

EMINENT MEN 

BUILDINGS 

THE CHAPEL 

THE HALL 

THE COMBINATION ROOM 

THE LIBRARY. 

THE MASTER'S LODGE 

POISON CUP . 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS 

PATRONAGE . 



PAGE 

25 

28 
37 
39 
45 
46 
47 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
48 
ib. 



CONTENTS. 



XI 






PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

(FOUNDED 1348.) 



THE FOUNDRESS . 

THE FOUNDATION 

BENEFACTORS . * 

EMINENT MEN 

BUILDINGS 

THE CHAPEL . 

THE HALL 

THE COMBINATION ROOM 

THE LIBRARY 

THE MASTER'S LODGE . 

SPHERE-HOUSE 

PLATE 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS 

PATRONAGE 



PAOK 

49 
51 
55 
56 
64 
65 
66 
ib. 
ib. 
67 
ib. 
ib. 
70 



Xll 



CONTENTS. 




GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE, 

(FOUNDED 1348, REFOUNDED 1558). 

PAQB 

THE FIRST FOUNDER . . . . .73 

THE SECOND FOUNDER .... 74 

THE FIRST FOUNDATION . . . . .84 

THE SECOND FOUNDATION .... 86 

BENEFACTORS . . . . . .87 

EMINENT MEN ..... 90 

BUILDINGS . . . . . .98 

THE CHAPEL . . . . .103 

THE HALL ...... 104 

THE COMBINATION ROOM . . . ib. 

THE LIBRARY ...... 105 

THE MASTER'S LODGE . . . . . ib. 

PHYSWICK HOSTEL . . . . . ib. 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS . . . ^ 106 

PLATE . . , . . . .107 

PATRONAGE . . ib. 



CONTENTS. 



Xlll 





TRINITY HALL, 

(FOUNDED 1350.) 



THE FOUNDER 

THE FOUNDATION 

BENEFACTORS 

EMINENT MEN 

BUILDINGS 

THE CHAPEL . 

THB HALL 

THE COMBINATION ROOM 

THE MASTER'S LODGE 

THE LIBRARY . 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS 

PATRONAGE 



PAGE 

. 110 

113 
. 121 

124 
. 131 

133 
. 134 

135 

. 136 

ib. 

. 137 

138 






XIV 



CONTENTS. 





CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 

(FOUNDED 1352). 

THE GILD OF CORPUS CHRIST: AND S. MARY . 
THE FOUNDATION .... 

BENEFACTORS .... 
EMINENT MEN .... 

BUILDINGS .... 

THE CHAPEL ..... 
THE HALL .... 

THE COMBINATION ROOM 

THE LIBRARY .... 
THE MASTER'S LODGE .... 
THE PLATE .... 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS 
PATRONAGE 



PAOK 

140 
144 
147 
151 
159 
162 
164 
165 
166 
167 
ib. 
168 
169 



CONTENTS. 



XV 





KING'S COLLEGE, 

(FOUNDED 1441.) 



THE FOUNDER 

THE FIRST FOUNDATION 

THE SECOND FOUNDATION . 

BENEFACTORS 

EMINENT MEN 

BUILDINGS 

THE CHAPEL 

THE HALL 

COMBINATION BOOMS 

PROVOST'S LODGE 

LIBRARY 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS 

PATRONAGE 



r.\c., 

172 
174 
177 
211 
215 
235 
238 
260 
263 
264 
4. 
265 
267 



XVI 



CONTENTS. 





QUEENS' COLLEGE, 

(FOUNDED 1446). 



THE FIRST FOUNDRESS 

THE SECOND FOUNDRESS 

THE FOUNDATION 

BENEFACTORS . 

EMINENT MEN 

BUILDINGS 

THE CHAPEL 

THE HALL 

THE COMBINATION KOOM 

THE LIBRARY 

THE PRESIDENT'S LODGE 

THE BRIDGE . 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS 

PATRONAGE 



PAGE 

272 
279 
282 
297 
304 
318 
320 
322 
323 

ib. 
325 
326 

ib. 
328 



CONTENTS. 



XV11 





IS. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE, 

(FOUNDED 1475.) 



THE FOUNDER 

THE FOUNDATION . 

BENEFACTORS . 

EMINENT MEN 

BUILDINGS 

THE CHAPEL 

THE HALL . 

THE COMBINATION ROOM . 

THE LIBRARY 

THE MASTER'S LODGE 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS 

PATRONAGE 



I'AQE 

329 
331 
336 
339 
344 
346 
349 
350 

ib. 

ib. 
351 
352 



XV111 



CONTENTS. 




JESUS COLLEGE. 

(FOUNDED 1496.) 

THE NUNNERY OF S. RHADEGUND 

THE FOUNDER 

THE FOUNDATION 

BENEFACTORS .... 

EMINENT MEN .... 

BUILDINGS .... 

THE CHAPEL .... 

THE HALL .... 

THE COMBINATION ROOM . 

THE LIBRARY .... 

THE MASTER'S LODGE 

MASTERSHIP, FELLOWSHIPS, AND SCHOLARSHIPS 

THE COLLEGE GRAMMAR-SCHOOL 

PATRONAGE 



PAGE 

354 
361 
363 
367 
373 
382 
385 
396 
397 
398 
400 
ib. 
402 
403 



ETCHINGS BY R. FARREN. 







PAGR 


1 


ST. PETER'S COLLEGE .... 


I 


2 


PEMBROKE COLLEGE, from the Master's Garden 


49 


3 


CAIUS COLLEGE, the New Hall , 


73 


4 


TRINITY HALL, the New Building 


109 


5 


CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, the Old Court 


139 


6 


KING'S COLLEGE CHAPEL, the West End . 


frontispiece 


7 


QUEENS' COLLEGE AND SMALL BRIDGE, from the River . 


271 


8 


ST. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE, the Front from Queens' Lane 


329 


9 


JESUS COLLEGE, Interior of Chapel . 


. . 353 


STEEL AND COPPER ENGRAVINGS BY LE KEUX AND STORER. 


10 


ST. PETER'S COLLEGE, shewing the Chapel 


9 


11 


Gisborne Court 


17 


12 


Interior of Chapel 


20 


13 


Gisborne Court, from the Grove 


24 


14 


CLARE COLLEGE, Entrance Gateway 


vignette title 


15 


From the Garden .... 


32 


16 


College and Bridge 


41 


17 


Quadrangle .... 


45 


18 


Interior of Chapel . . 


46 


19 


PEMBROKE COLLEGE, from the Street 


53 


20 


First Court .... 


57 


21 


Interior of Chapel ... 


65 


22 


Interior of Hall .... 


67 


23 


CAIUS COLLEGE, from the Street 


81 


24 


Gate of Honour .... 


97 


25 


Interior of Chapel .... 


103 


26 


From the Fellows' Garden 


105 


27 


TRINITY HALL, Entrance Second Court 


113 


28 


From the Garden 


121 


29 


Front Court . . . 


132 


30 


CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, from the Street 


145 


31 


Quadrangle .... 


153 


32 


Interior of Chapel . . 


162 


33 


KING'S COLLEGE, Front from Trumpington Street 


177 


34 


From Clare Hall Piece 


185 


35 


Interior of Hall .... 


193 


36 


Exterior of Chapel , 


200 


37 


Library . 


209 


38 


Bridge ..... 


215 


39 


Old Court, First View 


- v 224 


40 


Old Court, Second View 


225 


41 


Provost's Lodge .... 


237 


42 


Interior of Chapel . . 


239 


43 


New Quadrangle .... 


249 


44 


Fellows' Buildings and Provoit's Lodge 


264 



J v ILLUSTRATIONS. 

TAOB 

4-5 QUEENS' COLLEGE ..... '274 

46 'J he Hall ..... 

47 Second Court . ' a 

48 Walnut Tree Court .... 

49 Entrance Gate, 1837 . . 

50 13uildings, Walnut Tree Court and View oi King s 

51 St. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE, Front Court 
62 Interior of Chapel 

53 JESUS COLLEGE, First Court .... 

64 Entrance Gateway . . > 

55 From the Gardens ..... 

56 Chapel, 1830 ..... 

67 From the Meadows ..... 393 

ETCHINGS BY INCH. 

f>8 TRINITY HALL, Mantelpiece in Combination Room 

59 Interior of Library . . . . . 136 

WOOD ENGRAVINGS. 

1 St. PETER'S COLLEGE, Front .... 

'2 East End of the Chapel .... 17 

3 CLARE COLLEGE, Bridge . .25 

4 PEMBROKE COLLEGE, Part of the Inner Court . . 49 
6 Part of the Outer Court . . . .64 

6 CAIUS COLLEGE, Gate of Humility ... 73 

7 Monument of Dr. Caius . . . .83 

8 Gate of Virtue ..... 99 

9 View through Gate of Virtue . . . .101 

10 TRINITY HALL, Old Front . . . . 109 

11 Centre of Hall, over the Fellows' Table . .135 

12 CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, Entrance Gateway . . 139 

13 Window of the Old Hall . . . .160 

14 KING'S COLLEGE, Gateway of the Old Buildings . 171 

15 Arms of Henry VII. in the Chapel . . .201 

16 Bridge ..... 236 

17 Pendant Key-stone in the Chapel . . . 245 

18 View between the Roofs of the Chapel . . 255 

19 The Hall . . . . . .261 

20 QUEENS' COLLEGE, from the King's Mill (18 (9) . ' 271 

21 Front View (initial letter) . . . . ib. 

22 College Arms ..... 279 

23 Interior of the Hall, (initial letter) . . . 285 

24 Interior of Chapel, (initial letter) . . . 289 

25 The Cloisters, shewing Erasmus' Tower , . .319 

26 The Hall and Chapel .... 324 

27 Facsimile of Signatures .... 294 

28 Part of the Cloister Court . . . 318 

29 St. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE, East Front . . . 329 

30 The Chapel ..... 346 

31 JESUS COLLEGE, Gateway to the Cloister Courts . . 353 

32 The Entrance Gateway . . . 383 

33 Interior ot the Tower of the Chapel . , . 386 

34 Piscina and Sedilia in the Chapel . . . 392 




FRONT OF S. PETER S COLLEGE. 



S. PETER'S COLLEGE. 

THE oldest collegiate foundation in Cambridge is 
S. Peter's College, or, as it is popularly called, 
Peterhouse, situate on the west side of Trumpington 
Street, nearly opposite Pembroke College. This 
college owes its origin to the pious munificence of 
Hugh de Balsham, bishop of Ely. 

THE FOUNDER. Hugh de Balsham, born at Bal- 
sham, in the county of Cambridge, was a monk of 
Ely and sub-prior thereof. On the death of William 
de Kilkenny, bishop of Ely, which occurred in Sep- 
tember, 1256, the king gave his licence to the prior and 
convent to proceed to elect a bishop in his stead, 

VOL. I. B 



2 s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 

at the same time recommending Henry de Wengham, 
his chancellor. The election took place on the 13th 
November, when the monks unanimously chose Hugh de 
Balsham. This much incensed the sovereign, although 
his chancellor in consideration of the great merits 
and known worth of Hugh de Balsham, handsomely 
expressed his readiness to waive his own pretensions. 
Boniface, archbishop of Canterbury, not only annulled 
Balsham' s election, but nominated Adam de Marisco, 
a Franciscan friar, to the see, as on a devolution. 
Balsham appealed to the court of Rome, and obtained 
the pope's decision in his favour, 6th October, 1257. 
He was consecrated at Rome on the 14th of that month, 
and obtained from the king restitution of the tem- 
poralities of the see, 15th January, 1257-8. Imme- 
diately on his return to England, he instituted legal 
proceedings to vindicate the right of the bishops of 
Ely to hostelage in the house of the New Temple 
in London. In 1276 he settled a dispute respecting 
jurisdiction between the chancellor of the university 
and the archdeacon of Ely. His death occurred at 
Doddington, Isle of Ely, 18th June, 1286, and on 
the 24th his body was buried near the high altar 
of his cathedral, and his heart near the altar of 
S. Martin, in the same church. The funeral rites 
were performed by Thomas de Ingoldesthorpe, bishop 
of Rochester. In gratitude for his collegiate founda- 
tion, and for the many eminent services which the 
University had at various times received from him, 
Geoffrey de Pakenham, the chancellor, and the masters, 
regent, and non-regent, in a full assembly on the 
26th of May, 1291, decreed that there should be a 



s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 3 

solemn congregation of all the regents in their robes 
yearly on the vigil of S.S. Vitus and Modestus (the 
14th of June), after dinner, and the morning fol- 
lowing, in the church of S. Peter, to celebrate a 
solemn commemoration for him, with the full service 
for the dead, because he entirely devoted himself to 
the scholars, and diligently promoted their interest, 
conveniency, and honour; with charitable eyes and 
a pious mind, bestowing many benefits on the regents 
and poor scholars, and adorning the University with 
many privileges. (a) 

THE FOUNDATION. The hospital of S. John the 
Evangelist, in Cambridge, founded about 1135, was 
in the patronage of the bishops of Ely; and bishop 
Balsham, in 1275, successfully defended his right 
to present to the mastership against a claim made 
by Eleanor the queen dowager. The bishop resolved 
to establish a community of scholars, and to place 
them in S. John's hospital. Accordingly, he obtained 
from Edward I. letters patent dated at Burgh, 24th 
December, 1280, empowering him to substitute in 
the place of secular brethren in the hospital studious 
scholars, to be governed in all things according to 
the rule of the scholars of Merton at Oxford. It 
seems that the scholars had a master of their own 
and separate revenues. The plan did not succeed, 
it being soon found inconvenient to have two separate 
communities residing in the same house. 

The bishop by an instrument dated at Downham, 
the day before the calends of April (31st March), 
1284, reciting the king's licence, and that he by 

(a) Stat. Acad. Cantab, p. 84, 

B2 



4 s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 

virtue thereof had caused to be introduced into the 
hospital a certain number of scholars who acquired 
and had assigned to them certain goods, separate 
from the goods of the hospital, for their perpetual 
sustentation : that in process of time, from various 
causes, very many matters of dissension had arisen 
between the brethren of the hospital and such scholars, 
by means whereof it was seen to be difficult or in- 
tolerable that they could longer dwell together, 
wherefore they had humbly besought him to make 
division, as well of the places as the goods of either 
party held in common, if it should seem good to 
him so to do : for the doing whereof they had spon- 
taneously submitted themselves, and all their goods 
and rights, howsoever acquired, to his ordinance, as 
by the letters of either party, sealed with their 
common seals, and then remaining with him, more 
fully would appear. By virtue of this submission he 
ordained that his scholars, whom he willed to be 
for ever called the scholars of the bishop of Ely, 
should be separated from the brethren of the hospital, 
and transferred to two hostels near the church of 
S. Peter, without the gate of Trumpeton of Cam- 
bridge, and should have that church with the two 
hostels aforesaid for ever: and that they should 
have the goods within mentioned to the aforesaid 
church pertaining, namely, the tithes of corn, with 
the altarage which the brethren before named were 
wont to have and collect, and the tithes of the two 
mills belonging to that church ; and that the brethren 
should have certain houses and rents by him lately 
assigned to the scholars. To one part of this in- 



s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 5 

strument the master of the brethren and the brethren, 
and to another part the master of the scholars and 
the scholars, affixed their respective seals. 

By another instrument of the same date, the church 
of Triplow, in the county of Cambridge, which the 
bishop at the request of the scholars had appropriated 
to them and the brethren jointly, was appropriated 
solely to the master and scholars and their suc- 
cessors.^ 5 

The founder by his will gave 300 marks for 
enlarging the college. His executors purchased a 
piece of ground on the south side of S. Peter's church. 
The college had however, difficulty in obtaining the 
royal licence to enter upon this property, which 
was held of the king for one half-penny by the year, 
it having been found by inquisition that the grant 
of it to the scholars would be to the king's damage 
of 10. They twice petitioned parliament on the 
subject, and it seems that ultimately they were re- 
quired to give security before the king's chancellor 
to answer his majesty for the damage, although they 
had, reasonably enough, suggested that the king 
should make them the grant of his alms. (i) On the 
ground thus acquired, they built what is described 
as a fine hall. 

In the beginning of the reign of Edward II., 
the master and scholars acquired the house of the 

(a) Former accounts of the origin of this college are for the most part 
confused and inaccurate. There is no authority for the commonly received 
opinion that the college was founded so early as 1257. It is undoubtedly 
inferior in point of antiquity to Merton, University, and Balliol colleges 
at Oxford. 

(6) Rot. Parl. i. 60. 



6 s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 

friars of the penitence of Jesus Christ, commonly 
called friars of the sack. (rt) The king's licence to John 
de Herwardstok and Robert de Lerling, to grant this 
house to the master and scholars, is dated 15th May, 
1309, but the college must have previously had some 
interest in the premises, as on Sunday before All 
Saints, 1307, Roger de Flegg, vicar general of the 
order -in England, and prior of the house at Lynn, 
in the name of himself and others the friars of the 
order dwelling in England, granted to the master 
and scholars and their successors, all the right and 
claim which he and the said friars had in their place, 
with all its buildings in the town of Cambridge, in 
the parish of S. Peter without Trumpington gate. 
In 1352, the church of S. Peter without Trumpington 
gate, was re-consecrated and called S. Mary's the Less. 
Shortly after this time the college is occasionally termed 
S. Mary's College, but it soon regained the older 
name of Peterhouse. 

Hugh de Balsham had placed his foundation under 
the especial patronage and protection of the bishops 

(a) The friars of this order settled in Great S. Mary's Parish,.abont 1258, 
but soon removed to the parish then called S. Peter's without Trumpington 
gate. Henry III., by charter dated Woodstock, 25th June, 1268, confirmed 
to them a certain area which they inhabited near the borough of Cambridge, 
without Trumpington gate, and which they had of the gift of divers 
enumerated persons, and the master and brethren of the hospital of 
S. John. By a deed without date, but made during the mayoralty of 
John Martin, Walter de Brasur of Little Shelford, and Andreda his wife, 
granted to the brethren a messuage with a croft pertaining to the same 
in the parish of S. Peter without the gate towards Trumpington. The 
premises are described as lying between the land of the brethren on 
every part, and extending in length from the great street to the common 
pasture. This order was suppressed with the other lesser orders of friars 
in or soon after 1307. Their house in Cambridge occupied three acres 
or more. A portion had been given to them by Richard de HekeUngham. 



is. PETER'S COLLEGE. 7 

of Ely, and from them the scholars received their 
earliest and greatest benefactions. Ralph Walpole 
the third bishop after Balsham, gave to the college 
two houses in Cambridge; Simon de Montacute, 
Thomas de Lisle, Simon Langham, and John Ford- 
ham, successively bishops of Ely, are also mentioned 
in the list of benefactors : Fordham appropriated to 
the college the rectory of Cherry Hinton. Montacute 
completed the work of the Founder by giving to 
the college its first independent code of statutes. By 
these he vested in the society the right of election 
to fellowships ; the fellows having been nominated 
up to his time by the bishops of Ely. 

On a vacancy in the mastership, the society 
nominate two persons to the bishop of Ely, who 
appoints one of them. The bishop of Ely is visitor 
of the college. 

Gerard de Hoo occurs as master in 1290, and 
it is not improbable that he was the first person 
who held the office. 

By the survey of the college made by Doctors 
Parker, Redman, and Mey, in February 1545-6, it 
appears that the society then consisted of a master, 
fourteen fellows, and two bible clerks. The master's 
stipend, commons, and livery, amounted to 7. 3s. 4e?. 
per annum, the fellows had no stipend, but each had 
per annum for commons 4. 6s. 8d., and for livery 
16s. Sd. Each bible clerk was allowed for commons 
and diet 2. 4s. 4 d. per annum. Some of the fellows, 
however, had, allowances from particular benefactors, 
and from similar sources there were small allowances 
to eleven poor scholars. The college had estates in 



8 s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 

Cambridge, Fen Ditton, Cherry Hinton, Triplow, Had- 
denham, Melbourn, Meldreth, Whaddon, Shepreth, 
Orwell, Fulbourn, Wilbraham, and Borogreen in 
Cambridgeshire; Bumpstead and Walden in Essex; 
Wiboston, Fourde, and Staplowe, in Bedfordshire; 
Hail Weston and Waresley, in Huntingdonshire; 
Easton juxta Stamford, in Northamptonshire; and 
Stathern, in Leicestershire. The clear revenues were 
138. 3s. Ofd. per annum, being less than the ex- 
pences by 49. 15s. 5d. 

BENEFACTORS. We have already mentioned the 
names of several of the greater benefactors. Few 
colleges are so much indebted to the munificence 
of their successive masters as this foundation : amongst 
them we find mentioned as benefactors, the names 
of Holbrooke, Warkworth, Denham, Horneby, Bur- 
goyne, Edmunds, Perne, Cosin, Hale, Beaumont, and 
Richardson. Dr. Warkworth during his life-time 
made great improvements in the buildings and estates 
of the college at his own expense, and at his death 
bequeathed the whole of his large property to it. 
Dr. Andrew Perne was also a great benefactor to 
the college, and, in addition to other considerable 
donations, founded two fellowships and five scholar- 
ships. Dr. Bernard Hale (master in 1660) left the 
college upwards of seven thousand pounds, partly to 
be expended on the foundation of seven scholarships, 
with the livings of Glaston in the county of Rutland, 
and Knapton in Norfolk. Edward Lord North, 
founded six students in divinity, and gav.e the vicarage 
of Ellington in the county of Huntingdon. Lady 
Mary Ramsay, (widow of Sir Thomas Ramsay, lord 



s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 9 

mayor of London in 1577,) founded two fellowships 
and four scholarships. Frances Matthews, (the wife 
of Toby Matthews, archbishop of York,) gave two 
hundred pounds to found two scholarships. Thomas 
Park, Esq., of Wisbech, in 1637 founded four fellow- 
ships and four scholarships. Edmund Woodward, 
Esq., of Bedfordshire, founded two scholarships. 
Elizabeth de Cambridge, widow, gave " twenty acres 
of land and several jewels." Another widow, Mrs. 
Margaret Fulnetby, of Teversham in Cambridgeshire, 
gave property to support a bible-clerk. Dr. Beau- 
mont, the son of the master of that name, gave " a 
large sum of money to purchase advowsons." The 
Rev. Francis Gisborne, M.A., formerly fellow, a few 
years before his death, which occurred in June, 1821, 
gave to the college the sum of 20,000. Out of this 
munificent donation the new court has been built 
and two new fellowships founded, each of seventy 
pounds a year, and four scholarships, each of thirty 
pounds a year. 

EMINENT MEN. Robert de Wynwyk, master, 1330, 
chancellor of the university. Robert de Mildenhall, 
master, chancellor of the university 1334. William de 
Whittlesey, master, archbishop of Canterbury, died 
1374. John de Botlesham, master, bishop of Rochester, 
died 1404. John Holbroke, master, chancellor of the 
university 1428 and 1429, author of astronomical and 
astrological treatises, died 1437. Henry Beaufort, car- 
dinal, bishop of Winchester, lord chancellor, died 1447. 
Roger Marshall, M.D., physician to Edward IV., and 
distinguished as a mathematician. John Warkworth, 
D.D., master, author of the Chronicle of which an 



10 s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 

account will be given in a subsequent page, died 1500. 
Henry Horneby, (a) D.D., master, author of Historia 
nominis Jesu, Historia visitationis Beatse Marise 
Virginis, and other like works, died 1517-8. George 
Joye, (ffl) fellow, one of the early reformers, and a trans- 
lator of the Scriptures, died 1553. Sir William 
Chester, (a} lord mayor of London, 1560. Edward Lord 
North, (a} chancellor of the court of augmentations, died 
1564. George Acworth, (a) LL.D., fellow, judge^of the 
prerogative court in Ireland, and author of a defence 
of the English church in reply to Nicholas Sanders, 
died about 1579. Matthew Sheyn, (a) bishop of Cork 
and Cloyne, died 1582. Andrew Perne, D.D., master, 
dean of Ely, one of the translators of the bishops' 
Bible, died 1589. John Penry, the supposed author 
of the Martin Mar-prelate tracts, for which he was 
executed 1593. Edmund Scambler, bishop of Norwich, 
died 1594. Sir John North, a commander in the wars 
in the Netherlands, died 1597. Richard Howland, 
fellow, bishop of Peterborough, died 1600. Thomas 
Speght, editor of Chaucer, died about 1602. John 
Whitgift, fellow, archbishop of Canterbury, died 
1603-4. William Charke, fellow, a noted puritan, died 
1605. Nicholas Bound, D.D., author of The True 
Doctrine of the Sabbath, The Holy Exercise of 
Fasting, and other religious works, died 1607. Abra- 
ham Fleming, author of various translations from the 
classics, and editor of the second edition of Holinshed's 
Chronicle, died 1607. Robert Soame, D.D., master, 
author of treatises in defence of the doctrines and 

(a) Notices of these will be found in Athenae Cantabrigienses, by 
C. H. & Thompson Cooper, vol. I. 



s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 11 

practice of the church of England, died 1608. Fynes 
Morryson, fellow, a famous traveller died about 1614. 
Andrew Willet, D.D., canon of Ely, author of Synopsis 
Papismi, commentaries on Scripture, and other works, 
died 1621. John Eichardson, D.D., master, Regius 
professor of Divinity, one of the translators of the 
Bible, died 1625. Thomas Moigne, bishop of Kilmore, 
died 1628-9. Leonard Mawe, master, bishop of Bath 
and Wells, died, 1629. Calibute Downing, an active 
independent, the author of sermons and other works, 
died 1644. Walter Curie, fellow, bishop of Winchester, 
died 1647. Thomas Heywood the dramatist, died 
1648. Edward Symmonds, a learned and excellent 
preacher, suspected of puritanism, but a sufferer for 
his loyalty to Charles I., died 1649. Andrew Byng, 
D.D., fellow, Regius professor of Hebrew, one of the 
translators of the Bible, died 1651-2. John Bridgman, 
bishop of Chester, died 1652. Richard Crashaw, poet, 
die4 1652. Christopher Wren, D.D., dean of Windsor, 
and author of most curious notes on sir Thomas 
Browne's Vulgar Errors, (a) died 1658. Christopher 
Cartwright, author of Electa Thargumico Rabbinica, 
sive Annotationes in Genesin et in Exodum, and 
of Mellincium Hebraicum, died 1658. Brian Walton, (6) 
bishop of Chester, editor of the Polyglot Bible, died 
1661. John Norton, minister of Boston in America, 
author of sermons and other religious publications, 
died 1663. Daniel Cawdrey, a non-conformist, and 
an energetic advocate of the opinions of his sect, died 

(a) These are given in Simon Wilkin's edition of Sir Thomas Browne's 
Works. 

(&) His life, has been published by the Rev. H. J. Todd, London, 2 vols. 
8vo. 1821. 



12 s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 

1664. John Hutchinson, (a) governor of Nottingham 
castle, for the Long Parliament, died 1664. Matthew 
Wren, master, bishop of Ely, (6) died 1667. David 
Stokes, D.D., fellow, canon of Windsor, author of An 
Explication of the Twelve Minor Prophets, died 1669. 
John Cosin, (c) master, bishop of Durham, died 1671-2. 
Lazarus Seaman, D.D., master, a noted puritan divine, 
died 1675. James Margetson, fellow, archbishop of Ar- 
magh, died 1678. Isaac Barrow, D.D.: this great divine 
was admitted a pensioner here, 1643, but in 1645 
removed to Trinity college, of which he ultimately 
became master, he died 1677. Jasper Needham, M.D., 
a physician of great practice in London, died 1679. 
Robert Mossom, bishop of Derry, died 1679. Isaac 
Barrow, fellow, bishop of S. Asaph, died 1680. John 
Knightbridge, D.D., fellow, founder of the profes- 
sorship of moral philosophy, died 1681. William 
Falkner, D.D., fellow, preacher at King's Lynn, author 
of Libertas Ecclesiastica, A Vindication of Liturgies, 
and other theological publications, died 1682. Sir 
Robert Wright, lord chief justice of England, died 
1688-9. Thomas Heyrick, author of poems, sermons, 
&c., died 1694. Joseph Beaumont, D.D., master, 
regius professor of Divinity, author of a very singular 
poem, entitled Psyche, died 1699. John Aucher, D.D., 
fellow, canon of Canterbury, a sufferer for his loyalty 
to Charles I., and author of several publications, died 

(a) See Memoirs of his life, written by Lucy Hutchinson his widow, 
Lond. 4to. 1806; since reprinted in 8vo. A charming biography. 

(6) Bishop Wren was author of some theological works. His exertions 
in the erection of the chapel of this college are hereafter noticed. He also 
arranged and classified the muniments in the college treasury; a work of 
prodigious labour. 

(c) A collection of his works was published at Oxford, 5 vs. 8vo. 1843-55. 






s, PETER'S COLLEGE, 13 

1700. William Vernon, fellow, skilful and assiduous 
in the pursuit of botany, and of all other branches 
of natural knowledge, nourished 1704. William Sher- 
lock, D.D., dean of S. Paul's, author of A Vindication 
of the Doctrine of the Trinity, A Practical Discourse 
concerning Death, and other learned theological 
works, died 1707. Francis Tallents, ejected from 
S. Mary's, Shrewsbury, 1662, a pious and able man, 
author of A View of Universal History, and other 
works, died 1708. William Mompesson, rector of 
Eyam Derbyshire, memorable for his pious heroism 
when that place was visited by the plague, died 
1708. William Binckes, D.D., fellow, dean of Lichfield, 
author of a prefatory discourse to an examination 
of Burnet on the 39 Articles, and sermons, died 
1712. Sir Samuel Garth, M.D., author of the Dis- 
pensary, and other poems, died 1718-9. George 
Sewell, poet, physician, and contributor to the Tatler 
and Spectator, died 1726. Sir Bernard Hale, fellow, 
baron of the exchequer, died 1729. Sir Clement Wearg, 
solicitor-general, and a distinguished advocate, died 
1736. Sir James Reynolds, baron of the exchequer, 
died 1747. Richard Bathurst, M.D., contributor to 
the Adventurer, and a great friend of Dr. Johnson's, 
died 1762. Richard Osbaldeston, fellow, bishop of 
London, died 1764. Thomas Gray the poet, died 
1771. Samuel Jebb, M.D., editor of Justin Martyr, 
Aristides, Bacon's Opus Majus, Bibliotheca Literaria, 
&c., died 1772. Jeremiah Markland, fellow, a great 
classical scholar, died 1776. Sir William Browne, M.D., 
the founder of the gold medals for the encouragement 
of classical literature, died 1774. Richard Chevenix, 



14 s. PETEE'S COLLEGE. 

bishop of Waterford, died 1779. Edmund Keene, 
master, bishop of Ely, died 1781. John Jebb, (6() M.D., 
fellow, an able controversialist, noted for his strenuous 
advocacy of yearly examinations in this university, 
died 1786. Edmund Law, master, bishop of Carlisle, 
died 1787. Sir John Wilson, fellow, justice of the 
common pleas, a distinguished mathematician and 
author of Law Reports, died 1793. Lord John 
Cavendish, chancellor of the exchequer under the 
Rockingham administration, died 1796. Edward 
Bearcroft, a distinguished advocate, died 1796. 
James Adair, fellow, recorder of London, a great con- 
stitutional lawyer, died 1798. Henry Cavendish, (6) 
the illustrious chemist and natural philosopher, died 
1810. Miles Atkinson, (c) vicar of Kippax, and lecturer 
at Leeds, founder of S. Paul's Church in that town, 
died 1811. Augustus Henry Fitzroy, duke of Grafton, 
prime minister in 1768, and chancellor of the uni- 
versity, died 1811. John Disney, D.D., a Unitarian 
minister, author of various biographical works, sermons, 
and tracts, died 1816. James Bindley, fellow, the cele- 
brated collector of books and engravings, died 1818. 
Edward Law, fellow, lord Ellenborough, lord chief jus- 
tice of England, died 1818. James Douglas, author of 
Nsenia Britannica, died 1819. William Bingley, author 
of Animal Biography, and other popular compilations, 
died 1823. Capel Lofffc, author of Law Reports, poems, 

(a) His works were published in 3 vols. 8vo. 1787; with an account 
of his life, by his friend Dr. Disney. 

(6) His life, by J. Dalton, was published by the Cavendish Society, 
London, 8vo. 1854. 

(c) A fine portrait of Mr. Atkinson is given in Whitaker's Loidis and 
Elmete, p. 69. 



s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 15 

and a large number of works on legal, political, 
and miscellaneous subjects, also the patron of Robert 
Bloomfield the rural poet, died 1824. John Fisher, 
bishop of Salisbury, died 1825. Bewick Bridge, 
fellow, professor of mathematics at Haileybury col- 
lege, and author of several works on algebra, tri- 
gonometry, conic sections, &c., died 1833. Archibald 
Hamilton Rowan, (a) one of the most celebrated of the 
united Irishmen, died 1834. Richard Granger Blick, 
preeminent for his extraordinary skill in the now 
almost obsolete science of special pleading, died 1847. 
William Smyth, fellow, professor of modern history, 
author of Lectures on the French Revolution, and other 
able works, died 1849. Charles Lyell, a distinguished 
botanist, died 1849. James Hobart Gaunter, author 
of The Romance of History (India), and other works, 
and editor of The Oriental Annual, died 1851. George 
Bellas Greenough, distinguished for his ardent pursuit 
of geology, ethnology, and geography, founder and 
first president of the geological society, died 1855. 

BUILDINGS. The buildings of this college were 
erected at various times, but have been so much 
altered as to retain little of their original character, 
although portions of the structures remain, and some 
of them indicate an existence coeval with the foun- 
dation of the college. The college is said to have 
been at least partially destroyed by fire in 1420, 
when all its archives perished ; and it was probably 
in part rebuilt during the fifteenth century. In the 
map of Cambridge made in 1574, the college is 
represented as consisting of one court, entirely sur- 

(o) See his Autobiography, Dublin, 8vo. 1840. 



16 s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 

rounded by buildings, with a half court to the west. 
The chief entrance, with a gateway tower, was on 
the south side, and a row of houses appears to have 
stood between the buildings on the east side and 
Trumpington Street. The present library was erected 
in the mastership of Dr. Andrew Perne, (1553 to 1589). 
Under the mastership of Dr. John Eichardson (1607 
to 1615) was built what Fuller terms "a new court, 
front, and gate towards the street ;" Richardson him- 
self gave a hundred pounds towards this work. The 
chapel was built chiefly through the exertions and 
under the superintendence of Dr. Matthew Wren, 
master, subsequently bishop of Ely. Dr. Cosin, after- 
wards bishop of Durham, was a large contributor 
to the funds, which chiefly consisted of subscriptions 
from members and friends of the college. In Fuller's 
map (1634), the college appears in its altered shape; 
the back court being a complete quadrangle, and 
the front court, with the chapel in the middle, open 
to the street, except as far as separated by a brick 
wall. The old tower on the south side appears still 
standing. Dr. Charles Beaumont, who died and was 
buried in the chapel in 1726, gave the college his 
house on the opposite side of the street, for the 
master's lodge. The northern side of the first court 
was rebuilt about 1738. The second court was faced 
with a modern casing of stone about the year 1760. 
A third court has been more recently added, by the 
munificence of the Rev. Francis Grisborne, formerly 
fellow of the college, of which the first stone was 
laid on the 30th of August, 1825, and which, from 
its founder, is called the Gisborne Court. 



s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 



17 




- ---T-%^;* r gr 
TH-E EAST END OF THE COLLEGE CHAPEL. 



The outward appearance of the College possesses 
no very attractive feature. It consists of three courts, 
of which the first is separated from the second by 
a small cloister, and from the street by an iron 
railing, and is blocked up by the chapel. On the 
south side of this court is the library. The other two 
courts are neat, modern, and modernized buildings. 

The Gisborne Court, which measures ninety- 
five feet in length, and eighty-seven in breadth, 
is in the Gothic style, which was selected .chiefly 
because it was intended to preserve as one side of 
VOL. i. c 



18 s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 

the quadrangle the old exterior wall of the college. 
To the south of the college is a grove, and beyond 
it an extensive garden. 

CHAPEL. The chapel was consecrated by Dr. 
Francis White, bishop of Ely, on the second Sunday 
in Lent, (17th March) 1632-3. Previously, the college 
service was celebrated in the church of S. Mary 
the Less. In the petition of the master and fellows 
to the bishop for the consecration of the chapel, 
they set forth the inconvenience arising from the 
college using the adjoining church, that it was 
irksome to have to go outside the college walls in 
the winter before sunrise, and that after sunset an 
opportunity was afforded to the more disorderly 
members of the college of extending their rambles 
through the town during the rest of the evening. 
They also alleged that the parochial services inter- 
fered with those of the college on Sundays and Holy- 
days; more especially as respected the celebration 
of the Holy Sacrament at canonical hours. 

A detailed account of the consecration of the chapel 
is preserved in the old register of the college and 
in a manuscript in Caius College Library. (a) A Latin 
poem on the occasion was written by the poet 
Crashaw, and is printed in his works. The first 
person buried in the chapel was Samuel Home, 
fellow of the college, and probably chaplain, as it 
was said of him, 

Primus erat vivus qui implevit voce capellam, 
Et qui defunctus corpore primus erat. 

The mode in which divine service was performed 

(a) See a further account of it in the Cambridge Portfolio, p. 487. 



s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 19 

in this chapel, and the style of decoration adopted 
therein, gave great offence to the House of Commons, 
who on the 22nd January, 1640-1, resolved that Dr. 
Cosin, the master, was guilty of bringing superstitious 
innovations into the church, tending to idolatry.. For 
this, and for scandalous, scornful, and malicious words 
against the king's supremacy and the established 
religion, and for opposing the proceedings of par- 
liament, they resolved that he was unfit and un- 
worthy to be a governor in either of the universities, 
or to continue any longer head or governor of any 
college, or to hold or enjoy any ecclesiastical pro- 
motions. In December, 1643, one William Dowsing, 
a furious iconoclast, visited Cambridge for putting 
in execution the ordinance of parliament for removing 
pictures and images of saints and superstitious inscrip- 
tions. He thus records his proceedings at the chapel: 

We went to PETER-HOUSE 1643, Decemb. 21 with Officers 
& Souldiers & [in] the presence [of] Mr. Wilson, of the Pre- 
sident Mr. Francis, Mr. Maxy & other Fellowes Decemb. 20, 
& 23 We pulled down 2 mighty great Angells with Wings, 
& divers other Angells, & the 4 Evangelists & Peter with 
his Keies over the Chappell Dore, & about f a hundred Chirubims 
& Angells & divers Superstitious Letters in gold: and at the 
upper end of the Chancell, these words were written as fol- 
loweth : " Hie locus est Domus Dei, nil aliud, et Porta Coeli." 
Witnes Will. Dowsing, Geo. Long. These words were written 
at Keies Coll. & not at Peterhouse but about the Walls was 
written in Latine "we prays the ever" & on some of the 
Images was written " Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus," on other 
"Gloria Dei et Gloria Patri, &c.," & all "non nobis Domine, 
&c.," & Six Angells in the Windowes. Witnesses Will. 
Dowsing, George Longe.^ 

+ 

(a) See Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, III. 288, 289, 306, 309, 310, 364. 

C2 



20 s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 

It appears that the painted glass of the east 
window was saved from destruction by being con- 
cealed in boxes. 

The chapel is built in the unpleasing Italianized 
Grothic style in fashion during the earlier part of 
the seventeenth century. In the interior it is re- 
markably neat. It is about fifty-five feet long, and 
twenty-seven broad, the height being nearly the same 
as the breadth. The painted glass was restored to 
the east window shortly after the Commonwealth. 
Its subject is the Crucifixion: the principal figures 
are the same as in Eubens's " Crucifixion" at Ant- 
werp. The whole design is said to be by Lambert 
Lombard. In the year 1853 two stained-glass win- 
dows on the north and south sides of the communion 
table were erected as a memorial of W. Smyth, M.A., 
late Regius Professor of Modern History, and four 
were added shortly afterwards. The whole were 
executed under the superintendence of Professor 
Aimmuller, director of the royal glass manufactory 
at Munich, who has been entrusted with the execu- 
tion of two others, to complete the series. At 
the west end is a gallery, and an organ given 
by Sir Horatio Mann. There is a monument to 
the memory of Dr. Joseph Beaumont, master, and 
an eminent benefactor. 

HALL. The hall is a plain room, forty-eight feet 
long and twenty-four broad, which contains some 
very ancient pictures, and amongst them portraits of 
the founder and of several of the masters. Adjoining 
to the hall stood formerly a very old room called 
the Stone Parlour, which served as a combination- 



s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 21 

room till the middle of the last century, soon after 
which period it fell out of repair, and was destroyed 
to make way for modern improvements. In the 
panels of the wainscoting of this apartment were 
inserted a series of singularly curious paintings, the 
first of which was an ancient view of the two hostels 
which originally occupied the site of the college. 
The other pictures were portraits of Edward I., and 
of the founder, masters, and principal benefactors 
of the college. (a) Under each picture was a Latin 
distich : that beneath John Holbrooke was as follows : 

Partus dant similes usura et vipera foeta, 
Qui juvat afflictos, fcenerat ille Deo. 

Under John Warkworth were the lines, 

Dives adoptata gaudete prole, probatos 
Non cuicunque libet, progenuisse libet. 

And under Whitgift, who was formerly a fellow of 
the college, 

Quod paci, Whitgifte, faves studiisque priorum, 
Dat tibi pacis amans Candida dona Deus. 

We believe that these pictures have been distributed 
in the library and other parts of the college. 

LIBRAEY. By his will the founder bequeathed to 
his scholars many books in divinity and other 
sciences, and the college appears to have possessed, 

(a) Fuller observes, in allusion to this parlour and its pictures, " I 
cannot but commend one peculiar practise of this college, which in their 
parlour preserveth the pictures of all their principal benefactors. For 
although the bounty of the judicious is grounded on more solid motives, 
than to be flattered there-into by the fancy that their effigies shall be 
kept, yet such an ingenuous memorial may be an encouragement to 
a patron's liberality." A list and description of these pictures will be 
found in MS. Cole, xxxv. 112-118, and another is printed, incorrectly, 
in Carter's History of Cambridge. 



22 g. PETEE'S COLLEGE. 

from its first foundation, a library of manuscripts, 
which was increased by frequent donations. There 
are still preserved some of the manuscripts given to 
it at a very early period. A manuscript Bible in 
the present library contains the following note: 

Memorandum, Quod dominus frater Thomas Lisle ordinis 
predicatorum permissione divina episcopus Eliensis contulit 
domui sue ac scholaribus suis Sanctae Marise extra Portam 
de Trompeton Cantebrigie commorantibus istam Bibliam, xxviij. 
die Nov. anno Domini MCCC[LII.] et consecrationis sue viij. vo . 
Sub interminatione anathematis alienand. nullatenus cuicunque. 

William de Whittlesey, archbishop of Canterbury 
from 1367 to 1374, who had been master of the 
college, left the whole of his library to the scholars. 
Several manuscripts in the library contain notes stating 
that they were given by Michael Cawston, master 
of Michael House about this time; and others bear 
in a similar manner the name of John de Newton (a) 
(master of Peterhouse from 1381 to 1395) as their 
donor. (6) In the fifteenth century the library was further 
increased by the books of two of the masters of the 
college, John Holbrooke (1418 to 1431), and John 
Warkworth (1473 to 1500), whose names occur in 
some of the books in the library. Holbrooke was 
one of the most remarkable English mathematicians 
of his day. John Warkworth claims a place amongst 

(a) John de Newton, amongst other preferments, held the rectory of 
Cottenham, in Cambridgeshire. He was treasurer of the church of York, 
from 1393 till his death in 1414. His will is printed in Testamenta 
Eboracensia, I. 364. His library could not have been surpassed in extent 
or value by that of any other private individual in the whole kingdom 
at the period. The judicious disposition he made of his books proves 
that he knew their worth. 

(b) Several of the notes in the older MSS. of the college library are 
given (very incorrectly) by Carter, pp. 38, 39. 



s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 23 

our old historians by the short chronicle which bears 
his name. This is written in the form of an addition 
to Caxton's Chronicle, and gives an account of the 
principal events of the writer's own time, extending 
over the first thirteen years of the reign of Edward 
the Fourth. It is preserved in the college library, 
and was published by the Camden Society in 1839 
under the editorial superintendence of Mr. Halliwell. 
It also appears in a compilation entitled The Chronicle 
of the White Rose of York, London, 8vo. 1845. The 
following note is in Warkworth's own hand- writing : 

Liber Collegii Sancti Petri in Cantebrigia ex dono magistri 
Johannis Warkworthe, magistri dicti collegii, sub intermina- 
cione anathematis nullatenus a libraria ibidem alienandus. 

Another member of the college, contemporary with 
Warkworth, and no less celebrated for his skill in 
mathematics than Holbrooke, Roger Marshall, physi- 
cian to King Edward IV., left his books to this library. 

The present library was built by Andrew Perne, 
master of the college from 1553 to 1589. It does 
not occupy the site of the ancient one, which was 
on the west side of the second court, and is now 
converted into rooms for students. 

The library, which was enlarged by the donations 
of various benefactors, contains a valuable collection 
of books and manuscripts. Dr. Perne gave a large 
proportion of the older books in the library. Bishop 
Cosin gave many books, and a still larger number was 
given by Dr. Thomas Richardson, master. Amongst 
the modern MSS. is a considerable collection of bishop 
Wren. Amongst the early portraits in this room, are 
those of King Edward I., Dr. Horneby, and Dr. Perne. 



24 s. PETER'S COLLEGE. 

MASTER'S LODGE. The master's lodge is situated on 
the east side of Trumpington Street, which separates 
it from the rest of the college. It is a large modern 
brick building, surrounded by a pleasant garden. 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS. There are four- 
teen foundation and ten bye-fellowships. The election 
to these is open and unrestricted. 

The whole number of scholarships is fifty-five, 
differing much in value, and paid in proportion to 
residence. Those on the Hale foundation are in 
the patronage of Lady Palmerston, and preference 
is given to scholars from Hertford School. There 
is an exhibition from the Company of Clothworkers, 
and another from that of the Ironmongers. 

During the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries, the number of resident members of this 
College appears to have varied very slightly: when 
Caius wrote (in 1574), it amounted to ninety-six ; 
in Fuller's time (1634), it was a hundred and six; 
and in Carter's time (1753), it was ninety. 

PATRONAGE. The patronage of this college is not 
very extensive. It includes one school, that of Drigh- 
lington in Yorkshire, and eleven ecclesiastical bene- 
fices : the rectory of Glaston in Rutland ; the vicarage 
of Cherry Hinton, and the church of Little St. Mary 
in Cambridge ; the vicarage of Ellington, Hunting- 
donshire ; the rectory of Statherne in Leicestershire ; 
that of Knapton in Norfolk; that of Exford in 
Somersetshire; and those of Norton, Witnesham, 
Newton, and Freckenham, in Suffolk. 




CLARE BRIDGE. 



CLARE COLLEGE. 

THE second collegiate foundation in Cambridge 
was Michaelhouse, which was subsequently incorpo- 
rated with Trinity college, and of which we shall 
therefore speak when we treat of that college. The 
third college, originally called University hall, and 
then the house hall or college of Clare, acknow- 
ledges as its foundress Elizabeth Lady Clare. 

THE FOUNDRESS. Elizabeth de Clare was the 
third daughter of Gilbert de Clare earl of Gloucester 
and Hertford, commonly called the Red, by his second 
wife Joan de Acres, daughter of King Edward I. 
Her father died 1295, and by the death of her 
brother Gilbert de Clare earl of Gloucester and 



26 CLARE COLLEGE. 

Hertford, who fell at the battle of Bannockburn, 
leaving no issue surviving, she and her two sisters 
succeeded to the vast and princely inheritance of the 
family. She married John de Burgh, son and heir of 
Richard earl of Ulster. John de Burgh died in the 
life time of his father, in 1313 ; and in 1315, she 
married Theobald lord Verdon, who died 1316; she 
subsequently married Roger Damory, baron of Armoy 
in Ireland, who in 1321 was attainted for taking part 
with Thomas earl of Lancaster. Although his life 
was spared, he died the same year. She died 4th 
November, 1360. Her will, wherein she styles her- 
self Elizabeth de Burgh lady of Clare, is dated 
25th September, 1355. The following extract relates 
to this college: 

I bequeath to my hall called Clarehall in Cambridge, 40. 
in money, one censer of silver gilt, six chargers, thirty-nine 
saucers, one ship for the almonry, in aid of the buildings : Also 
I bequeath to my hall aforesaid for a perpetual memorial and 
for the use of my chaplains in the college, two chalices of 
silver gilt, with two little spoons, two cruets, one box silver 
and enamelled, with the furniture for the body of our Lord, 
and one censer, with one ship of silver, for incense : Also 
to the same place, one vestment of red camaca, embroidered 
with imagery of gold and whatsoever to the same vestment 
pertaineth, one vestment of white camaca for requiem, with one 
cope and whatsoever to the said vestment pertaineth, one vest- 
ment of white tartarin rayed with gold, for Lent, with all the 
apparel, and one attire for the sepulchre, one vestment of plum 
coloured camaca, diapred with black and tawney, with two albs 
and whatsoever to the said vestment pertaineth, one vestment 
of white samit, also for Lent, and all the surplices of my 
chapel (except six of the best bequeathed to Sir Piers de 
Ereswell), and the greater sparver of two for the body of 
our Lord : Also I bequeath to my hall aforesaid, two good 



CLARE COLLEGE. 27 

antiphoners, together with one grail in the same volume ; one 
good legend, one good missal well noted, one other missal 
covered with white leather, one good Bible covered with 
black leather, one Hugucion, (the work of Hugh de Vercellis, 
bishop of Ferrara, a noted writer on the decretals) one pair 
of decretals, one book of questions, and thirty-four quires of 
a book called De causa Dei contra Pelagianos. 

There are numerous bequests to religious houses 
and churches. Amongst them may be mentioned 
the priories of Walsingham, Anglesey, and Royston, 
the hospital of S. John, Cambridge, the nunnery of 
Swaffham, the church of Bottisham, the four houses 
of friars in Cambridge, and the house of Augustinian 
friars at Huntingdon. Amongst the legacies, occurs 
one of a little cross of gold adorned with diamonds 
sapphires and enamel, to Mary de S. Paul countess 
of Pembroke, the foundress of Pembroke hall. (0) 

In her will she requests that her body might be 
buried with the sisters minoresses without Aldgate, 
in London, and it is observable that this will was 
proved in the church of that nunnery, before Simon 
Islip archbishop of Canterbury, 3 non. December, 
1360. It would seem however that she was not 
buried there, but at Ware, in Hertfordshire, for in 
the middle aisle of that church was formerly this in- 
scription : 

Hie jacet Rogerus Damory, baro tempore Edwardi Secundi, 
et Elizabetha, tertia filia Gilberti Clare, comitis Gloucestriae, 
et Johannae uxoris ejus, filiaa Edwardi Primi vocat. Johan. de 
Acris... 



(a) Nichols's Royal Wills, 21 43, with which compare the abstract 
in Nicolas's Testamenta Vetusta, 56. 



28 CLARE COLLEGE. 

Her heiress was Elizabeth, daughter of William 
de Burgh earl of Ulster. Her son by her first husband 
the earl of Ulster, died in his mother's life time. 
The heiress became the first wife of Lionel third 
son of Edward III., created duke of Clarence 1362, 
and from her descended kings Edward IV., Edward 
V., Richard III., Henry VIII., and all the subsequent 
sovereigns of this realm. 

THE FOUNDATION. By letters patent, dated at 
Barnwell, 20th February, 1325-6, Edward II. gave 
licence to the chancellor and university, that they 
might establish and ordain a certain college of 
scholars, and might give and assign to the same 
scholars for their habitation, those two messuages 
which the same chancellor and university had in 
Milnestrete, in the parish of S. John. 

The chancellor of the university at this period 
was Richard de Badew, and the two messuages in 
question had been acquired with other property, 
under a grant from Nigellus de Thornton, a phy- 
sician, (o) made to the university for the endowment 
of a chaplain to celebrate divine service for his soul. 

The university, so soon as the king's licence was ob- 
tained, established a college or hall for fifteen scholars, 
one of whom was master. Whence the endowment 
arose does not distinctly appear, but on 27th March, 
1327, king Edward III. gave the master and scholars 

(a) It would seem that Roger de Thornton alias Rydelingfield, the 
founder's nephew, was the first chaplain of the university. He died in 
or before 1298; whereupon his brother and heir, Adam de Rydelingfield, 
brought an assize against the university for the property, consisting of 
3 messuages and 26 acres of landj but his claim was adjudged to be 
groundless. 



CLARE COLLEGE. 29 

licence to acquire lands, tenements, rents, and ad- 
vowsons of churches to the value of 40. per annum. 

In 1336, the revenues were found insufficient to 
maintain more than ten scholars. On Tth May in 
that year, John de Hotham bishop of Ely, upon 
the petition of the master and scholars or fellows, 
and of lady Clare, appropriated to this house the 
church of Litlington, near Cambridge. By the in- 
strument of appropriation, the master and fellows 
were bound to celebrate service for the king and 
lady de Clare, during their lives, and for their souls 
after their decease. (flt) The king's licence for this 
appropriation had been obtained 12th March, 1335-6. 

We have not found any mention of lady Clare 
in connection with the college previously to the 
appropriation of the church of Litlington, but from 
that period she took the most lively interest in it, 
providing funds for the support of the members, 
and changing its appellation from University hall to 
that of the house hall or college of Clare. It is said 
that this change was effected under a charter granted 
by Edward III. in 1338-9 ; but we have not met with 
that instrument. 

Edward III., by letters patent, dated Porchester, 
15th June, 1346 ; gave his licence to lady Clare, to 
appropriate to this college, therein called Clare hall, 
the churches of Great Grransden co. Huntingdon, 
and Duxworth S. John co. Cambridge. As regards 
the former of these churches, she had previously ob- 
tained the royal licence to appropriate it to the dean 

(a) MS. Baker, xxxvili. 157. 



30 CLAKE COLLEGE. 

and chapter of S. Paul's, London. On the 30th 
September in the same year, the king granted the 
master and scholars a licence to hold in mortmain 
lands not exceeding 40. per annum, in aid of their 
sustenance. This licence was granted at the request 
of the chancellor and masters of the university. 

On 5th July 1353, the king issued a commission 
to the prior of Anglesey and others, to supervise 
the state of Clare hall, its goods and possessions, to 
enquire about its chantries, eleemosynaries, &c., and 
to punish those whom they found guilty of wasting 
or dissipating the property of the hall, or carrying 
away its muniments. 

On 26th March 1359, lady Clare gave the college 
a code of statutes for its government, dated from 
her residence at Bardfield, in Essex. The preamble 
is in the following terms: 

To all the sons of our Holy Mother Church, who shall look 
into these pages, Elizabeth de Burgh Lady de Clare wishes 
health and remembrance of this transaction. Experience, which 
is the mistress of all things, clearly teaches that in every rank 
of life, as well temporal as ecclesiastical, a knowledge of literature 
is no small advantage ; which, though it is searched into by 
many persons in many different ways, yet in a University, 
a place that is distinguished for the flourishing of general study, 
it is more completely acquired ; and, after it has been obtained, 
she sends forth her scholars who have tasted its sweets, apt 
and suitable men in the Church of God and in the state, 
men who will rise to various ranks according to the measure 
of their deserts. Desiring therefore, since this consideration 
has come over us, to extend as far as God has allowed us, 
for the furtherance of Divine Worship and for the advance 
and good of the State, this kind of knowledge which, in con- 
sequence of a great number of men having been taken away 
by the fangs of pestilence, is now beginning lamentably to 



CLARE COLLEGE. 31 

fail ; we have turned the attention of our mind to the University 
of Cambridge, in the diocese of Ely; where there is a body 
of students, and to a Hall therein, hitherto commonly called 
University Hall, which already exists of our foundation, and 
which we would have to bear the name of the house of Clare 
House and no other, for ever, and have caused it to be 
enlarged in its resources out of the wealth given us by God 
and in the number of students; in order that the pearl of 
great price, knowledge, found and acquired by them by means 
of study and learning in the said University, may not lie hid 
beneath a bushel, but be published abroad; and by being 
published give light to those who walk in the dark paths of 
ignorance. And in order that the Scholars residing in our 
aforesaid house of Clare, under the protection of a more stedfast 
peace and with the advantage of concord, may choose to engage 
with more freewill in study, we have carefully, made certain 
statutes and ordinances to last for ever. 

Special services were appointed for the king and 
the foundress during their lives, and for their souls 
after their death, also for the souls of Gilbert de 
Ronbury, (0) John de Ely, late bishop of Norwich, (6) 
and Thomas de Cobham, late bishop of Worcester. 

The power of visitation and of interpreting the 
statutes is given to the chancellor or his locum tenens, 
together with two doctors or masters of arts chosen 
by the university; a mark of the original constitu- 
tion of the house. 

These statutes were accepted and ratified on the 
27th of March, by Nicholas de Brunne, master, and 
all the fellows of the house, and by Thomas de 

(a) He was founder of one of the university chests. His exequies 
were celebrated 19th and 20th March, annually. 

(6) He gave 100 marks for the perpetual aid of University Hall, in 
grateful commemoration whereof, his exequies were celebrated by the 
university at Great S. Mary's on 22nd and 23rd July, annually. 



32 CLAEE COLLEGE. 

Sutton, chancellor, and all the assembly of the uni- 
versity, under their respective common seals. 

On 1st June 1364, we find Edward III. granting 
a licence to John de Harleton, John de Donewych, 
and Richard de Mordon, to give a messuage, 100 
acres of land, an acre of meadow, an acre of pasture, 
13 acres of wood, and a rent of 5| marks to the 
master and scholars; and on 9th June 1392, Richard 
II. granted licence to Ralph Berners, Thomas Walpole, 
and Richard Maysent, to give to the master and 
scholars five messuages in Cambridge. 

An opinion has long prevailed that this was the 
great college called Soler Hall, mentioned by Chaucer 
in his Reve's Tale. We think, however, that there 
is good reason for believing that the Soler Hall was 
in reality the hostel called Garret Hostel, a soler 
or sun-chamber being equivalent to a garret. (a) 

In 1439, a small college called God's house, for 
twenty-four grammar students, was established in con- 
nexion with and subsidiary to Clare hall. It was 
soon however removed to make way for Bang's col- 
lege, and refounded as an independent institution, 
on the site now occupied by Christ's college, into 
which it was ultimately absorbed. 

On 20th May 1446, Henry VI. gave another 
mortmain licence to the master and fellows, and 
14th July following, granted them two tenements in 
Chesterton, and one in Cambridge. This was pro- 



() Garret Hostel was near the place called Garret Hostel lane, which 
leads to Garret Hostel bridge. There is no good authority for calling 
the lane and bridge Gerard's or S. Gerard's, as has been the fashion 
in comparatively recent times. 



CLARE COLLEGE. 33 

bably in recompense of a grant made by this col- 
lege for the site of King's college of a hostel called 
Saint Austin's hostel in Milne street, near the church- 
yard of S. John. Edward IV., on 16th June 1476, 
granted the college a further licence to acquire lands. 

It is said that king Richard III., who as already 
stated was descended from the foundress, "increased 
the number of fellows and scholars, and ordained that 
there should be a master, twelve fellows, four scholars, 
and six poor scholars maintained on the revenues 
of the hall." This statement is entirely inaccurate. 

In or about 1544, the master and scholars had a 
grant of the rectory of Everton, in Huntingdonshire. 

By the survey of the College, made by Drs. Parker, 
Redman, and Mey, in February 1545-6, it appears 
that the society then consisted of a master, twelve 
fellows, four bible-clerks, and the master's scholar; 
having estates in Cambridge, Chesterton, Babraham, 
Ickleton, Abington, Barton, Caldecot, Barrington, 
Harston, Swavesey, Duxford, and Litlingtbn, in 
Cambridgeshire; Great Gransden, Everton, and 
Brampton, in Huntingdonshire; and Wrawby, in 
Lincolnshire. The clear revenues were but 132. 
7s. Hd. per annum, and the yearly expences exceeded 
the revenues by 30. 165. OJJ. The master's stipend, 
livery and commons, amounted to 7. 125. Id. per 
annum. Of the fellows, only the six seniors had 
stipends, viz. 20s. a year each. Each of the other 
six had only commons at 16^. a week, and 235. 4d. 
a year for livery; Sd. a week was allowed for the 
commons of each of the bible-clerks and of the scholars, 
and the former had 65. 8d. a year each for livery. 

VOL. I. D 



34 CLARE COLLEGE. 

In the reign of Edward VI. it was in contem- 
plation to unite this college to Trinity hall; the 
united college being designed as a seminary exclu- 
sively or principally for the study of the civil law. 
The scheme was ultimately abandoned, in deference 
as it would seem to the opinion of bishop Ridley, 
who was strongly and decidedly opposed thereto; 
but it was so far matured, that the master and 
fellows subscribed, though very reluctantly, assents 
to surrender their college to the king. (a) 

Edward Leeds, LL.D., master from 1559 to 1571, 
held also the mastership of the hospital of S. John 
Baptist and S. Mary Magdalen, in Ely, and in 1562, 
surrendered the same and its possessions and revenues 
to Philip Baker, D.D., and Henry Harvey, LL.D., to 
the use of the master and fellows of this college, for 
founding ten scholarships therein. This grant was 
confirmed by the bishop of Ely, who renounced his 
right of patronage, and by the dean and chapter of 
that church, and ratified by queen Elizabeth, at the 
instance of archbishop Parker, to whom Dr. Leeds 
was chaplain. 

In 1585, an act of parliament was passed, con- 
firming queen Elizabeth's charter to this college. (6) 

Fuller gives the following curious account of a 
comedy acted here about 1597: 

The young scholars conceiving themselves somewhat wronged 
by the townsmen, (the particulars whereof I know not) betook 
them for revenge to their wits, as the weapon wherein lay 
their best advantage. These having gotten a discovery of some 
town-privacies, from Miles Goldsjborrough (one of their own 

(a) Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, II. 25, 3236; V. 259263. 
(6) Stat. 27, Eliz. c. 3, (private). 



CLARE COLLEGE. 35 

corporation) composed a merry (but abusive) comedy, (which 
they called Club-Law] in English, as calculated for the capacities 
of such, whom they intended spectators thereof. Clare-Hall 
was the place wherein it was acted, and the mayor, with his 
brethren, and their wives, were invited to behold it, or rather 
themselves abused therein. A convenient place was assigned 
to the townsfolk, (riveted in with scholars on all sides) where 
they might see and be seen. Here they did behold themselves 
in their own best clothes (which the scholars had borrowed) so 
lively personated, their habits, gestures, language, lieger-jests, 
and expressions, that it was hard to decide, which was the 
true townsman, whether he that sat by, or he who acted on 
the stage. Sit still they could not for chafing, go out they 
could not for crowding, but impatiently patient were fain to 
attend till dismissed at the end of the comedy. The mayor 
and his brethren soon after complain of this libellous play to 
the lords of the privy council, and truly aggravate the scholars 
offence, as if the mayor's mace could not be played with, 
but that the sceptre itself is touched therein. Now, though 
such the gravity of the lords, as they must maintain magistracy, 
and not behold it abused ; yet such their goodness, they would 
not with too much severity punish wit, though waggishly em- 
ployed: and therefore only sent some slight and private check 
to the principal actors therein. There goeth a tradition, many 
earnestly engaging for the truth thereof, that the townsmen not 
contented herewith, importunately pressed, that some more 
severe and public punishment might be inflicted upon them. 
Hereupon, the lords promised in short time to come to Cam- 
bridge, and (because the life in such things is lacking when 
only read) they themselves would see the same comedy, with 
all the properties thereof, acted over again, (the townsmen as 
formerly, being enjoined to be present thereat) that so they 
might the better proportion the punishment to the fault, if any 
appeared. But rather than the townsmen would be witnesses 
again to their own abusing, (wherein many things were too 
far from, and some things too near to truth) they fairly fell 
off from any farther prosecution of the matter. M 

(a) Fuller's History of the University of Cambridge, ed. Prickett and 
Wright, 294. 

D2 



36 CLARE COLLEGE. 

It has been supposed that Club-Law was written 
by George Ruggle, fellow of this society, who was 
certainly the author of Ignoramus, acted at this college 
before James I., in March 1614-5. There are various 
editions of this celebrated play, the best being by John 
Sydney Hawkins, London, 8vo. 1787. The king was 
so delighted that he again came to Cambridge on 
13 May, 1615, on purpose to see it repeated. The 
play gave great offence to the common-lawyers, whose 
barbarous jargon was held up to ridicule. 

This college enjoyed extraordinary reputation 
during the mastership of Dr. Thomas Paske, who 
was ejected from that office in 1642, but restored 
in 1660, although he soon resigned in favour of his 
son-in-law Dr. Theophilus Dillingham, who had held 
the office previously to Dr. Paske's restoration thereto. 
As a proof of Dr. Paske's extraordinary merit and 
success, it is said that three bishops, four privy coun- 
cillors, two judges, and three doctors of physic, who 
had been his pupils in the university, came in one 
day to pay him a visit. (a) A still more famous 
tutor here was Richard Laughton, who served the 
office of proctor for the year commencing 1709. He 
deserves the praise of having . taken the lead in 
making the study of the true system of philosophy 
universal at Cambridge, for by choosing the Principia 
of Newton as the predominant subject both of the 
exercises in the schools and the mathematical ex- 
amination for degrees, he enforced among the students 
the general attention to that immortal work which 
has from his time never ceased to distinguish the 

(a) Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, II. 141. 



CLARE COLLEGE. 37 

university of Cambridge. Dr. Colbatch of Trinity 
College, in his commemoration sermon preached in 
that college, 17th December, 1717, paid a remarkable 
tribute to the merits of Laughton. "We see," said 
he, "what a confluence of nobility and gentry the 
virtue of one man daily draws to one of our least 
colleges. " (0) 

BENEFACTORS. The benefaction of Dr. Leeds, 
master, has been already noticed. Robert Johnson, 
rector of North Luffenham, Rutland, and archdeacon 
of Leicester, appropriated four exhibitions to this 
college, with a preference to scholars from Oakham 
and Uppingham schools. Mr. Thomas Cave, in 1603, 
gave 12. a year for the maintenance of two scholars ; 
and in the same year, Mr. Ralph Scrivener of Ipswich, 
founded a scholarship. William Butler, fellow, a famous 
physician, gave a chalice of solid gold for the com- 
munion table, a stately carpet to cover the same, two 
curious cups, one of which is hereafter more fully des- 
cribed, the other of serpentine tipped with silver, and 
all his books in folio. George Ruggle, fellow, gave 400. 
in money plate and books. Thomas Cecil, earl of 
Exeter, K.G., gave an annual rent charge of 108. for the 
maintenance of three fellows and eight scholars. John 
Freeman, Esq., of Great Billing, gave 2,000. for the 
maintenance of two fellows and eight scholars. John 
Borage, Esq., in 1636, gave a rent charge of 15. per 
annum for founding a bye-fellowship, to be appropriated 
to natives of Norfolk. Mr. William Marshall, about 
1652, gave a rent charge of 3. 6s. Sd. for the 
maintenance of a scholar, Joseph Diggons, Esq., 

(a) Monk's Life of Bentley, I. 288 ; II. 30. 



38 CLARE COLLEGE. 

gave 130. a year to found new fellowships and 
scholarships. The Rev. Alexander Metcalfe, in 1680, 
bequeathed a legacy of 130. for the foundation of 
a scholarship appropriated to Hull Grammar School. 
Dr. Samuel Blythe, master, gave in his life time 
a piece of land to buy books for the library, and 
by his last will and testament bequeathed 6,000. 
to purchase advowsons. Thomas Philipot, Esq., of 
Kent, bequeathed a house and farm in the parish of 
Footscray, for the establishment of two bye-fellow- 
ships to be appropriated to Kentish men : these 
were founded in 1717. Mr. Thomas Pyke, of Cam- 
bridge, founded two scholarships in 1720. The Rev. 
John Wilson of Bramhill, Wiltshire, founded two 
scholarships in 1729. Six scholarships were founded 
in 1747, in accordance with the will of Dr. Robert 
Greene, formerly a fellow of the college. William 
GreaVes, Esq., of Fulbourn, formerly fellow of this 
college, and who was for upwards of fifty years com- 
missary of the university, left 10. a year for an 
English dissertation on the character of King William 
III. A scholarship was founded in 1796, in pursuance 
of the bequest of lady Elizabeth Russell, which bears 
the name, as required by her will, of Sir John Trott's 
scholarship. A scholarship of the value of 40. per 
annum was founded in 1850, by the Rev. John 
Hinman, formerly a fellow of the college, with a 
preference to persons born in Rutland. Another of 
like value was founded by Benjamin Cherry, Esq., 
in 1855, with a preference to natives of Hertford. 
The Rev. Gilbert Bouchery and the Rev. Francis 
William Lodington, formerly fellows, gave the former 



CLARE COLLEGE. 39 

an estate worth 80. per annum by will, and the latter 
during his life time a considerable sum of money, 
for augmenting the incomes of the junior fellows. 

EMINENT MEN. John de Dunwich, master, chan- 
cellor of the university 1371 and 1374. 'William 
Wymbill, master, chancellor of the university 1426. 
William Wilfleet, master, chancellor of the university 
1458, 1464, 1466. Thomas Langton, (a) bishop of 
Winchester and archbishop elect of Canterbury, died 
1500-1. Henry Horneby, (a) D.D., master of Peter- 
house, noticed under that college, died in 1517-8. 
Hugh Latimer, (a) fellow, martyred at Oxford 1555. 
Henry Joliffe, (o) fellow, dean of Bristol, a writer against 
bishops Hooper and Ridley. Lancelot Ridley, (a) D.D., 
fellow, author of several expositions of scripture, died 
1576. Thomas Heskins, (a) fellow, author of the 
Parliament of Chryste in reply to bishop Jewel. 
Christopher Carlisle, fellow, author of several theo- 
logical works of ability, died 1588. Edward Leeds, 
LL.D., master, canon of Ely, master in chancery, and 
much distinguished as a civilian, died 1589-90. Arthur 
Yeldard,D.D., president of Trinity College, Oxford, died 
1598-9. Richard Thompson, fellow, commonly called 
Dutch Thompson, one of the translators of the bible, 
died 1612-3. William Butler, fellow, a distinguished 
physician, died 1617-8. George Ruggles, fellow, author 
of the Latin Comedy of Ignoramus, died 1 62 1 . Thomas 
Cecil, earl of Exeter, K.G., died 1621-2. John Boys, 
D.D., fellow, dean of Canterbury, author of Postils, 
or a series of discourses on the epistles, gospels, 
&c., of the Christian year, died 1625. William 

(a) See Athense Cantabrigienses by C. H. and Thompson Cooper, vol I. 



40 CLARE COLLEGE. 

Cavendish, first earl of Devonshire, died 1625. John 
Richardson, D.D., one of the translators of the bible, 
died 1625. Sir Thomas Richardson, lord chief justice 
of England, died 1634. Augustine Lindsell, fellow, 
bishop of Hereford, died 1634. Nicholas Ferrar, 
fellow, remarkable for his pious enthusiasm and the 
founder of what was called the protestant monastery 
at Little Gidding, died 1637. Isaac Bargrave, D.D., 
fellow, dean of Canterbury, an able preacher, and 
a great sufferer for his loyalty, died 1642-3. Sir 
Robert Heath, chief justice of England, died 1649. 
Abraham Wheelock, a great saxon and oriental 
scholar, died 1654. Thomas Winston, M.D., fellow, 
a noted London physician, died 1655. George Joliffe, 
M.D., distinguished for his anatomical discoveries, 
died about 1655. Joshua Poole, author of the English 
Parnassus, 1657. Thomas Paske, D.D., master, of 
whose success in tuition we have before spoken, died 
1662. Joseph Truman, a nonconformist, author of a 
Discourse of Natural and Moral Impotency, (a) and other 
able works, died 1671. Humphrey Henchman, bishop 
of London, died 1675. Thomas Philipot, editor of 
Villare Cantianum, and author of poems, a treatise on 
heraldry, and other works, died 1682. Peter Gunning, 
fellow, bishop of Ely, died 1684. Barnabas Oley, fel- 
low, archdeacon of Ely, editor of Dr. Jackson's works, 
and George Herbert's Country Parson, died 1685-6. 
David Clarkson, (6) fellow, an able tutor, and author of 
several works in defence of the opinions of the indepen- 

(a) A new edition, with a biographical introduction, by Henry Rogers, 
was published, London, 8vo. 1834. 

(6) His select works edited by Basil Henry Cooper, B. A., were published, 
London, 8vo. 1846. 



-CLARE COLLEGE. 41 

dents, died 1686. Ralph Cudworth, D.D., master, author 
of The True Intellectual System of the Universe, 
and other profound works, died 1688. Francis Hoi- 
croft, fellow, a distinguished nonconformist, died 1692. 
John Tillotson, fellow, archbishop of Canterbury, 
died 1694. Edward Sparkes, D.D., author of Scintilla 
Altaris and other works, died 1695. James Calvert, 
a nonconformist, author of Napthali seu Colluctatio 
Theologica de reditu decem Tribuum conversione Ju- 
dseorum et Mens Ezekielis, died 1698. John Moore, 
bishop of Ely, died 1714. Thomas Burnet, D.D., master 
of Charterhouse, author of Telluris Theoria Sacra, 
Archaeologiae Philosophies, and other learned works, 
died 1715. Simon Lowth, D.D., a nonjuror, author of 
works in answer to bishops Burnet andStillingfleet, died 
1720. Thomas Paske, LL.D., fellow, M.P. for the uni- 
versity 1710, 1713, 1715, died 1720. William Baxter, 
author of Glossarium Antiquitatum Britannicarum, and 
other works on antiquities and philology, died 1723. 
Benjamin Ibbot, D.D., canon of Westminster, an able 
and popular preacher, died 1725. Richard Laughton, 
D.D., fellow, canon of Worcester, died 1726. Robert 
Greene, D.D., fellow, author of The Principles of Natural 
Philosophy, Geometria Solidorum, A Demonstration 
of the Truth and Divinity of the Christian Religion, 
and The Principles of the Philosophy of the Ex- 
pansive and Contractive Forces, died 1730. Andrew 
Tooke, author of Synopsis Graecae Linguae, and trans- 
lator of Pomey's Pantheon or History of the Heathen 
Gods, died 1731. John Lawrence, fellow, a dis- 
tinguished writer on agriculture and gardening, died 
1732. Thomas Seaton, fellow, founder of the Seatonian 



42 CLAEE COLLEGE. 

prize for sacred poetry, died 1741. John lord Hervey, 
lord privy seal, author of Memoirs of the reign of 
George II., died 1743. Sir George Downing, bart., 
founder of Downing College, died 1749. Josiah 
Hort, archbishop of Tuam, died 1751. William 
Whiston, fellow, a celebrated mathematician, and 
divine, author of numerous publications, of which his 
translation of Josephus is still popular, died 1752. 
Martin Folkes, president of the Royal Society, and 
distinguished as a numismatist, died 1754. John 
Hobart, first earl of Buckinghamshire, died 1756. 
Sir George Lee, LL.D., dean of the arches, a lord 
of the admiralty, and author of Reports of Cases in 
the Ecclesiastical Courts, died 1758. James Hervey, 
a divine of exemplary piety and virtue, author of 
Meditations, and other esteemed works, died 1758. 
James Cawthorne, master of Tunbridge School, author 
of poems, died 1761. Anthony Ellys, fellow, bishop 
of S. David's, died 1761. Charles Townshend, chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, a man of uncommon eloquence 
and brilliant genius, died 1767. Thomas Pelham, 
duke of Newcastle, prime minister for many years, 
and chancellor of the university, died 1768. Richard 
Terrick, fellow, bishop of London, died 1777. William 
Dodd, LL.D., author of Prison Thoughts, and other 
works, executed for forgery 1777. John Langhorne, 
poet, and translator of Plutarch, died 1779. Thomas 
Townshend, member for the university in seven suc- 
cessive parliaments, and an elegant scholar, died 1780. 
William Cole, who spent many years in collecting 
materials for a history of the county, town, and uni- 
versity of Cambridge, contained in 100 MS. Volumes 



CLARE COLLEGE. 43 

in the British Museum, died 1782. William White- 
head, fellow, poet laureate, died 1785. Thomas 
Edwards, D.D., fellow, vicar of Nuneaton, editor of 
Theocritus, and author of a Translation of the Psalms, 
died 1785. John Berridge, fellow, vicar of Everton, 
a noted divine of high calvinistic principles, died 

1793. Thomas Pitt, first lord Camelford, died 1793. 
Henry Pelham-Clinton, duke of Newcastle, K.G., died 

1794. Samuel Carr, D.D., fellow, canon of S. Pauls, 
and author of three volumes of Practical Sermons, 
died 1794. John Parkhurst, fellow, author of Hebrew 
and Greek Lexicons, and other able works, died 1797. 
Thomas Edwards, LL.D., fellow, editor of Plutarch 
on Education, and author of a Discourse on Free 
Enquiry in matter of Religion and tracts on classical 
literature, flourished 1798. Thomas Townshend, 
viscount Sydney, Secretary of State 1782 to 1789, died 
1800. Henry Temple, second viscount Palmerston, 
well known in his day in political literary and fashion- 
able circles, died 1802. Thomas Pelham, first earl 
of Chichester, who held various offices in the state, 
and connected with the royal household, died 1805. 
Charles, first marquess of Cornwallis, K.G., lord lieu- 
tenant of Ireland and governor general of India, 
died 1805. Edward King, president of the society 
of antiquaries, author of Munimenta Antiqua, died 
1807. Charles Townshend, first lord Bayning, died 
1810. John earl of Ashburnham, died 1812. Sir 
William Young, bart., governor of Tobago, and 
author of a History of Athens, died 1815. Thomas 
Scott, rector of Aston Sandford, editor of the Family 
Bible, died 1821. Charles Brodrick, .archbishop of 



44 CLARE COLLEGE. 

Cashel, died 1822. John Buckner, bishop of Chi- 
chester, died 1824. Francis Maseres, an able mathe- 
matical writer, and famous for his munificence in 
reprinting valuable scientific and historical works, 
died 1824. Thomas Pelham, second earl of Chi- 
chester, successively secretary of state, chancellor of 
the duchy of Lancaster, and postmaster general, died 
1826. Charles Symmons, D.D., editor of the works of 
Milton, died 1826. Thomas Leman, fellow, highly 
skilled in British and Roman Antiquities and Gene- 
alogy, died 1826. George Pelham, bishop of Lincoln, 
died 1827. Samuel Clapham, vicar of Christ Church, 
Hampshire, author and editor of numerous sermons, 
died 1830. Walter Whiter, fellow, author of Ety- 
mologicon Universale, criticisms on Shakspere, &c., 
died 1832. James Plumptre, fellow, rector of Great 
Gransden, author of several dramas, and editor of 
the English Drama purified, died 1832. Samuel 
Burder, author of Oriental Customs, The Scripture 
Expositor, and other works on theological subjects, 
died 1836. Daniel Corrie, bishop of Madras, died 
1837. William Gurney, rector of S. Clement's Danes, 
London, an able and popular preacher, died 1843. 
Charles Blachford Mansfield, (a) a man of varied ac- 
complishments, and especially skilled in chemistry, 
lost his life by an accident, 1855. 

Geoffrey Chaucer, the father of English poetry, is 
reputed to have been of this college, but there seems 
to be no substantial foundation for the tradition. 
It is also said that Sir Thomas Lake, secretary of 

(a) See his Paraguay, Brazil, and the Plate, with a brief sketch of 
his Life, by the Rev. Charles Kingsley, Cambridge, 8vo. 1856. 



CLARE COLLEGE. 45 

state to James I., was of this college, but another 
person of the same name appears to have been mis- 
taken for him. 

BUILDINGS. In 1362, this college was destroyed 
by fire, but was soon afterwards rebuilt. On the 
morrow of S. Dennis, 1525, great part of the master's 
lodge and treasury were burnt down, the archives 
of the society being also destroyed. The old college, 
which it is believed contained no buildings possessing 
architectural merit, stood more to the south than 
the present structure. The old buildings were in 
part taken down about 1638 (a portion of the site being 
given to King's college, under an exchange which 
was not legally ratified till 1823), and the present 
edifice was commenced. The work was interrupted 
by the great civil war. Evelyn, in 1654 states the 
college to have been then unfinished. After the 
restoration, the work was proceeded with. The old 
buildings were however not completely removed until 
1686, and the new buildings were not finished till 
1715. 

The buildings are all distinguished by elegance 
of design; but the chief beauty is the front towards 
the river. It is of Ketton stone, ornamented with 
two ranges of pilasters, the lower of the Tuscan, and 
the upper of the Ionic order. Between these pilas- 
ters are three rows of sash windows; the upper and 
lower adorned with architraves, and the middle row 
with pediments. This fine front is finished with a 
circular pediment, and ornamented with urns, an 
entablature, and a handsome balustrade. The gateway 
leads from the court over a very elegant stone bridge, 



46 CLARE COLLEGE. 

agreeing in style with the building, into a broad 
walk planted with lime-trees, which opens on what 
is termed Clare Hall Piece, a beautiful lawn at the 
back of the college. The principal gateway towards 
the street is also deserving of notice. The college 
forms one court 150 feet long by 111 broad, with 
a chapel outside the gateway. On the north side 
of the court are the Library, Hall, and Combination- 
room, and on the west side the Master's Lodge. 

THE CHAPEL. The society originally performed 
divine service in the south aisle of S. Edward's 
church. Mention is indeed made of a chapel when 
archbishop Arundel visited the college in September, 
1401 ; but it is supposed that this refers to the before 
mentioned aisle of S. Edward's. Shortly after 1525 
a chapel was erected, but it had not been consecrated 
when archbishop Pole's delegates visited the uni- 
versity in 1556-7. The present chapel, which occupies 
the site of the older structure, was designed by Sir 
James Burrough, master of Caius college. The first 
stone was laid 3rd May, 1763, and it cost upwards 
of 7000. It was consecrated by Dr. Terrick, bishop 
of London, formerly a fellow of this society, 5th July, 
1769. The exterior is ornamented with Corinthian 
pilasters, rising from a rustic base, and supporting 
a handsome cornice, crowned with a balustrade. 
The ante-chapel, which is entered from the north- 
east corner of the court, is an octagon, lighted from 
a richly ornamented dome. The interior of the chapel 
is adorned with a handsome coved ceiling of stucco- 
work : the seats and wainscoting are of Norway oak, 
neatly carved, and the floor is of black and white 



CLAEE COLLEGE. 47 

marble. The altar-piece is a fine painting of the 
Salutation, by Cipriani. 

The HALL, which occupies nearly half of the north 
side of the court, is a handsome apartment, 69 feet 
in length, 21 in breadth, and 25 in height. 

The COMBINATION ROOM, which is one of the best 
in the University, contains portraits of the foundress, 
(a copy by Freeman) Thomas Cecil, earl of Exeter, 
(by Mirevelt) archbishop Tillotson, bishops Hench- 
man, Moore, and Terrick, and of the duke of New- 
castle, chancellor of the University (a whole length). 

The LIBRAEY was originally a room over the old 
chapel. The present library extends from the com- 
bination-room to the master's lodge. It is elegantly 
fitted up and ornamented with columns and carvings 
of Norway oak. Amongst the valuable articles in 
this library, is shewn one of the folio Bibles of Pope 
Sixtus V., which were rigorously suppressed, and are 
therefore extremely rare. The manuscripts are not 
numerous. 

The MASTEE'S LODGE occupies the northern half 
of the western side of the court, and possesses no 
remarkable feature. It has a pleasant and tasteful 
garden sloping down to the river, on the opposite 
side of which are the fellows' gardens. 

POISON CUP. A curious and very handsome piece 
of plate is preserved under the charge of the master 
of the college. It is one of the cups given by 
Dr. Butler (as he is commonly called, although he never 
took the degree of M.D.) The body is of glass, enclosed 
with filagree work. A mysterious stone which crowns 
the lid was supposed to be a chann against the traitor's 



48 CLARE COLLEGE. 

deadly malice, it being- considered that if the draught 
presented in the cup were poisoned, the stone would 
surely split. An engraving of it is given in Specimens 
of College Plate, by the Eev. J. J. Smith, Camb. 
4to. 1845. 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS. There are ten 
senior, nine junior, and three bye-fellows, and about 
fifty scholars and exhibitioners. 

In the time of Caius, (1574) the number of mem- 
bers of this college was 129 ; in that of Fuller, (1654) 
106; and when Carter wrote, (1753) about 100. 

PATRONAGE. The livings in the gift of Clare col- 
lege are, the vicarages of Duxford S. John and Lit- 
lington, in Cambridgeshire; Birdbrooke rectory in 
Essex; the rectory of Datchworth in Hertfordshire; 
that of Brington cum Old Weston and Bythorn, and 
Everton and Gransden Magna vicarages in Hunt- 
ingdonshire; the vicarage of Wrawby cum Brig, in 
Lincolnshire; Hardingham rectory in Norfolk; Elm- 
sett, Westley and Fornham, and Waldingfield Magna 
rectories in Suffolk ; Ockley rectory, and Rotherhithe, 
in Surrey; and the rectories of Orcheston S. Mary, 
in Wiltshire; Patrington, in Yorkshire, and Guest- 
ling in Sussex. 







PART OF THE INNER COURT. 

PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

THIS college situate in Trumpingtoii Street, nearly 
opposite S. Peter's college, was founded in 1348, by 
Mary de Saint Paul, countess dowager of Pembroke. 

THE FOUNDEESS. Mary de Saint Paul was daughter 
of Guy count of Chatillon and Saint Paul, by Mary 
daughter of John de Dreux duke of Britanny and earl 
of Richmond and his wife Beatrice, second daughter 
of King Henry III. of England. She became the 
second wife of Aymer de Valence earl of Pembroke. (a) 

(a) Sir William Dugdale and those who follow him call her the third 
wife of the earl of Pembroke, but this is an error (see Archaeologia xxvi. 
339.) She and the earl being related in the fourth degree of consanguinity, 
a papal dispensation was required to render their marriage valid. The 
letter of the king of England to the pope and cardinals soliciting this dis- 
pensation, is dated 29 March 1321. The Papal Bull allowing it bears date 
22 April, and the marriage was solemnized 5 July in the same year. 

VOL. I. E 



50 PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

This powerful nobleman had served with distinction 
in the wars of King Edward I. against Scotland, and 
he so far enjoyed that sovereign's confidence that 
just before his death he charged him to keep away 
from his weak son (Edward II.) the insidious favourite 
Piers de Gaveston. 

In the reign of Edward II. the earl of Pembroke 
was one of the most active of the insurgent barons, 
and assisted at the siege of the castle of Scarborough, 
the surrender of which led to Gaveston' s death. After 
that event the earl became reconciled to the king, 
and was one of the lords who sat in judgment on the 
earl of Lancaster. He died suddenly, whilst on a 
mission to the court of France, 27th June 1324. Some 
of the old monkish writers represent his untimely 
death as a judgment for the part he had taken against 
the earl of Lancaster. (o) 

His widow had extensive property both in France 
and England, and in 1333 obtained from the duke 
of Britanny a grant for her life of the manors and 
towns of Eichmond and Bowes in Yorkshire, and 
of all other manors, towns, lands and tenements per- 
taining to the honour or county of Eichmond, or 
otherwise belonging to the duke in England. The 
rent reserved to the duke was no less than 1800 
per annum. This grant was confirmed by king 
Edward III. No inconsiderable portion of her large 

(a) Dugdale states that the earl of Pembroke was murdered. Fuller 
says that he was unhappily slain at a tilting at his nuptials with the 
foundress, so that she was maid, wife, and widow, all in a day. Hence 
the allusion of Gray to 

Sad Chatillon on her bridal morn, 
That wept her bleeding Love. 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 51 

fortune was expended on pious objects. In 1342 she 
founded the abbey of Denny in Cambridgeshire for nuns 
of the order of S. Clare. Ultimately she removed to 
that house certain nuns minoresses who had been 
settled at Waterbeach by the lady Dionysia de Mun- 
chesny, an aunt of her late husband. The countess 
of Pembroke founded this college in 1348. It is re- 
corded that she gave seventy pounds towards the fabric 
of the church of the Grey friars in London. She died 
16th March 1377. In her will, made at her manor of 
Braxted in Essex 20th February preceding, she is 
styled Mary de Saint Paul, countess of Pembroke, 
lady of Weysford (a) and of Montignac : she thereby 
desired that her body might be buried in the church 
of the sisters of Denny, in the heart thereof, where 
her tomb was made ; and bequeathed to the abbey of 
Westminster, wherein the earl her husband had been 
buried, a cross with a foot of gold and emeralds 
which sir William de Valence, knight, brought from 
the Holy Land. She also gave to the abbey of S. 
Albans a silver gilt image of S. Vincent, holding 
in the hands a box or shrine which contained the 
face of the martyr. 

THE FOUNDATION. The foundress purchased several 
messuages for the site of the college in 1346 and 1347. 
On 24th December, 1347, the king granted his 
licence to the countess of Pembroke, to found a house 
of scholars in the town of Cambridge, for a master and 
thirty scholars or more, and to assign one, two, or 
three messuages and places, with the appurtenances 
in the same town for their habitation. 

(a) Wexford, Ireland. 

E2 



52 PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

The countess's charter of foundation bears date 
at La Mote, near Cheshunt, 9th June, 1348. For the 
health of her soul and the souls of her deceased 
husband, father and mother, and of all the faithful 
deceased or her benefactors, she granted to the master 
and scholars of the hall or house of Valence Mary, 
a messuage with the appurtenances without Trum- 
peton gate, which messuage she had purchased of 
master Hervey de Staunton, clerk, (a) and others ; and 
which messuage lay between the messuage of the 
university on the south, and the king's ditch on the 
north, and extended in length from the king's way 
which led towards Trumpeton unto the little lane 
which led towards Swinecroft. To hold to the master 
and scholars and their successors there perpetually 
to dwell and live under a certain rule, and in divers 
faculties in the university, according to ordinances 
thereupon intended to be made. 

On llth December, 1351, the chancellor and masters 
regent and non-regent in an assembly held in Great 
S. Mary's, granted to the master and scholars of the 
hall or house of Valence Mary, a messuage without 
Trumpeton gate, which messuage they had of the 
gift of Roger de Haydon. It is described as lying 
between a messuage formerly of John de Holme on 
the south, and the messuage of the master and scholars 
on the north, and as extending in length from the 
king's way which led towards Trumpeton unto the 
little lane which led towards Swinecroft. This grant 

(a) He was rector of Elm, and probably a nephew of the person bearing 
the same name, canon of York and Wells, &c., who founded the college 
called Michael House, and who died 1327. 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 53 

was made at the instance of the foundress, as appears 
by an indenture made the next day between her and the 
master and scholars of the one part, and the university 
of the other part. By this deed the master and 
scholars swore and covenanted that a fit chaplain 
should in his daily masses specially commend and 
remember the soul of Roger de Haydon, whose anni- 
versary was to be commemorated by the master and 
fellows yearly on the feast of S. Martin the bishop. 

In 1363 the foundress purchased of Richard Mor- 
den an acre of meadow, lying within walls near 
the garden called the Paschal yard. This land was 
converted into the college orchard. 

The foundress endowed the college with the 
rectories and vicarages of Saxthorp and Tilney in 
Norfolk, and of Waresley in Huntingdonshire, also 
with lands and rents at Repingdon in Derbyshire 
and Wissendine in Rutland. 

In 1381 the site of the college was extended to- 
wards the south by the addition of a messuage called 
Cosyn's place, and in 1400 and 1401 by the further 
addition of a messuage called Bolton or Knapton's 
place, and of three roods for the enlargement of the 
garden. 

In 1451 the master and brethren of the hospital 
of S. John, granted to this college, at a small annual 
rent, a messuage adjoining the south side of the 
college, abutting at the east end upon Swinecroft 
and at the west end upon the king's way. 

By the survey of this college, made in 1545-6, by 
doctors Parker, Redman, and Mey, it appears that 
the master had the annual stipend of 3., that his 



54 PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

commons amounted to 4. Is., and that he was 
allowed 1. for livery, with 8s. for his scholastic habit. 
There were fifteen fellows, but they had no stipend ; 
the allowances to each for commons, livery and 
scholastic habit were however precisely similar in 
amount to those to the master. Four bible clerks, 
each had a stipend of 6s. 8d., and an allowance of 
1. 14s. 8d. per annum for commons. The estates 
of the college were situated at Saxthorp and Tilney 
in Norfolk; Soham, Linton, Isleham, Burwell, 
Gransden, Cambridge, Teversham, Eltisley, Barton, 
Wittlesford, Haslingfield, Gamlingay, Longstanton, 
Borogreen, Upware, Horseheath, and Great Shelford 
in Cambridgeshire; Waresley, Overton Waterville, 
and Chesterton in Huntingdonshire ; Wissendine, in 
Rutland ; Northill, in Bedfordshire ; and London. The 
total annual amount of the revenues was 171. 2s. IQd., 
and the expenses exceeded the income by 14. 12s. kd. 
per annum. 

In 1549 a further addition to the site of the 
college was made by the purchase of a messuage 
which had belonged to the dissolved chantry of 
Little S. Mary's, and which the college had held under 
lease. The east head of this messuage abutted 
upon Swinecroft or S. Thomas's Leys, and the west 
head upon the king's highway leading towards Trum- 
pington. 

Two small pieces of land forming part of the 
site were demised for long terms to the college by 
the Corporation of Cambridge in 1620 and 1804, 
and the college purchased the reversions in 1832. 

In 1833 this college obtained by exchange from 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 55 

Corpus Christ! college, under a private act of par- 
liament, the Paschal yard on part of which stood 
the Sphere-house and certain outbuildings. 

BENEFACTORS. King Henry VI. was munificent 
in his favours to the college. He conferred upon it 
the manor, rectory and vicarage of Soham, and the 
rectory of Linton with the chapelry of Isleham, all in 
Cambridgeshire. In the charter by which this gift 
was made to the college, he terms it "an eminent 
and most precious college, which, as we have been 
certainly informed, shines and ever hath shone 
wonderfully among all the places of the university." 
(notabile et insigne et quam pretiosum collegium, 
quod inter omnia loca universitatis, prout certitud- 
inaliter informamur, mirabiliter splendet et semper 
resplenduit.) 

Laurence Booth, archbishop of York and lord 
chancellor, who was master of this college was very 
liberal in his gifts thereto, among which were the 
manor and rectory of Overton Waterville in Hunting- 
donshire. Dr. Thomas Watts, archdeacon of Middle- 
sex, who graduated at Christ's college, (a] established 
here seven Greek scholarships. One of the first of 
his scholars was Lancelot Andrews. Sir Robert 
Hitcham, knight, serjeant-at-law, who died 1636, 
and who had been attorney general to the queen of 
James I. gave to this college the manors of Fram- 
lingham and Saxted in Suffolk, for the use of the 
college, and in trust for certain charitable purposes. 
Amongst other benefactors may be named, bishop 

(a) See a memoir of him in Athense Cantabrigienses, by C. H. and 
Thompson Cooper, Vol. I. p. 364. 



56 PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

Story, Dr. William Atkinson, sir William Hussey lord 
chief justice, sir Philip Booth, Dr. Robert Shorten, 
archbishop Grindal, bishop Andrews, William Moses 
serjeant-at-law, master, William Sampson, Richard 
Crossinge, Charles Parkin, and Sarah Lonsdale. 

EMINENT MEN. Michael de Causton, D.D., fellow, 
master of Michaelhouse, chancellor of the university, 
and a benefactor to all the colleges subsisting in 
his time, died 1396. William de Botlesham, fellow, 
bishop of Rochester, died 1399-1400. Thomas More, 
fellow, dean of S. Paul's, died 1421. William Lyn- 
wode, fellow, bishop of S. David's, author of the Pro- 
vinciale seu Constitutiones Angliae,* died 1446. John 
Langton, master, bishop of S. David's, died 1447. 
John Somerset, fellow, physician to Henry VI. 
Laurence Booth, master, archbishop of York, died 
1480. Thomas Rotheram, (o) archbishop of York, and 
one of the founders of Lincoln college Oxford, died 
1500. Thomas Langton, (a) fellow, bishop of Win- 
chester, and archbishop elect of Canterbury, died 
1500-1. Edward Story, (a] fellow, bishop of Chichester, 
died 1502-3. Roger Leyburn, (0) master, bishop of 
Carlisle, died 1507. William Atkinson, w D.D., fellow, 
canon of Windsor, translator of three books of the 
Imitation of Jesus Christ, died 1509. Richard Fox, (o) 
master, bishop of Winchester, the founder of Corpus 
Christi college, Oxford, died 1528. George Stafford, (fl) 
fellow, one of the earliest adherents of the reformation, 

* Bishop Lynwode's body was in 1852 discovered in the ruins of 
S. Stephen's chapel at Westminster. In Archaeologia xxxiv. 403 430 may 
be found a detailed account of the discovery, and various interesting parti- 
culars respecting this prelate and his celebrated work above mentioned. 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 57 

died 1529. Thomas Lupset, (B) a pious and learned 
writer, died 1530. Robert Shorton, (a) D.D., master of 
this and S. John's college, died 1535. Charles Booth, (a) 
bishop of Hereford, died 1537. William Framing- 
ham, (a} author of various works in latin verse, all of 
which have perished, died 1537. Thomas Bill, (a) M.D., 
fellow, physician to Henry VIII. and Edward VI., died 
about 1551. John Bradford, (a) fellow, martyred 1555. 
Nicholas Ridley, (a) master, bishop of London, martyred 
1555. John Rogers, (a) martyred 1555-6. John Chris- 
topherson, (a) fellow, bishop of Chichester, died 1558. 
Anthony Mayhew, (a) fellow, one of the translators of 
the Geneva Bible, died 1559. William Turner, (a) M.D., 
fellow, dean of Wells, the father of English Botany, 
died 1568. Nicholas Carr, (a) M.D., fellow, translator 
into latin of Demosthenes and other greek authors, 
died 1568. James Pilkington, (ffl) bishop of Durham, 
died 1575-6. John Young, (a) D.D., master, canon of 
Ely, an able supporter of the principles of the church 
of Rome, died 1579 ; Richard Cheyney, (fl) fellow, 
bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, died 1579. Thomas 
Bowsfield, principal of S. Edmund hall, Oxford, 
1581. Edmund Grindal, (a) master, archbishop of 
Canterbury, died 1583. Thomas Sampson, D.D., dean 
of Christ church, Oxford, one of the translators of the 
Geneva Bible, and a good preacher and writer, died 
1589. William Fulke, D.D., master, author of learned 

works in support of protestant doctrines, (6) died 1589. 

4 

(a) These are noticed in Athenae Cantabrigienses, by C. H. and 
Thompson Cooper, vol. I. 

(6) The principal of these edited by the Rev. Charles Henry Hartshorne 
and the Rev. Richard Gibbings, were reprinted for the Parker Society, 
Camb. 2 vols. 8vo. 1843, 1848. 



58 PEMBEOKE COLLEGE. 

Richard Greenham, fellow, rector of Dry Drayton, 
a learned puritan, author of sermons, treatises, and 
a commentary on the hundred and nineteenth psalm, 
died 1592. John Robinson, D.D., fellow, president 
of S. John's college, Oxford, and archdeacon of 
Lincoln, died 1597. Arthur Yeldard, D.D., fellow, 
president of Trinity college, Oxford, died 1598-9. 
Edmund Spenser, poet, died 1598-9. Richard Harvey, 
author of various theological and astronomical works, 
died about 1599. John Whitgift, master, archbishop 
of Canterbury, died 1603-4. Anthony Watson, fellow, 
bishop of Chichester, died 1605. John Young, master, 
bishop of Rochester, died 1605. Matthew Hutton, 
master, archbishop of York, died 1605-6. Roger 
Dodd, fellow, bishop of Meath, died 1608. Peter 
Turner, M.D., a physician in extensive practice, and 
M.P. for Bridport, died 1614. Humphrey Tindal, D.D., 
fellow, dean of Ely, and president of Queen's college, 
died 1614. Thomas Neville, D.D., fellow, dean of Can- 
terbury, master successively of Magdalen and Trinity 
colleges, and a munificent benefactor to the latter 
society, died 1615. Roger Fenton, D.D., fellow,. rector 
of S. Stephen's, Walbrook, London, one of the trans- 
lators of the Bible, died 1615-6. Thomas Nuce, fellow, 
canon of Ely, translator of Seneca's Octavia into 
english verse, died 1617. John Bridges, fellow, bishop 
of Oxford, died 1618. Francis Anthony, M.D., a noted 
physician, author of Medicina Chemica, died 1623. 
Thomas Dempster, author of Historia Ecclesiastica 
Gentis Scotorum, {a) and learned works on the antiqui- 
ties and laws of Rome, died 1625. Nicholas Felton, 

(a) Reprinted for the Bannatyne Club, 2 vols. 4to. 1829. 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 59 

master, bishop of Ely, died 1626. Lancelot Andrews, (a) 
master, bishop of Winchester, died 1626. Sir 
John Hayward, LL.D., author of numerous his- 
torical works of no slight merit, died 1627. Thomas 
Dove, bye-fellow, bishop of Peterborough, died 
1630. Gabriel Harvey, LL.D., fellow, a poet and 
miscellaneous writer, the friend of Spenser, and the 
literary opponent of Robert Greene and Thomas 
Nash, died 1630-1. Samuel Harsiiet, master, arch- 
bishop of York, died 1631. Roger Andrews, D.D., 
fellow, master of Jesus College, and one of the 
translators of the Bible, died 1635. Theophilus Field, 
fellow, bishop of Hereford, died 1636. Sir Robert 
Hitcham, attorney general to the queen of James L, 
died 1636. Sir Robert Dallington, master of Charter- 
house, author of travels in Tuscany and other works, 
died 1637. Randolph Barlow, fellow, archbishop of 
Tuam, died 1637-8. John Pocklington, D.D., fellow, 
canon of Windsor and Peterborough, author of Altare 
Christianum and Sunday no Sabbath, died 1640. 
William Rowley, the dramatist, died about 1640. 
Thomas Eden, LL.D., master of Trinity Hall, M.P. for the 
university, and a civilian of distinguished reputation, 
died 1645. Walter Balcanqual, D.D., fellow, dean 
of Durham, and one of the synod of Dordt, died 

1645. Francis Meres, rector of Wing, collector of 
Wit's Commonwealth, England's Helicon, &c., died 

1646. George Cooke, fellow, bishop of Hereford, 
died 1646. Eleazar Duncon, D.D., fellow, canon of 
York, Winchester, and Durham, chaplain to Charles I., 

(a) An excellent edition of the works of this most learned and pious 
prelate was published at Oxford, 9 vols. 8vo. 1851-4. 



60 PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

and author of De adoratione Dei versus altare, died 
1650. William Beale, D.D., master successively of 
Jesus and S. John's Colleges, and a great sufferer for 
his loyalty to Charles I., died 1651. Eichard Crashaw, 
poet, died 1652. Theodore Bathurst, D.D., fellow, 
rector of Overton Waterville, translator of Spenser's 
Shepherds' Calendar into latin verse, flourished 1653. 
Henry Isaacson, author of a valuable system of 
chronology, and a memoir of bishop Andrews, died 
1654. John Anthony, M.D., author of some devotional 
treatises, died 1655. Sydrach Simpson, master, a 
noted independent preacher, died 1655. Richard 
Vines, master, a learned puritan, died 1655-6. 
John Hewit, D.D., who suffered death for his at- 
tachment to Charles II., 1658. Ralph Brownrigg, 
master of Catharine Hall, fellow, bishop of Exeter, 
died 1659. Mark Frank, D.D., master, archdeacon 
of S. Albans, author of a course of sermons, be- 
ginning at Advent and so continued through the 
Festivals, (a} died 1663-4. Edmund Calamy, B.D., 
fellow, minister of S. Mary Aldermary London, a 
leader amongst the presbyterians, and author of con- 
troversial treatises and sermons, died 1666. Samuel 
Pulleine, archbishop of Tuam, died 1666-7. Matthew 
Wren, fellow, bishop of Ely, died 1667. Thomas 
Wharton, M.D., anatomy professor at Gresham college, 
author of Adenographia sive Glandularum Totius Cor- 
poris Descriptio, died 1673. Benjamin Lany, master, 
bishop of Ely, died 1674-5. Thomas Stanley, editor 
of uEschylus, and author of the History of Philosophy, 
and of poems, original and translated, died 1678. Ed- 

(a) A new edition of this work was published at Oxford, 2 vols. 8vo. 1849. 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 61 

mund Boldero, D.D., bye-fellow, master of Jesus college, 
died 1679. Edmund Calamy, M.A., bye-fellow, an able 
nonconformist divine, died 1685. Thomas Sydenham, 
M.D., a successful physician, and author of professional 
works of high repute, died 1689. William Holder, 
D.D., fellow, canon of Ely, a musical composer and 
author of the Elements of Speech; he much im- 
proved the method of instructing the deaf and dumb, 
and died 1697-8. Thomas Stanley, translator of 
^Elians Various Histories, died about 1700. Samuel 
Clarke, fellow, author of annotations on the Bible, 
died 1700-1. William Burkitt, vicar of Dedham, 
author of an excellent and popular commentary on 
the New Testament, died 1703. Thomas Doolittle, 
author of a Treatise concerning the Lord's Supper, 
a complete body of practical divinity and other 
works, died 1707. Joseph Hall, bishop of Bristol, 
died 1709. Sir Richard Bulstrode, a devoted ad- 
herent of the house of Stuart, and author of memoirs, 
essays, and elegies, died 1711, aged 101. Nehemiah 
Grew, M.D., an able writer on the anatomy and 
physiology of vegetables, died 1712. Drue Cressner, 
fellow, canon of Ely, author of a commentary upon 
the Apocalypse, died 1717-8. Luke Milbourne, author 
of a poetical version of the Psalms, notes on Dryden's 
Virgil, &c., died 1720. John Woodward, M.D., phy- 
sician, natural historian, and antiquary, founder of 
the Woodwardian professorship, died 1728. John 
Gaskarth, D.D., fellow, vicar of Allhallows Barking 
London, an able and admired preacher, died 1733. 
John Fryer, M.D., author of travels in India and 
Persia, died 1733. William Cottrell, bishop of Ferns, 



62 PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

died 1744. John Whalley, D.D., fellow, Begins Pro- 
fessor of Divinity, and master of Peterhouse, died 
1748. Richard Tyson, M.D., bye-fellow, a distinguished 
London physician, died 1749-50. Sir Benjamin 
Keene, K.B., an able diplomatist, died 1757. Charles 
Parkin, one of the authors of the History of 
Norfolk, died 1765. Christopher Smart, fellow, 
poet, died 1770. Roger Long, D.D., master, author 
of a treatise on astronomy, died 1770. Thomas 
Grray, (a) poet, died 1771. Jonathan Toup, editor of 
Longinus, died 1785. Messenger Monsey, M.D., a 
physician, equally noted for his skill and eccentricity, 
died 1788. William Mason, fellow, poet, died 1797. 
Thomas Knowles, D.D., fellow, canon of Ely, author of 
numerous controversial and theological works, died 
1802. William Pitt, prime minister during a most 
eventful period of our history, died 1805. Edward 
Miller, MUS.D., author of the History of Doncaster, 
died 1807. Henry Jermyn, of Sibton Suffolk, who 
formed immense collections for a general history of 

(a) Gray was originally entered at S. Peter's college, but he was driven 
thence by the pranks of the students, who took advantage of the poet's 
nervous temperament. Several anecdotes of the vexations to which he 
was subjected at S. Peter's college are still current in the university. 
It is said that Gray was extremely fearful of fire, and that he had provided 
for his personal safety a rope ladder contrived in such a manner that 
he could easily let himself down from his window. This he always 
kept ready in his bed-room. After exhausting every other mode of tor- 
menting their sensitive companion, the students of S. Peter's college one 
night placed exactly under his bed-room window a large tub full of 
water, and then some who were in the plot raised a cry of "fire" at 
his door: Gray, terrified by the report of the danger which he most 
dreaded, rushed from his bed, threw himself hastily out of the window 
with his rope ladder, and descended exactly into the tub. This practical 
joke is said to have determined him to quit the college. He was kindly 
received at Pembroke, where he lived twenty years. 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 63 

that county, died 1820. Charles Edward de Coetlogon, 
a popular preacher of great talent, author of various 
theological and other publications, died 1820. Thomas 
Fanshaw Middleton, bishop of Calcutta, died 1822. 
Arthur William Trollope, D.D., head master of Christ's 
hospital London, died 1827. George Pretyman 
Tomline, fellow, bishop of Lincoln, died 1827. 
Bowyer Edward Sparke, fellow, bishop of Ely, died 
1836. Thomas Barnes, many years editor of the 
Times newspaper, died 1841. Francis Thackeray, 
author of Researches into the ecclesiastical and an- 
cient state of Britain under the Roman Emperors, 
died 1842. Henry Blunt, fellow, rector of Streat- 
ham Surrey, and author of numerous sermons and 
other theological publications, died 1843. John 
Haslam, M.D., distinguished for his writings on 
insanity, and his skill in the treatment of that dis- 
order, died 1844. Thomas Mitchell, fellow of Sidney 
college, editor of Aristophanes and Sophocles, died 
1845. William French, D.D., fellow, canon of Ely, 
master of Jesus College, and one of the authors of 
new translations of the Psalms and Proverbs, died 
1849. David Elisha Davy, author of large collections 
in illustration of the history and antiquities of Suffolk, 
died 1851. William Grant Broughton, bishop of 
Sydney, died 1853. Alfred Inigo Suckling, author 
of the History of Suffolk, of which two volumes only 
were published, died 1856. Dawson Turner, dis- 
tinguished as an antiquary and a botanist, died 1858. 
From the extraordinary number of prelates who 
have been members of this society, it has been called 
Collegium Episcopale. 



64 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 




BBPS**^ 

PART OF THE OUTER COURT. 



It was long supposed that William Smith bishop of 
Lincoln, one of the founders of Brasenose college 
Oxford had been a fellow of this college, but it has 
been satisfactorily shewn that the bishop and the 
fellow of the college of the same name were distinct 
persons. 

BUILDINGS. When queen Elizabeth visited the 
university in 1564, this college, the buildings of which 
had probably undergone little change since the time 
of its foundress, attracted her majesty's attention by 
their venerable air of antiquity. On passing she 
exclaimed, " domus antiqua et religiosa." In the 
map which accompanies some of the copies of Dr. 
Caius's History of the University (A.D. 1574) the 
college appears as consisting simply of a square 
court, surrounded entirely with buildings. The inner 




SM API! Hi FIBMBIRO1E3S 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 65 

or second court was built about the middle of the 
seventeenth century. 

The college presented much the same appearance 
as it now does when Loggan engraved his view 
thereof. The principal alterations have been the 
removal of the library to the old chapel and the 
modernising of the Master's Lodge, which at that 
period appears to have been a somewhat hideous 
structure with a quaint external staircase. This view 
was probably made about 1688. 

The chapel is connected with the first court by a 
cloister having rooms over the same. The first or 
old court is about ninety-five feet by fifty-five. There 
is a gateway on the west. On the north side is the 
library. On the east the hall separates it from the 
second court, which is approached by a passage 
between the hall and the butteries. About the year 
1720, the first court and the front of the college 
were faced with stone. It is probable that before 
many years elapse the whole college, with the ex- 
ception of the chapel, will be pulled down and 
rebuilt. With a view to this considerable additions 
have recently been made to the site. 

THE CHAPEL was erected soon after the Restora- 
tion, at the cost of Matthew Wren, bishop of Ely, 
in grateful remembrance of his release from a con- 
finement for eighteen years in the Tower of London. 
It was dedicated on the feast of S. Matthew 1665. 
The bishop gave the manor of Hardwicke in Cam- 
bridgeshire to keep the chapel in repair. The archi- 
tect was his nephew sir Christopher Wren. The style 
of architecture is the Corinthian. The interior is 
VOL. i. F 



66 PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

about fifty-four feet by twenty-four, and the height 
upwards of thirty feet. Over the communion table is 
a painting of the Burial of Christ, by Barroccio. 
It belonged to sir Joshua Reynolds, and was sold 
on his decease. An engraving of it is extant, taken 
early in the seventeenth century by Giles Sadeler. 
In a vault at the east end is deposited the body of 
its founder, Matthew Wren, bishop of Ely, which 
was brought here on his death in 1667, and enclosed 
in a stone coffin. In the same vault have been 
buried two of his sons and four of the Masters of 
the College. 

THE HALL, which contains some ancient carved 
wainscoting, is about forty-two feet by twenty- 
seven, and contains several portraits, including 
those of the foundress, of king Henry VI. and 
of sir Robert Hitcham, of the martyrs Ridley and 
Bradford, and of Nicholas Felton master and bishop 
of Ely. It also contains a bust of William Pitt, 
executed by Chantrey in 1835. 

THE COMBINATION ROOM adjoining the hall, con- 
tains portraits of the poet Spenser, (a copy by 
Wilson) ; of the poet Gray, and of the poet Mason, 
by sir Joshua Reynolds ; of Archbishop Grindal, 
on wood; of Benjamin Lany master and bishop of 
Ely; of Matthew Wren, bishop of Ely; of Dr. 
Roger Long, master, by B. Wilson ; and of William 
Pitt, by Harlow. The last was painted after Mr. 
Pitt's decease. 

THE LIBRARY. When Loggan published his view 
of the college the library was over the hall. It was 
subsequently removed to the old chapel. It is toler- 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 67 

ably rich in books, and contains a few manuscripts. 
Over the entrance is a tabular inscription which 
belonged to the chapel. 

THE MASTER'S LODGE is in a retired position be- 
tween the hall and the chapel. 

SPHERE-HOUSE. In a detached brick building at the 
north-east corner of the inner court, there is a hollow 
sphere, eighteen feet in diameter, constructed by Dr. 
Long with the assistance of an ingenious tin-plate 
worker of Cambridge named Jonathan Munns, to 
represent the appearance, relative situation and 
motions of the heavenly bodies. It is entered by 
steps over the south pole, and thirty persons may 
be conveniently seated in the interior. 

PLATE. Pembroke college has preserved several 
interesting memorials of its benefactors. One is a 
cup of silver gilt weighing forty ounces, the gift of 
bishop Langton, some time fellow of the college. 
It has a very ancient appearance, and the mint mark 
(D) shows that it was made in 1441, 1461, or 1481. 
In the interior of the stem is the following inscrip- 
tion: 

Qui alienaverit, anathema sit. 

Thomas Langton, Winton. Eps., Aulae Penbrochianae olini 
socius, dedit hanc tassiam coopertam eidem Aulae. 1497. 

(May he be accursed, who shall have alienated. 
Thomas Langton, bishop of Winchester, formerly 
fellow of Penbroke Hall, gave this cup with cover 
to the same Hall 1497.) 

Another is also a cup of silver gilt weighing 20 
ounces. It was given to the college between 1497 
and 1502, by Richard Sokborn, LL.D., formerly fellow, 

F 2 



68 PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

and then vicar of Soham, a benefice in the patronage 
of the college. The date of this cup is uncertain. 
Its style declares it to be of the latter half of the 
15th century, and it has a much more modern ap- 
pearance than bishop Langton's. Yet for three cen- 
turies it has been universally supposed to have been 
the gift of the foundress herself. When first given 
to the college it was a mazer, or maple bowl, with 
its present metal rim. On the central boss within 
the bowl is the letter M, perhaps for the initial of 
the name of the blessed Virgin. The boss itself 
may have contained a poison stone or amulet. 

Around the rim is the following inscription in 
old English characters : 

Sayn Denes y* es me dere, 

For hes lof drenk and mak gud cher. 

And around the stem : 

God help at ned. 

On the stem are also the letters V. M. They 
are of later execution, and were probably engraved 
when the cup was given to the college, the proper 
name of which, as has been already stated, is Valence- 
Mary. 

In 1641 or 1642 the college sent all its plate 
to king Charles I., except its sacramental plate, the 
gift of the foundress, and these two cups, of which 
the latter was probably withheld, because it also, 
though erroneously, was thought to be her gift; the 
former, because of the curse denounced against the 
man who should make it away. Yet this saved not the 
cover of twenty-seven ounces. Bishop Andrews caused 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 69 

facsimiles to be made for the college, both of the 
sacramental plate given by the foundress, and of 
the cup supposed to have been given by her, but 
these were all sent to the king, together with a 
cup of forty ounces, given by queen Elizabeth to arch- 
bishop Grindal. 

Together with these cups may be mentioned a 
mitre of silver gilt, and a crozier of silver, with the 
crook gilt, which were specially prepared for the 
funeral of bishop Wren. The funeral was conducted 
in great state under the superintendance of his friend 
sir William Dugdale, Clarenceux ; (a) and these rich 



(a) Samuel Newton alderman of Cambridge gives the following account 
of the bishop's remarkable funeral : 

May 9 1667. On Thirsday in the afternoone about 6 of the clock was 
brought to Cambr. the body of Matthew Wrenne Lord Bishopp of Ely in 
a herse Coach hung round with his Escocheons, it being drawne with six 
horses a postillion riding on one of y e forehorses. when he was brought 
through Trumpington the Bell there tolled, when through little S*. Maryes 
the bell rang out there, when through St. Buttolphs ye bell there tolled^ 
& soe did at Bennett when he was brought through there, but St. Edwards 
Bell stirred not, Great S l . Maryes Bell rang out a great while. There came 
along with the herse Coach 4 other coaches in mourning, each coach having 
6 horses as I take it, & about halfe a dozen horsemen in mourning & about 
a dozen other parsons & gentlemen came along with the coach. 

From the time of the said Bishopps comeing in as before mencioned hee 
being carryed into the Schooles of this University and set in a little roorne 
there darkened and hung in all parts with black cloath (it being y e roome 
at the lower end as you goe into the lower schooles which is under the 
Regent House) the said Bishopp from that time till his funeral solemp- 
nization lay in state after this manner. The corps being in lead and 
in a large Coffin, was about 3 foot high from the ground, over the Corps 
or Herse to the ground lay a black velvett herse cloth which at the bottome 
(for about an inch wide) was edged round about with white sarcenet, over 
the midst of ye Herse was spread the coat of the King or Herald at Armes 
having the Kings Armes on crimson sattin richly embroidered with gold, 
at the head of the Hearse was standing the Bishopps Miter which was 
silver guilt the capp or inpart whereof was crimson sattin or silke, the Miter 
was plaine saving some little flower wrought on the middle on each side 



70 PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

insignia were then delivered to the college, as a 
memorial of the bishop's great attachment to it. 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS. The countess of 
Pembroke founded six fellowships and two scholar- 
ships, but as the charter allowed of twenty-four 
fellowships and six scholarships, she provided for 

thereof and on the topp of each side a little crosse of about an inch in 
length & breadth. On the one side of the top of the hearse lay along the 
Bishopps Crosier of silver, somewhat in likenesse to a Shepheards Crooke, 
of about an ell long and in thickness round about 2 inches and a halfe. 
the floore of the roome was covered either with black cloath or bayes 
or els was matted. On each side of the herse stood 3 wax tapers in 
Candlesticks and on each side of the herse attended 2 poor scholers in 
mourning gownes bare, viz* 2 on each side the head & 2 on each side 
the feete. all persons that came in to see stood bare there. All that 
desired might see, none denyed neither poor nor ritch Towne nor Country, 
and without anything to be given or taken. From hence 

On the 11 th May 1667, being Saturday, between 3 & 4 of ye Clock 
in the afternoone, the schoole Bell in Great S*. Marys therefore ringing 
out, was the Bishopp borne by 6 ordinary persons in course gownes for 
the solempnity of his funerall from the schooles to Pembroke Hall, it wa^s 
in this manner viz*. 

First went 2 old men in course mourning gownes with sticks in their 
hands suitable. 

After them followed 28 poor schollers (in order two & two) in mourning 
gownes for that service appointed whereof 7 were of Pembroke Hall, 
7 of Peterhouse, 7 of Jesus Colledge, & 7 of S*. Johns Colledge. 

After them followed the Bishopps Secretary and other his Officers 
& servants in mourning cloakes, to the number of betweene 20 & 30, 
in order 2 & 2. 

After them followed the King at Armes and a Herald at Armes, each of 
them being clad in mourning & having on their coates of armes (over 
their mourning) embroidered with gold, the one of them bearing in his 
hand the Bishopps Miter and the other of them carrying his Crosier. 

After them followed the Herse (covered with the said black velvet cloath 
or Pall edged with white sarsenet hung round with Esocheons) borne by 
6 poor men in gownes as aforesaid, on each side of the herse went 3 
Doctors of Divinity who took holde of the herse cloath. 

After them followed the close Mourners being the Bishopps sonnes and 
other his neare relacions to y e number of about 10, all covered over with 
mourning, noe hatts or capps on, onely black Cloath carelessly lyeing flatt 
on their heades & but little of their faces scene. These also went in order 
2 & 2. 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 71 

the increase of number by future benefactors. The 
number of fellowships has been raised to thirteen, 
exclusive of one founded by archbishop Grindal, 
which, because of its being appropriated, is under 
the provisions of the recent university act, to be 
converted into scholarships. 

The number and value of the scholarships have 
been largely augmented. 

On queen Elizabeth's visit to the university 1564, 
there were eighty-six members of this college. In 
1573, when Dr. Caius's History of the University 
was compiled, there were eighty-seven members. 
Fuller says, that in 1634 there were, (inclusive of 
the servants of the foundation,) one hundred. Eighty 
members of this college were assessed to a poll-tax 
in August, 1641. In 1672 the members (including 
officers and servants of the foundation) are stated to 

After them followed the Vice Chancellor & Doctors of Divinity Law 
& Physick in their orders 2 & 2, in their scarlet robes & hoodes. 

After them followed y e Bachelors in Divinity in their gownes & hoodes, 
haveing one or two Esq r . Beadles in ye head of them, to a great number 
2 & 2 in order. 

And lastly followed all the Masters of Arts in their habitts and hoodes 
in order 2 & 2. 

Thus in their orders they went to Pembroke Hall where y e Bishopp 
was laid in a vault in a stone Coffin under y e upper east end of ye new 
Chappell there, which he caused to be built and which Chappell he himself 
consecrated on S 4 . Matthewes-day Anno Domini 1665. Doctor John 
Pearson then Master of Trinity College in Cambridge made ye Bishopps 
funerall oration in y e Chappell of Pembroke Hall y* day of his funerall & 
burial being Saturday ye llth May 1667. 

All y e said Doctors &c. had each of them boxes of banquett to ye 
number of 500 & to y e value of about 5 s . a box. Cooper's Annals of Cam- 
bridge, III. 522524. 

Dr. (afterwards Bishop) Pearson's Oration is printed in " Parentalia or 
Memoirs of the Family of the Wrens," p. 39. 

Lloyd, speaks of the bishop's funeral as " the greatest solemnity seen in 
the memory of man." 



72 PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

be about one hundred. Mr. Carter in 1753 says, that 
the college then consisted of a master, fourteen fellows, 
and two bye-fellows, and that the total number of 
students was generally between fifty and sixty. 

PATRONAGE. There are ten livings in the pat- 
ronage of this college : Soham vicarage in Cambridge- 
shire ; Rawreth rectory in Essex ; Waresley vicarage 
and Overton Waterville rectory in Huntingdonshire ; 
Framlingham and Stoiiham Earl rectories in Suffolk ; 
Saxthorp and Tilney vicarages and Sail and Cawston 
rectories in Norfolk ; but certain descendants of 
Erasmus Earle, the donor, have a claim of preference 
as to the last two rectories. 




GATE OF HUMILITY. 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

THIS ancient college occupies a fine site immediately 
north of the Senate-House. The front towards the 
street has however but a mean appearance. Owing 1 to 
the superior fame of its second founder, or from 
the general repugnance to the use of long names, 
it is commonly called Caius College. 

THE FIRST FOUNDER. Edmund de Gonville was 
the fourth son of William de Gonville by Maud his 
wife, the heiress of the ancient family of Lerling. 
Having taken priests orders he was on 4th December, 
1320, instituted to the rectory of Thelvetham or 



74 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

Feltham in Suffolk. This benefice he resigned in 
1326, when he was presented by his brother sir 
Nicholas de Gronville to the rectory of Eushworth 
in Norfolk. In 1342 he founded the college of Rush- 
worth, dedicated to the honour of Almighty God, 
our Blessed Lady, S. John the Evangelist, and all 
the Saints, for a custos and five priests fellows. The 
same year he was instituted to the rectory of Ter- 
rington in Norfolk, on the presentation of Simon 
bishop of Ely. In 1348 he occurs as one of the 
vicars general of the diocese of Ely. He was suc- 
cessively steward to John earl Warren and Henry 
earl of Lancaster. He kept the rectory of Terrington 
till his death, which occurred in 1350 at that place, 
where he was buried. He was a great benefactor 
to the hospital of S. John Baptist at Lynn, and 
he induced the earls Warren and of Lancaster to 
establish the friars preachers at Thetford, in con- 
sequence of which he is often designated one of 
the founders of that house. 

THE SECOND FOUNDER. John Caius son of Eobert 
Caius of Norwich, and Alice [Wodanell] his wife, 
was born in that city 6th October, 1510. His school 
education was in the place of his nativity, and he 
became a student in Gronville hall 12th September, 
1529. He in the first instance appears to have turned 
his attention to divinity, as, before he was twenty- 
one years old, he translated from greek into latin 
two works on prayer, and from latin to english 
the paraphrase on S. Jude by Erasmus, of whose 
treatise de vere theologica he also made an epitome. 
His father died 153,2, and he took the degree of 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 75 

B.A. 1532-3. He was appointed principal of Physwick 

hostel 12th November, 1533, and elected a fellow 

of Gonville hall 6th December in the same year. 

He commenced M.A. 1535, and on 25th October in 

that year, with the master and other fellows of 

Gonville hall, subscribed the submission to the king's 

injunctions. He left England in 1539. He went 

to Padua, where he was greek professor 1541, being 

on 13th May in the same year created M.D. in that 

university. His great instructor in the medical art 

was John Baptist Montanus, a physician of established 

reputation, and Realdus Columbus was his colleague 

in the greek lecture. Whilst at Padua he lived 

for eight months in the same house with the famous 

Andreas Vesalius, with whom he studied anatomy. 

In 1543 he made an excursion throughout Italy, in 

order to become better acquainted with the manners 

of the inhabitants, and to consult the most famous 

libraries. In his liber de propriis suis are brief but 

interesting notices of the libraries at Venice, Florence, 

Urbino, Ferrara, Sienna, Bologna, Pisa, and Rome. 

His principal object seems to have been to collate 

the manuscripts of Galen and other ancient authors 

on medicine. At Pisa he heard the medical lectures 

of Matheus Curtius. He also visited France and 

Germany, and in the latter country made acquaintance 

with Melancthon, Joachim Camerarius, and Sebastian 

Munster. He returned to England in 1544, was 

admitted a fellow of the college of physicians 21st 

December, 1547, was an elect in 1550, and consiliarius 

the next year. After practising at Cambridge, he 

removed to Shrewsbury, where he was residing in 



76 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

1551 when the great sweating sickness broke out. 
He published a tract in english respecting that disease. 
This he afterwards improved and translated into latin. 
He subsequently practised his profession at Norwich, 
but ultimately removed to London, and was ap- 
pointed one of the physicians to Edward VI. He 
was also physician to queen Mary. He became 
president of the college of physicians 1555, and held 
the office till 1560. He had previously to his election, 
and during the reign of Henry VIII. at the request 
of that monarch, commenced the delivery of lectures 
on anatomy for the instruction of the surgeons of 
London, and he continued to lecture to them on 
that science for twenty years together, rightly judging 
that his doing so was by no means inconsistent 
with the dignity of his position as president of the 
college of physicians and medical adviser to the 
court. 

On 4th September, 1557, he obtained the letters 
patent of Philip and Mary, by which this college 
was refounded as Gronville and Caius College. He 
was incorporated M.D. in this university 1558, and 
on 24th January, 1558-9, was prevailed upon, though 
not without reluctance, to accept the office of master 
of the college then vacant by the death of Thomas 
Bacon, but whilst he held that position he declined to 
receive the stipend and emolument. Queen Elizabeth 
continued him in the office of royal physician, and 
he was again elected president of the college of phy- 
sicians 1562 and 1563. When the queen visited 
the university in August 1564, he, as ancient in 
the faculty, moved the questions in the physic act 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. / f 

held in her majesty's presence. In 1565, tliree of 
the fellows of Caius college, who had been expelled 
by the master for breach of the statutes, appealed 
to archbishop Parker, and from him the matter 
was referred to sir William Cecil, chancellor of the 
university. In their wrath they drew up articles 
wherein they charged Dr. Caius with atheism, and 
with shewing " a perverse stomach to the professors 
of the Gospel." It is said that in 1568 he was 
removed from the office of royal physician in 
consequence of his adherence to the roman catholic 
faith. 

Dr. Caius was elected president of the college 
of physicians for the ninth and last time in 1571. 
On all occasions he proved himself an able and 
zealous defender of the privileges of that society, 
and on a difference arising between the physicians 
and surgeons as to the right of the latter to give 
inward remedies in cases of sciatica, ulcers, wounds, 
and the like; he, as president of the physicians, 
appeared before the lord-mayor and others of the 
queen's delegates, and learnedly defended the right 
of the body over which he presided, in opposition 
to the bishop of London and the master of the rolls 
who espoused the cause of the surgeons. His argu- 
ments were deemed so conclusive by the commis- 
sioners that they unanimously decided in his favour. 
He was particularly diligent in his attendance at 
^the assemblies of the college of physicians, never 
being absent without obtaining a dispensation. He 
first introduced the cushion, silver verge, book and 
seal as the ensigns of the president's authority and 



78 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

preeminence. He did that society most essential service 
by compiling its annals from the foundation, and 
by obtaining a grant from the crown of the bodies 
of condemned criminals for dissection. 

He retained in his college certain books and vest- 
ments which had been used in the roman catholic 
service. This came to the knowledge of Dr. Sandys 
bishop of London, who wrote on the subject to 
Dr. Byng the vicechancellor of the university, whose 
proceedings appear in his report to lord Burghly 
the chancellor, dated 14th December, 1572 : "I am 
further to geve your honor advertisement of a greate 
oversight of D. Caius, who hath so long kept super- 
stitious monumentes in his college, that the evil 
fame thereof caused my lord of London to write very 
earnestly unto me to see them abolished. I could 
hardly have been persuadid that suche thinges by 
him had been reservid. But causing his owne com- 
pany to make serche in that college I received an 
inventary of muche popishe trumpery, as vestments, 
albes, tunicles, stoles, manicles, corporas clothes, with 
the pix, and sindon, and canopie, beside holy water 
stoppes, with sprinkles, pax, sensars, superaltaries, 
tables of idolles, masse bookes, portuises, and grailles, 
with other suche stuffe as might have furnished 
divers massers at one instant. It was thought good 
by the whole consent of the heades of houses, to 
burne the bookes and such other things as served 
most for idolatrous abuses, and to cause the rest to% 
be defacid ; whiche was accomplished yesterday with 
the willing hartes, as appeared, of the whole com- 
pany of that house." Dr. Caius's own account of 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 79 

this scandalous outbreak of fanaticism is subjoined: 
"An. 1572. 13 Decembr. Discerpta, dissecta, et 
lacerata prius, combusta sunt ornamenta Collegii 
hujus privata authoritate Tho. Bynge Procan. (ut ipse 
dicebat) nee aeque invisum erat illi quicquam, quam 
nomen et imago Christi Crucifixi, B. Marise et S. 
Trinitatis, nam has indignis modis tractavit disse- 
cando, et in ignem projiciendo, et abominandi titulis 
et epithetis prosequendo. Nee hoc factum est, nisi 
instigantibus quibusdam male affectis sociis, quorum 
alii rem procuraverunt convivio, alii, ne conserventur, 
aut noctu sustollantur, peryigiles extiterunt. Sed ex 
his alios Deus morte sustulit, alios aliis modis sub- 
duxit, non sine ignominia. Ut celarent tamen culpam 
suam, dissimularunt sedulo, et omnem culpam in 
Dimsdallum quendam Pensionarium Collegii nostri 
transtulerunt, cum tamen ipsi omnis male authores 
extiterunt. Ad hsec prsefuerunt foco, ut multum 
defatigati comburendo, ab hora 12 ad tertiam, 
idem Tho. Bynge, Joan. Whitgift Prsefectus Coll. 
Trin. et Gul. (Rog.) Goade Prsefectus Coll. Eegalis. 
Postremo, quse combuere nequiverunt, malleis con- 
tuderunt et violarunt et tantus erat illis fervor in 
Religionem, ut nee beneficia personarum, nee gratia 
in Academiam, aedificio et aeditis libris suadere potuit 
moderationem." 

Dr. Caius resigned the mastership of this college 
in favour of Thomas Legge, M.A., 27th June, 1573. 
In anticipation of his death he caused his grave to 
be made in the college chapel, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th 
July. He died at London the 29th of that month. 
It is related that in his last sickness his sole diet 



80 OONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

was woman's milk, and that whilst he lived upon 
the milk of an angry fretful woman, he was himself 
angry and fretful : being advised to take it of a 
good natured patient woman, be became so beyond 
the common temper of his age. 

His will bears date 14th June, 1573. Therein 
he is described as doctor in physic of the parish of 
S. Bartholomew the less, next unto Smithfield, 
London. He commends his soul to God, and desires 
that his body might be buried in the chapel within 
this college, under the tabernacle wherein the image 
of our lady sometime did stand in a tomb there to 
be made of alabaster. He gave to the college all 
his books, new and old, wherein these words were 
written: " Joannes Caius Collegio suo dono dedit," 
and he willed that all the said books should be 
bound with chains to the desk of the library there 
for the common use of students. He also gave and 
bequeathed unto the college all his armour and all 
his plate, and also all money remaining after finishing 
his buildings and defraying the charge of his burial 
and tomb, and discharging his legacies, to the intent 
to purchase lands, the rents whereof were to be yearly 
disbursed for the expences and charges of the fire 
in the college kitchen for the necessary dressing of 
meat at lawful times within the said kitchen. He 
also directed that money should be expended about 
the cleaning and mending of Mr. Lynacre's tomb in 
Paul's church, in London. He gave and bequeathed 
to his fellow-townsman archbishop Parker, all his 
books which had not been printed, and all those 
which had been printed and augmented, upon 




A.EfiJS 

FROM THE STREET. 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 81 

condition that it might please his grace to cause 
them to be printed, as his trust was wholly in him 
that he would so do, in a fair letter and form 
altogether in one volume, and twelve of them to be 
given to his college, there to be kept as the other 
books were, and to be successively tied with chains 
in the library of the same college. He nominated 
and ordained his trusty and well-beloved friend 
Thomas Legge of Jesus college to be master of 
this college after his death, by authority of a grant 
from the college 1st September, 1572, empowering 
him to name his successor. He gave and bequeathed 
to his college his carpet of tapestry and his counter- 
point or covering of tapestry to lay upon the desks 
in the chapel at solemn feasts, and also all his 
cushions of carpetwork and of needlework, and all 
his seelers and testers of silk to be occupied in the 
chapel as occasion should serve from time to time. 
He directed that Mr. Hownd, one of the fellows of 
the college, should make a sermon at his burial and 
have for his pains 20s. He desired archbishop Parker 
to be surveyor of his will, and gave him his ring 
with a diamond, having no better thing to present 
his grace withal ; and he willed that the archbishop 
during his life should have power and authority to 
see the statutes of his college observed and to 
expound ambiguities or doubts. He gave to lord 
chief-justice Catlyn, " one ringe with a corse in a 
sheete made upon it;" to lord chief-justice Dyer, 
"one ringe with T. W. upon the same;" to justice 
Wray " a ringe with deathe's head;" to the attorney- 
general his hoop of gold, and to the solicitor-general 
VOL. i. G 



82 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

his ring with a turquoise. He gave to the poor of 
S. Bartholomew's hospital in Smithfield 20s., and 
freely forgave his college all the money owing from 
them to him. He willed that there should be main- 
tained a lusty and healthy, honest, true and un- 
married man of forty years of age and upwards, 
to keep clean and sweep the pavements and gutters 
without the gates and within his college, and to 
safely lock and attend to the gates, to open and 
shut them at lawful and due times, and to light 
the lanterns in winter in places appointed in the 
college, and he to have for his stipend 40$. a year, 
with his chamber free, and once in the year a gown 
of rug with his arms in a scutcheon to be set thereon 
as his almsman. He bequeathed to lady Catlyn 
" a kercher of callico cloth, fringed," and made the 
like bequest to lady Allington. It appears from the 
accounts of his executors, that after payment of 
legacies, funeral and other expences, and the in- 
vestment of 240. in the purchase of lands at 
Caxton for the use of the college, there remained 
104. 2s. 3Jd which was duly paid to the master 
and fellows. 

His body was, on the Tuesday after his death, 
removed from London in order to its sepulture in 
the college chapel pursuant to his testamentary 
directions. It was met at Trumpington ford by the 
master and fellows of his college, and the vice- 
chancellor, doctors, and others of the university, by 
whom it was conducted into the town in honourable 
procession. On the following day, after a sermon 
in the university church, his remains were consigned 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 



83 




MONUMENT OF DR. CAIUS. 



to the tomb, and the solemnities were concluded 
with a moderate feast in the college hall, to which 
the vicechancellor, heads of colleges and others were 
invited. 

His monument in the college chapel was originally 
on the ground at the east end of the north wall, 
surrounded with iron rails over a vaulted crypt 
wherein the body lay. In 1637, the chapel being 
enlarged eastwardly, his monument was removed. 
It was placed against the northern wall above the 
seats, the material and form being preserved as 
nearly as possible. It is a large alabaster sarcophagus 

G2 



84 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

under a canopy, supported by Corinthian columns. 
The epitaph is as follows: 

Vivit post fun era virtus. 

Fui Caius. 
^Etatis suse LXIII. Obiit xxix. Julii, A.D. 1573. 

He was eminent as a classical scholar, a physician, 
an anatomist, a naturalist, and an antiquary. Gesner 
speaks of him as a man of consummate erudition, 
fidelity and diligence ; and, in an epistle to queen 
Elizabeth, terms him the most learned man of his 
age. Of his numerous works it may suffice to 
specify, besides those already mentioned, De Anti- 
quitate Cantabrigiensis Academise; Historia Academise 
Cantabrigiensis ab urbe condita; and De Canibus 
Britannicis Libellus. 

THE FIEST FOUNDATION. The letters patent em- 
powering Edmund de Gonville to found a college 
in the University are dated 28th January, 22 Edw. 
III. [1347-8]. The site was three messuages and 
a garden in the street, called Lurteburgh lane (now 
known as Freeschool lane). These letters patent 
are expressly stated to have been granted at the 
request of the famous sir Walter de Manny. The 
house was dedicated to the honour of the Annuncia- 
tion of Blessed Mary the Virgin. The founder died 
before it was completed, but entrusted the care of 
the infant establishment to William Bateman, bishop 
of Norwich, the munificent prelate who founded 
Trinity hall. 

In 1353 the college was removed from Lurteburgh 
lane to a capital messuage opposite Michaelhouse, 
formerly the residence of sir John de Cauntebrigg, 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 85 

knight, with other tenements, shops, gardens, and ap- 
purtenances adjoining, theretofore belonging to John 
Goldcorne. The new site was conveyed by Henry 
duke of Lancaster, alderman of the gild of Corpus 
Christi and Blessed Mary, with the consent of 
the college and brethren of the said gild in ex- 
change for the old site, which was soon afterwards 
thrown into and now forms part of Corpus Christi 
college. 

Bishop Bateman fully carried out Gonville's 
designs. He gave a code of statutes, and appropriated 
to the college the rectories of Foulden and Wilton 
in Norfolk, and of Mutford in Suffolk. To him are 
therefore assigned the honours of a co-founder. 

By the survey of this college, made by doctors 
Parker, Redman, and Mey, in February, 1545-6, 
it appears that the society then consisted of a master, 
eleven fellows, and four scholars. The master's stipend 
was 5. 6s. 8d.] the two senior fellows had each 
stipends of 9. 12s. 80?.; seven other fellows had 
stipends of 5. 6s. 8d. each; one a stipend of 5. 5s. 8d.] 
and the third fellow's stipend was but 4. The 
master and fellows had also small allowances for 
livery and in augmentation of their diet. Two of 
the scholars had stipends of 40s. each, and the other 
two of half that amount. The college estates were 
situate in Cambridge, Teversham, Stow cum Quy, 
Cherryhinton, and Chesterton in Cambridgeshire ; 
Wilton, Foulden, Great Mattishall, Titchwell, Thorn- 
ham and Totington in Norfolk; the city of Norwich; 
Mutford, Worlingham and Barningham in Suffolk; 
and Westoning in Bedfordshire. The clear annual 



86 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

value was 119. 19s. 5Je?., and the annual expences 
exceeded the revenues by 35. 7s. 4Jd. (a) 

THE SECOND FOUNDATION. On 4th September, 
1557, Philip and Mary granted authority to Dr. Caius 
to re-found the college, which he accordingly did on 
the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, 1558. By the charter the society was to 
consist of a master and twelve fellows. Ten of the 
latter are named in the charter. Dr. Caius was 
empowered to nominate the other two fellows, as 
also twelve scholars. He was also authorised to 
frame statutes and to grant lands not exceeding a 
specified value, and was declared a co-founder with 
Edmund de Gonville and bishop Bateman. 

He soon afterwards considerably enlarged the site 
of the college (6) and erected new buildings. He also 
endowed the college with the manors of Croxley in 

(a) The master and fellows paid yearly to the king in right of the 
dissolved priory of Anglesey a rent of five shillings for the site of the 
college. 

(6) In 1564 he purchased from Trinity college (under a special licence 
from the crown) four tenements in the parish of S. Michael, called Ansells, 
Houghtons, Talbots, and Smyths, alias the King's Arms. These premises 
are described as situate over against the church and church-yard of 
S. Michael, between Michael lane on the north and the tenements of 
Robert Lane on the south, and abutting upon High street east, and 
upon the orchard and garden of Gonville and Caius college west. In 
1565 he purchased of Robert Lane, one of the aldermen of the town 
of Cambridge, parcel of an orchard pertaining to his messuage or inn, 
commonly called the Lamb, otherwise the Stone house, in the parish 
of S. Michael. This piece of ground had formerly belonged to the priory 
of Anglesey, and afterwards to William Allynson, alderman of Lincoln, 
of whom alderman Lane purchased the same. In March, 1566-7, the 
master and fellows of Corpus Christi college conveyed to Dr. Caius a 
piece of ground belonging to S. Mary's hostel, and parcel of the orchard 
of that house. We believe that this latter piece of ground is part of 
the east side of Caius court, and that the buildings of Drs. Legge and 
Perse stand upon the property purchased of Trinity college. 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 87 

Hertfordshire ; the manors of Runctoii and Holme 
in Norfolk; the advowsons of Runcton, Holme, and 
Wallington in that county; also the manor of 
Bincombe with the advowson, and the manor of 
Wooburn in Dorsetshire. He gave money, plate and 
goods, and framed an elaborate code of statutes for 
the government of the society. 

His testamentary donations we have already 
noticed. 

BENEFACTORS. Five of the senior fellowships were 
founded by Stephen Smith, rector of Blonorton in 
Norfolk ; Mrs. Elizabeth Clere ; lady Ann Scroope ; 
Thomas Willows of Cambridge; and Dr. John Bayly. 
The junior fellowships were founded by Thomas 
Wendy, M.D., fellow, physician to Henry VIII., 
Edward VI., Philip and Mary, and Elizabeth; 
Mrs. Joyce Frankland, and William Saxey her son ; 
Matthew Stokys, fellow; Stephen Perse, M.D., fellow; 
Bartholomew Wortley, sometime fellow and rector 
of Bratton Fleming in Dorsetshire; and Samuel 
Colby Smith, sometime senior fellow and rector of 
Denver. 

Thomas Willows, Mrs. Frankland, Matthew Stokys, 
and Dr. Perse, also founded scholarships. Other 
scholarships were founded by William Gale of Eye 
in Suffolk ; William Sigo, sometime a member of the 
college; Thomas Atkin and Margaret Hore; Peter 
Hewet; Mrs. Joan Trappes; Humphrey Busby, LL.D.; 
archbishop Parker; Richard Willison, sometime 
fellow; William Cutting; Henry Harvey, LL.D., master 
of Trinity hall; Dr. Branthwaite, master; John 
Gostlin, M.D., master; John Cosin, bishop of Durham, 



88 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 



sometime fellow; Owen Stockton, sometime senior 
fellow; Dr. John Gostlin, president; John Mickle- 
burgh, professor of chemistry; and John Sayer, esq., 
M.A., fellow. 

Amongst the benefactors to the buildings we may 
enumerate William de Rougham, M.D., the second 
master; Thomas Atwood, the sixth master; Dr. 
Thomas Legge, master; Dr. Stephen Perse; sir 
William Paston; William Barker, fellow; Bartholomew 
Wortley ; John Drew Borton, sometime president and 
rector of Blofield ; Richard Lucas, sometime president, 
rector of Oxburgh and vicar of Foulden; Benedict 
Chapman, D.D., master; and Jeremy Day, sometime 
senior fellow and rector of Hethersett. 

The principal benefactors to the library were 
Dr. John Beverly; Dr. Legge, master; Dr. Branth- 
waite, master; William Moore, senior fellow and 
keeper of the university library ; Dr. Bagg, senior 
fellow; John Felton, senior fellow; Mr. Knight, 
serjeant surgeon to Charles II. ; Robert Sheringham, 
fellow; Dr. Richard Watson, sometime fellow; Thomas 
Thruston, M.D.; Joseph Loveland, senior fellow ; Owen 
Stockton, fellow; Samuel Fairclough, fellow; Robert 
Brady, M.D., master ; James Halman, master ; William 
Lyng, fellow and rector of Hockwold; John 
Goddard, senior fellow; and sir James Burrough, 
master. 

The benefactors of advowsons were sir Ralph 
Hemenhale; sir Robert Thorp, lord chancellor of 
England; sir Christopher Heydon and dame Tem- 
perance his wife; Mr. Gascoigne Canham, William 
Blanks, John Robinson, and Dr. Edward Gelsthorp, 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 89 

all senior fellows ; Dr. Robert Brady, master ; 
Stephen Camborn, rector of Lawshal in Suffolk ; 
Francis Jenny, sometime fellow and rector of Denver ; 
Dr. John Gostlin, president; John Case, senior 
fellow ; and Mr. Bartholomew Wortley. 

Other benefactors were William Fisshewik, esquire 
bedel ; Richard Powle, rector of Foulden ; Henry 
Carter, sometime fellow; Dr.. Geoffry Knight; Re- 
ginald Elie of Cambridge, freemason ; John Whitacres ; 
Nicholas Mynn of Little Walsingham ; John Lyon, 
founder of Harrow school ; Dr. Wells, senior fellow ; 
Edmund Alban, sometime fellow ; Dr. Thomas Batch- 
croft, master; Francis Hobman, rector of Weeting; 
Dr. Ralph Barker, sometime senior fellow; William 
Peters, sometime fellow and rector of Weeting ; John 
Lightwin, president; Dr. Moss, dean of Ely; James 
Husbands, LL.D., sometime president ; Robert Simpson, 
esquire bedel, sometime fellow; sir Thomas Gooch, 
bishop of Ely, master; Christopher Tancred, esq.; 
Robert Schuldham, LL.D.; Dr. Yong; Dr. Berney; 
Nathanael Saltier, sometime fellow and rector of 
Ashdon; John Smith, D.D., master; Richard Belward, 
D.D., master; Mrs. Margaret Blowers, his sister; 
Martin Davy, D.D., master; and Benedict Chapman, 
D.D., master. 

The foundation feast is on Lady-Day ; Dr. Caius's 
commemorations are 29th July and 6th October; 
Mr. Mickleburgh is commemorated on 1st February ; 
Dr. Branthwaite 14th February; Mr. Wortley 23rd 
February; Dr. Wendy llth May; Mr. Stokys 12th 
June; Dr. Gostlin 21st October; bishop Cosin 2nd 
December; and Dr. Perse 14th December. 



90 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

EMINENT MEN. John Colton, master, archbishop 
of Armagh, died 1404. Stephen le Scroope, LL.D., 
archdeacon of Richmond and chancellor of the uni- 
versity, died 1414. John Rickingale, master, bishop 
of Chichester, died 1429. William Lynwode, bishop 
of S. Davids, died 1446. Sir William Butts, (a) M.D., 
fellow, physician to Henry VIII., died 1545. William 
Rugg, alias Reppes, (fl) bishop of Norwich, died 1550. 
John Skip, (a) master, bishop of Hereford, died 1552. 
Nicholas Shaxton, (a) fellow, bishop of Salisbury, died 

1556. Sir Nicholas Hare, (a) master of the rolls, died 

1557. Laurence Moptyd, (o) fellow, master of Corpus 
Christi college, died 1557. Thomas Wendy, (a) M.D., 
fellow, physician to Edward VI., Philip and Mary, and 
Elizabeth, died 1560. Edward Crome, (a) D.D., fellow, 
one of the early reformers of the church, died 1562. 
John Caius, (a) M.D., the second founder, died 1573. 
Richard Taverner, (a) author of a translation of the 
Bible, Postils upon the Epistles and Gospels, and 
of other works, noted also as a musical composer 
and as a preacher, died 1575. Sir William Drury, w 
commander of the english forces at the siege of the 
castle of Edinburgh, and afterwards president of 
Munster, died 1579. Sir Thomas Gresham, (a) the 
royal merchant, founder of the Royal Exchange and 
Greshain college, died 1579. Robert Norton, (a) D.D., 
translator of Gualter's Homilies on Abdias and Jonas, 
flourished 1585. William Barret, fellow, a noted 
arminian divine, died 1597. Edmund Hound, fellow, 
master of Catherine hall, died 1598. George Estye, 

(a) These are noticed in Athense Cantabrigienaes, by C. H. and 
Thompson Cooper, Vol. I. 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 91 

fellow, author of an Exposition on the Creed and 
the Ten Commandments, died 1601. Robert alias 
Gregory Sayer, an able roman catholic writer, died 
1602. Thomas Legge, LL.D., master, author of two 
latin tragedies, died 1607. John Day, dramatist, 
nourished 1607. Sir Richard Swale, LL.D., fellow, 
master in chancery, and a distinguished civilian, died 
1608. Robert Hare, an able antiquary, who collected 
all the records relating to the two universities, died 
1611; Stephen Perse, M.D., fellow, the munificent 
founder of the free grammar school in Cambridge, 
died 1615. John White, D.D., vicar of Eccles, author 
of the Way to the True Church and other theological 
works, died 1615. Edward Wright, fellow, a dis- 
tinguished mathematician and engineer, and author 
of publications on navigation, died 1615. William 
Branthwaite, D.D., master, one of the translators of 
the Bible, died 1618-19. Sir Christopher Heydon, 
author of A Defence of Judicial Astrology, died 1623. 
Richard Parker, fellow, author of Skeletos Canta- 
brigiensis, died about 1624. John Gostlin, M.D., 
master, a general scholar, eloquent latinist, and rare 
physician, died 1626. Jan Gruter, professor at 
Heidelberg, renowned for great critical and classical 
erudition, and author of numerous able works, died 
1627. John Pory, a learned traveller and geographer, 
died about 1635. Henry Caesar, D.D., dean of 
Ely, died 1636. Francis White, bishop of Ely, 
died 1637-8. George Philips, minister of Watertown, 
New England, author of a Vindication of Infant 
Baptism and other works, died 1644. William Watts, 
D.D., editor of Matthew Paris, died 1649. John 



92 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

Crane, an apothecary of repute, and a generous 
benefactor to the town and university of Cambridge, 
died 1652. William Harvey, M.D., the illustrious 
discoverer of the circulation of the blood, died 
1657. William Moore, fellow, the able and ener- 
getic keeper of the university library, distinguished 
also for his piety, died 1659. Sir William le Neve 
Clarenceux king at arms, died 1661. William Dell, 
master, author of several theological publications of 
a peculiar character, (a) died about 1664. Sir Francis 
Prujean, M.D., a distinguished London physician, died 
1666. Jeremy Taylor, bishop of Down, Connor and 
Dromore, died 1667. John Cosin, fellow, bishop of 
Durham, died 1671-2. (J) Robert Sheringham, fellow, 
author of De Anglorum gentis disceptatio, and a 
translation of and commentary upon the Talmu.dical 
book of Jonah, died 1677. William Lucy, bishop 
of S. Davids, died 1677. Francis Glisson, M.D., a 
famous physician and anatomist, and author of able 
professional works, died 1677. Malachi Thruston, 
M.D., author of Diatribse de Respiratione usu Primario, 
flourished 1679. Owen Stockton, fellow, a pious 
nonconformist, author of various works printed and 
in MS., died 1680. Richard Watson, D.D., fellow, 
celebrated as a latin poet, and author of numerous 
controversial works, died 1684. George lord Jeffreys, 
lord high chancellor, but infamous for his arbitrary 
and cruel character, died 1689. John Goodman, D.D., 
archdeacon of Middlesex, author of sermons and other 
theological works, died 1690. David Jenner, pre- 

(a) His select works were republished, London, 8vo. 1773. 
(6) His works, 5 vols. 8vo. were published at Oxford, 1843-55. 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 93 

bendary of Salisbury, author of the Prerogative of 
Primogeniture and other works, died 1691. Samuel 
Fairclough, fellow, a nonconformist of high character, 
and an admirable preacher, died 1691. Thomas 
Shadwell, a dramatist of celebrity, died 1692. Francis 
Marsh, fellow, archbishop of Dublin, died 1693. Sir 
Charles Scarborough, M.D., fellow, physician to Charles 
II., James II., and William III., distinguished also as 
an anatomist and mathematician, died 1693. Henry 
Wharton, fellow, editor of Anglia Sacra, and author 
of theological and historical works of merit, died 
1694-5. Anthony Horneck, D.D., canon of West- 
minster, and author of sermons and works on con- 
troversial and practical divinity, died 1696. Henry 
Jenks, fellow, author of The Christian Tutor and 
other works, died 1697. Robert Brady, M.D., master, 
a learned writer on the history and constitution of 
England, died 1700. Titus Gates, ((l) the impudent 
concoctor of the Popish Plot, died 1705. James 
Drake, M.D., celebrated as a political writer, a phy- 
sician, and an anatomist, died 1706-7. Edmund 
Hickeringill, a very eccentric divine, died 1708. 
John Hartstongue, fellow, bishop of Derry, died 
1716-7. Sir Henry Chauncy, serjeant-at-law, author 
of the History of Hertfordshire, died 1719. Joshua 
Basset, fellow, master of Sidney college, (who turned 
Roman Catholic in the reign of James II.) died 
about 1720. John Prince, author of the Worthies 
of Devon, died 1723. Jeremy Collier, a bishop 

(a) He was admitted of this college 29th January, 1667-8. The tradition 
is that he was expelled. Certain it is that he removed to S. John's. His 
admission a9 a subsizar of that house took place 2nd February, 1668-9. 



94 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

amongst the nonjurors, a man of great attain- 
ments, now best known by his General Historical 
Dictionary and History of the Church, died 1726. 
Richard Welton, D.D., also a nonjuror and author of 
sermons and other works, died 1726. Samuel Clarke, 
D.D., fellow, rector of S. James's, Westminster, famous 
as a critic, a metaphysician, a mathematician, and 
a divine, died 1729. Thornhaugh Gurdon, author 
of the History of Parliament, 1731. John Dennis, 
the noted critic, died 1733. Brampton Gurdon, fellow, 
author of sermons and of The Christian Religion 
supported by the prophecies of the Old Testament, 
died 1741. Christopher Green, M.D., fellow, Regius 
Professor of Physic, died 1741. Sir Benjamin Wrench, 
M.D., fellow, a distinguished physician at Norwich, 
died 1741. Francis Blomfield, author of the History 
of Norfolk, died 1751-2. Sir Thomas Gooch, master, 
bishop of Ely, died 1754. Samuel Shuckford, canon 
of Canterbury, author of the Connection of Sacred and 
Profane History, sermons, &c., died 1754. William 
Wasey, M.D., president of the college of physicians, 
died 1757. William Webster, D.D., translator of 
Simons' New Testament, with notes, and author of 
various works, died 1758. John Clarke, D.D., dean 
of Salisbury, editor of Grotius de veritate, and author 
of learned works, died 1759. Roger Kedington, D.D., 
author of critical disquisitions on the Iliad, died 
1760. Sir James Burrough, LL.D., master, an architect 
of no mean talent, died 1764. Thomas Broughton, 
prebendary of Salisbury, one of the leading con- 
tributors to the Biographia Britannica, and author 
of many able works, died 1774. John Norris, founder 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 95 

of the Norrisian professorship of divinity, died 1777. 
Edmund Keene, fellow, bishop of Ely, died 1787. 
John Glen King, D.D., author of a work on the rites 
and ceremonies of the Greek church in Russia, an 
able preacher and an antiquary of repute, died 1787. 
Sir William Watson, M.D., a distinguished physician, 
botanist, and electrician, died 1787. Sir John Fenn, 
fellow, editor of the Paston letters, died 1794. Charles 
Davy, rector of Onehouse, Suffolk, author of Letters 
upon subjects of Literature, and Cursory Observations 
on the origin and progress of alphabetic writing, 
died 1797. John Warren, bishop of Bangor, died 
1800. Charles Moss, fellow, bishop of Bath and Wells, 
died 1802. Edward lord Thurlow, lord high chan- 
cellor, died 1806. Charles Coates, author of the 
History of Reading, and other works, died 1813. 
William Clubbe, vicar of Brandeston, Suffolk, an 
ingenious writer, died 1814. Edward Valentine 
Blomefield, a classical scholar of extraordinary promise, 
died 1816. Charles Burney, D.D., renowned for his 
success in tuition and his acquaintance with Greek 
literature, died 1817. Samuel Vince, archdeacon of 
Bedford, a mathematician and astronomer of repute, 
died 1821. Robert Forby, fellow, author of The 
Vocabulary of East Anglia, died 1825. John Lang 
Girdlestone, fellow, translator of the Odes of Pindar, 
and author of other works, died 1825. Robert 
Woodhouse, fellow, Plumian professor of Astronomy, 
author of the Principles of Analytical Calculation and 
other esteemed mathematical works, died 1827. 
William Hyde Wollaston, M.D., fellow, famous for 
his great discoveries in chemistry and the successful 



96 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

pursuit of other branches of science, died 1828. 
William Ward, bishop of Sodor and Man, died 1838. 
William Wilkins, fellow, B.A., an able and learned 
architect and architectural writer, died 1839. Thomas 
Manning, a very extraordinary linguist and able 
mathematician, died 1840. Edward Jacob, fellow, 
a distinguished practitioner in the equity courts, and 
author of Chancery Reports, died 1841. George Green, 
fellow, author of several mathematical papers of high 
excellence, died 1841. William Gunn, translator of 
Nennius, and author of works on gothic architecture, 
and the Vatican tapestries, died 1841. Robert 
Murphy, fellow, author of a Treatise on electricity, 
died 1843. John Hookham Frere, fellow, am- 
bassador to Portugal, Spain, and Prussia, an ad- 
mirable scholar, and a person of great and varied 
talents, died 1846. Robert Batty, an admirable 
artist who published several beautiful volumes il- 
lustrative of foreign scenery, died 1848. William 
French, D.D., master of Jesus college, and one of the 
authors of new translations of the Psalms and Proverbs, 
died 1849. Richard Godson, author of an esteemed 
treatise on the law of Patents, died 1849. William 
Kirby, renowned as an entomologist, died 1850. 
Henry Bickersteth lord Langdale, fellow, master of 
the rolls, died 1851. George Leith Roupell, M.D., 
author of several medical works, died 1854. Matthew 
O'Brien, fellow, mathematical professor at Woolwich, 
and author of mathematical treatises, died 1855. 
Richard Jones, professor of political economy at 
Haileybury, and author of a treatise on Rent, died 
1855. John Ayrton Paris, M.D., president of the 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 97 

college of physicians, and author of professional and 
other works, died 1856. Jacob Mountain, bishop of 
Quebec, died 1825. Sir Edward Hall Alderson, (a) 
fellow, baron of the exchequer, died 1857. Sir James 
Fellowes, M.D., fellow, medical inspector general in 
the army, and author of a work on Fevers, died 
1857. 

This is preeminently the medical college. Want 
of space will not however permit us to enumerate 
more than a few of the eminent physicians who have 
here been educated. Fuller enumerates no less than 
twenty-seven doctors of physic all bred in this house 
and extant in his memory. Medical biography has 
hardly received due attention, and the fame of 
physicians is but too often merely ephemeral. We 
therefore subjoin Fuller's list : 

1 Stephen Perse. 15 Richard London. 

2 William Rant, sen. 16 Henry Glisson. 

3 William Harvey. 17 Robert Eade. 

4 Thomas Grimston. 18 Joseph Dey. 

5 John Gostlin. 19 Thomas Buckenham. 

6 Robert Wells. 20 William Ringall. 

7 Oliver Green. 21 Charles Scarborough. 

8 Nicholas Brown. 22 Thomas [William?] Prujean. 

9 Joseph Micklewaite. 23 Robert Waller. 

10 Francis Prujean. 24 Abner Coo. 

11 William Rant, jun. 25 William French. 

12 Edmund Smith. 26 Christopher Ludkin. 

13 Richard Curtis. 27 William Bagge. 

14 Francis Glisson. 

(a) A selection from his charges with a memoir by Rev. Charles 
Alderson, M.A., fellow of All Souls' college, Oxford, London, 8vo. 1858. 

VOL. I. H 



98 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

BUILDINGS. It would seem that the original en- 
trance to Gonville hall was opposite Michaelhouse, 
in the lane or street called S. Michael's lane. Within 
the memory of man that lane or street was known 
by a very expressive name, which was however so 
vulgar that we forbear to repeat it. As an illustra- 
tion of its former filthy state we may mention that 
on the 13th of June, 1393, king Richard II. issued 
letters empowering the chancellor of the university 
to reform certain noxious open gutters made by the 
masters of Michaelhouse and Gonville hall, which 
ran from those colleges to a certain high street, 
through which many masters and scholars had access 
to the schools of the university. His majesty states 
that these gutters sent forth such an abominable 
stench that the air was corrupted, and many masters, 
scholars, and others, passing through that street fell 
sick thereof. 

Gonville hall suffered from a fire in 1497, but 
we have no certain knowledge as to the extent of 
the injury. 

We have now no remains of Gonville hall of 
sufficient importance to enable us to form any 
notion of the character of the original edifice. It 
occupied what is now the inner court of the college. 
In the last century it was new faced with stone in 
the italian style. Its appearance previously to this 
period is shewn in Loggan's view. This part of 
the college is still known as Gonville court. 

The work of the second founder Caius remains 
nearly intact. He erected the court which is adjacent 
to the Senate-House, and which is known as Caius 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 



99 




GATE OF VIRTUE. 



court. The gate on the eastern side of this court, 
called the Gate of Virtue and Wisdom, was erected 
in 1565. The architect is said to have been John 
of Padua ; though there is some reason for believing 
that Theodore Haveus of Cleves was partly con- 
cerned in it. It is a curious specimen of italianised 
gothic. 

The Annales Collegii give the following curious 
table of the expenses of Dr. Caius' buildings : 

A table summarie of all the expences of our founder's, Mr. 
Doctor Caius, buyldinge from the feste of Ester, 1564, untill 
the nativitie of St. John Baptist, 1573. 



Imprimis, for trees bought of Sir Henrie 
Cromwell out of Warboys and Ramsey 
Woods in number 510 . 



. s. d. 

66 8 
H2 



100 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

. s. d. 

Item, for hewing, marking, felling, lopping 

squaring, drawing, and carriage by land 

and water from thens to Cambridge . 46 4 8 

Item, Rothesey and his men for their worke 

by daye from Midsomer 1566 untill Mid- 

somer 1573 123 6 3 

Item, for boardes bought and brought into 

the colledge 29 15 10 

Item, for staying tymber hurdles, lathes, 

lyne, cordes, and nayles . . . 31 16 6 

Item, for Ramsey stone, free and ragge, 

culling, and carriage by land and water 254 19 8 
Item, for freestone from Kynge's Clyffe and 

Walden, digging, and carriage parte by 

lande, parte by water .... 101 19 2 
Item, for whyte stone from Haslingfeld and 

Barrington, digging and carriage . . 92 3 5 
Item, for stone from Barnewell, digging and 

carriage . . . ''V . . . 652 

Item, for lyme from Reche Hinton and 

otherwhere . . . . . . 54 10 1 

Item, for sande and claye, by Barnes, 

Thomson, and others . . io. oi:. D 11 6 6 
Item, for iron worke for windowes, dores, &c. 24 8 10 
Item, for leade, and to the plomer for casting 

and laying it . . . . . . 46 15 7 

Item, to free masons from Michaelmas 1564 

untill Midsomer 1573 .<.>' . . 33711 7 
Item, to the carver . . . . . 7 4 11 

Item, to roughe masons . . . . 97 8 2 
Item, to laborers ..... 219 8 5 
Item, to slatters for slatte, tyle, and the 

workmanshippe 161 8 6 

The hole some of all their expences ordinarie 

and extraordinarie . . . . . 1834 4 2 

Besyde the expence omytted by neglygence, and expences also 
yet to come for the perfection of the buyldynge of the college 
and pavynge of the courts of the same. 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 



101 




VIEW THROUGH THE GATE OF VIRTUE. 



In this document the distinction between free 
masons and roughe masons and laborers will not 
escape the notice of the antiquary. 

The Gate of Honour was erected in 1574, 
after the exact model and pattern which Dr. Caius 
had in his lifetime dictated to the architect. It has 
two stories of the italianised Doric and Corinthian 



102 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

orders, whilst the arch of the doorway is of the 
debased Tudor style with classic mouldings. The 
whole is surmounted by a solid cupola, which 
though of the same date is of an earlier character. 
The progress of decay is only too evident in all its 
parts. 

In the centre of this court was a pillar, having 
sixty dials placed upon it, framed by Theodore 
Haveus, and adorned with the arms of those gentle- 
men who were at that time resident in the college. 
This he gave to the college as a memorial of his 
good wishes. It has been long removed, but appears 
to be represented in Loggan's view of the college. 
In that view are also seen two towers which 
have been since removed. One was in the rear of 
the Master's lodge. The other, which was sur- 
mounted with a cupola, was on the southern side 
of the chapel. 

The buildings next Trinity street were erected from 
the benefactions of Drs. Legge and Perse, 1618 and 
1619. They are very poor specimens of the archi- 
tecture of that period. 

The Gate of Humility was built by Dr. Caius 
in 1565. 

Recently some old houses, which were for many 
years occupied by townsmen, have been added to the 
site of the college, and adapted for the residence of 
students. 

A building fund has been formed, and probably 
but a few years will elapse before that portion of 
the college which abuts on Senate-house hill and 
Trinity street will be re-erected. 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 103 

THE CHAPEL. A licence to the master and fellows 
of Gonville hall to celebrate divine service in a decent 
and honest chapel or oratory within their college by 
fit chaplains in their absence or presence, was granted 
by John Fordham, bishop of Ely, 22nd November, 
1389. This licence was for three years only, and 
contained a proviso that nothing should be done to 
the prejudice of the church of the parish, or in op- 
position to the canons. Previously to the grant of 
this licence, the college used part of the church of 
S. Michael for the performance of divine service. 
Pope Boniface IX. on the ides of November, in the 
5th year of his pontificate, [1393] granted to the 
master and scholars licence to celebrate divine offices 
in their chapel within their college, saving the right 
of the parish church. 

The present chapel which was probably built at 
the close of the fourteenth century, is situated 
between Gonville court and Gains court, and im- 
mediately opposite the master's lodge. It has 
externally a modern facing of stone. The in- 
terior has a quaint and not unpleasing appearance. 
It was enlarged in 1637, when the present roof 
was put up. It was also beautified in 1719, and 
it was probably at that period that the altar screen 
of the ionic order was erected. Over the altar is 
a copy of The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin 
by Carlo Marratti. The tomb of Dr. Caius has been 
before mentioned. There are also large monuments 
in memory of Dr. Legge, master, and of Dr. Stephen 
Perse, the founder of the free grammar school. Each 
of these monuments has a kneeling figure of the de- 



104 GONYILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

ceased in his robes. On the floor of the ante- 
chapel is a brass to the memory of Martin Davy, 
D.D., canon of Chichester and master of this college 
1803 to 1839. 

THE HALL was erected in 1854, from a design by 
Mr. A. Salvin. It is in the Jacobean style with a single 
hammerbeam roof. Upon the flat surfaces of the 
ceiling between the rafters are painted the armorial 
bearings of the masters of the college from the 
foundation, the benefactors to the buildings of the 
college, and the senior fellows at the time of the 
erection of the hall. In the windows are the arms 
of many of the distinguished men who have been 
educated in the college. This spacious and hand- 
some apartment is adorned with portraits of Dr. 
Caius, Dr. Harvey, (by Eddis, after the picture by 
Cornelius Jansen, in the College of Physicians, 
London), sir Thomas Gooch, bishop of Ely, master, 
bishop Warren, sir Edward Hall Alderson, baron of 
the exchequer, (by Eddis), Dr. Samuel Clarke, (copy 
by Eddis), bishop Cosin, bishop Jeremy Taylor, (by 
Eddis, after a portrait at All Souls' college, Oxford), 
Robert Brady, M.D., master, Christopher Green, M.D., 
William Kirby the entomologist, (by Phillips, E.A.), 
and others. 

THE COMBINATION ROOM, a large and handsome 
apartment, well adapted for the purpose for which 
it is used, contains amongst other portraits, those of 
Mr. and Mrs. Trappes and of Jocosa Frankland 
(by Holbein), Dr. Parr and Dr. Caius. 

There is a tradition that the latter picture was 
taken from the founder's remains which were found in 




FROM THE FELLOWS GARDENS 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 105 

1719 (when his vault was opened) in an unusually 
good state of preservation. This tradition probably 
has its origin in the following passage in Bloomfield's 
Collectanea: " When the vault was opened the body 
was found whole and perfect, his beard was very 
long, so that upon comparing his picture with his 
visage it is said there was a great resemblance." 

THE LIBRAEY, a commodious apartment near the 
hall, is conveniently fitted up and contains a good 
collection of MSS. and printed books. 

A catalogue of the manuscripts by the Rev. 
J. J. Smith, then one of the senior fellows and 
librarian, was published Cambridge, 8vo. 1849. A 
catalogue of the early printed books by the Rev. 
W. R. Collett, then fellow and librarian, was pub- 
lished Cambridge, 8vo. 1850. 

The heraldic MSS. the gift of Mr. Knight, are 
numerous and important. 

THE MASTEE'S LODGE is the well arranged residence 
of a private gentleman, but possesses no features 
worthy of notice. In it however is a fine portrait 
of Harvey by Rembrandt. There are also portraits 
of Dr. Smith, master, (by sir Joshua Reynolds), of 
Dr. Fisher Belward, master, (by Opie), and of Dr. 
Davy, master, (by Opie). 

PHYSWICK HOSTEL. This now forms the south 
eastern corner of the great court of Trinity college. 
It was given to Gonville hall by William Fisshewik 
bedel of the university, by his will dated 29th March, 
1384, after the deaths of Joan his wife and Juliana 
Bedelle, and ten years afterwards was conveyed by 
Juliana Bedelle to the master and scholars of Gonville 



106 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

hall. On 20th March, 1466-7, the master and scholars 
of Michaelhouse granted to Gronville hall a messuage 
in the parish of S. Michael, called S. Margaret's 
hostel, and it seems probable that it was thereupon 
united to Physwick hostel, which was a very cele- 
brated seminary under the care of a principal ap- 
pointed by Gronville hall. (a) Henry VIII. obtained a 
grant of it from Gonville hall for the foundation of 
Trinity college, promising to pay the master and 
fellows of Gronville hall, until they should be by some 
other means satisfied or otherwise recompensed by 
him and his heirs, 3. a year out of the exchequer, 
and this college still receives that sum annually from 
the crown. 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS. There are thirty 
fellowships. The government of the society is vested 
in the master and the twelve senior fellows. There 
are also forty-five scholarships and eighteen exhi- 
bitions in the gift of the college. Connected with 
this college are also four studentships in medicine, 
founded by Christopher Tancred, esq., and two 
scholarships and . as many exhibitions in the gift of 
the governors of Harrow school. 

When queen Elizabeth visited the university in 
August, 1564, the society consisted of a master, eight 
fellows, eleven pensioners (including four graduates), 



(a) Fuller says that above fourscore commoners had lived at once 
in this hostel. Carter somewhat absurdly exaggerates this number into 
four hundred. William Revell, rector of Titchwell in Norfolk, built 
chambers or lodgings in his benefice, whither the members of this hostel 
might retire either for pleasure in summer or safety in sickness. Walter 
Lyhert, bishop of Norwich, is said to have maintained twelve students 
in this hostel during his life. 



GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 107 

ten scholars, and eighteen scholars pensioners, in all 
forty-eight. 

According to Dr. Cains' s history of the university, 
compiled 1573, the college then consisted of a master, 
ten fellows, ten scholars, five ministers, three paupers, 
and thirty-three pensioners, in all sixty-two. 

In 1621 the college consisted of a master, twenty- 
five fellows, a conduct, and sixty-one scholars. These 
together with students, &c., made a total of one 
hundred and eighty. 

Fuller makes the number of members (including 
officers and servants) in 1634 to have been two 
hundred and nine. 

In August, 1641, one hundred and seventy -two 
members of this college contributed to a poll-tax. 

In 1672 the college consisted of a master, twenty- 
six fellows, one chaplain, seventy-five scholars, besides 
officers and servants of the foundation, with other 
students, the whole number being two hundred and 
forty. 

PLATE. Dr. Caius gave to the college what he 
terms the Caduceus prudentis gubernationis. It is 
an elegant silver mace, two feet and-a-half in length, 
crowned with four serpents erect and meeting at 
the head. This he directed should be carried before 
the master within the college in all processions and 
at principal feasts, together with the Liber cogni- 
tionis and the Pulvinus reverentiae. 

PATKONAGE. The livings in the gift of this society 
are Beauchampton in Buckinghamshire; Bratton 
Fleming in Devonshire ; Bincombe and Broadway in 
Dorsetshire; Ashdon in Essex; Blofield, Denver, 



108 GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE. 

Oxburgh, and Foulden, Hethersett, Hockwold and 
Wilton, Kirsted, Mattishall and Pasley, Melton 
S. Mary, Long Stratton, Weeting, and Wheatacre 
in Norfolk; S. Michael Coslany and S. Clements on 
the Bridge in Norwich; Mutford and Barnaby, and 
Lavenham in Suffolk. The master and four senior 
fellows also appoint the master and ushers of the 
Perse free grammar school in Cambridge. 



, 




ENTRANCE TO TRINITY HALL, BEFORE 1340. 



TRINITY HALL. 

THIS college is situated between the new court 
of Trinity college, (from which it is separated by 
Garret Hostel lane) and Clare college, which bounds 
it on the south. The front is in a lane which re- 
presents a portion of the ancient Milne street so 
often mentioned in university documents (and which, 
until King's college was founded, ran from Queens' 
college to Michael house and King's hall, and appears 
at a still more remote period to have extended from 
the King's Mills to the Great Bridge). The gardens 
are bounded by the river Cam. 



110 TRINITY HALL. 

THE FOUNDER. William Bateman, commonly 
called from the place of his birth, William de 
Norwich, was a younger son of William Bateman 
and Margaret his wife. His father was one of the 
bailiffs or chief magistrates of Norwich no less than 
eleven times between 1301 and 1326, in which latter 
year he represented that city in parliament. He 
owned considerable estates both in Norfolk and 
Suffolk. It is supposed that William Bateman the 
son was educated in the great Benedictine monastery 
of his native city. He studied the civil and canon 
laws in Cambridge, where he was created LL.D. 
when about thirty years of age. On 8th December, 
1328, he was collated to the archdeaconry of Norwich 
by William de Ayrmine, bishop of that diocese. On 
that prelate's recommendation he proceeded to the 
court of Rome, where he was held in high estima- 
tion, rising from one office to another until he be- 
came auditor of the pope's palace, and one of his 
chaplains. In 1343 he was promoted to the deanery 
of Lincoln by a bull of provision. On two occa- 
sions he was sent ambassador from the pope to 
negociate a peace between the kings of England 
and France. Shortly after the death of Anthony 
de Bek, bishop of Norwich, Dr. Bateman became 
his successor, being elected by the prior and chapter, 
and also having a bull of provision from pope 
Clement VI., dated 23rd January, 1343-4. He had 
restitution of the temporalities from the king on 
the 2nd of March following. He was consecrated 
at Rome by the pope, being at that place to execute 
the king's commission directed to him and others 



TRINITY HALL. Ill 

to treat with ambassadors from the king of France, 
the pope acting as mediator between that monarch 
and the king of England. In the same year he 
was in commission with Edward prince of Wales, 
and others, to treat with the archbishop of Ravenna 
the pope's nuncio. On his return to England he 
was received at Norwich with great honour. In 
1345 he visited the prior and convent of his cathe- 
dral and his whole diocese. He insisted also on 
his right to visit the exempt abbey of Bury St. 
Edmunds. This involved him in a praemunire. 
His goods were seized, and certain of his clerks, 
who had excommunicated the abbat's attorney, 
were mulcted in one thousand marks. It would 
seem that the bishop and abbat ultimately composed 
their differences. It is evident that he was in the 
king's favour at this period, as he was joined with 
the earl of Lancaster and others to treat for a truce 
with France. Robert lord Morley, lieutenant of 
Norfolk, and a great favourite of the king's, taking 
advantage of the judgment against the bishop and 
of the seizure of his temporalities, committed waste 
upon his manors, killed the deer in his parks, and 
abused his servants who opposed him in so doing. 
The bishop excommunicated him, and despite the 
intercession of the king and many nobles, com- 
pelled him by way of penance to walk through the 
streets of Norwich, bare-headed and bare-footed, to 
the cathedral church, holding a wax taper of six 
pounds weight in his hand, which, in the midst of 
a great concourse of people, he offered at the high 
altar, at the same time begging pardon for his 



112 TRINITY HALL. 

offence. In 1352 we find the bishop stoutly de- 
fending the rights of his church and see against the 
mayor and burgesses of the town of Lynn. In 
pursuance of a treaty made between England and 
France, in April 1354, he was sent by the king, 
with Henry Duke of Lancaster, to conclude peace, 
under the auspices of Innocent VI., then lately 
raised to the papal chair. During this embassy 
he fell sick and died at Avignon, on the feast 
of the Epiphany 1354-5. He had desired to be 
interred in England, either among his ancestors or 
in his cathedral. His remains were, however, buried 
in the cathedral church of S. Mary at Avignon, 
his body being attended to the grave by the car- 
dinals, archbishops, bishops, and other great men. 
The service was performed by the patriarch of 
Jerusalem. 

His brother, sir Bartholomew Bateman, of Flixton 
in Suffolk, knight, was his heir. 

The conspicuous part which this prelate took in 
the foundation of Gonville hall has been already 
noticed. 

He compiled a code of statutes or rules for the 
government of the nunnery of Flixton ; obtained 
a papal confirmation of the first fruits of his diocese ; 
and gave to the high altar of his cathedral two 
images of the Holy Trinity, one of great value, 
very large, in a tabernacle or shrine of massive 
silver gilt; the other a small one, with relics of 
twenty pounds weight. 

He also founded in this university a chest, called 
Trinity chest, which was under the custody of three 



TRINITY HALL. 113 

masters of arts, one of whom was of this college. 
From this chest a master of arts or a fellow of this 
college might borrow 4., a bachelor 30s., and a 
scholar or bedel 20s. 

The university, in gratitude to his memory, 
ordained three religious services with morrow masses 
for his soul annually. One on the eve of the con- 
version of S. Paul. Another (as the founder of 
Trinity chest) on the octaves of the Holy Trinity. 
The third on the first Friday in Advent. 

THE FOUNDATION. By an instrument, dated at 
his manor of Thorpe, in his diocese of Norwich, 
15th January, in the Jubilee year 1350 [1349-50], 
in honour of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, and 
for the increase of knowledge of divine literature, 
and of the canon and civil law in the university, 
and for the advantage, rule, and direction of the 
commonwealth, and especially of his church and 
diocese of Norwich, bishop Bateman, by the name 
of William de Norwich, bishop of Norwich, made, 
ordaindd, constituted, and established one perpetual 
college of scholars of canon and civil law in the 
university of Cambridge (in which he received, 
although unworthy, the degree of doctor). And he 
willed that such college should be called the college 
of the scholars of the Holy Trinity of Norwich, 
and that the house which the said college should 
inhabit should be named the hall of the Holy 
Trinity of Norwich. Also he established and 
ordained that in the said college one of the fellows 
should be custos whom all the other fellows should 
obey in lawful and canonical matters, scholastic 

VOL. I. I 



114 TEINITY HALL. 

exercises and all things touching the rule, advantage, 
and honour of the college. He moreover made 
provision with respect to the election of the custos 
and fellows, and reserved to himself power to make 
statutes. This instrument was ratified by Thomas, 
bishop of Ely (by the hand of Master John de Oo, 
canon of Hereford, his vicar-general and chancellor), 
at Cambridge on the 20th of the same month, and 
by the chancellor and masters of the university on 
the next day. 

On 6th February, 1349-50, the bishop appro- 
priated the fruits of the rectory of Blofield in Norfolk 
(which under a papal bull he held in commendam 
for his own table) to the purposes of this foundation. 
For nine years the profits were to be applied to 
the building and endowment of the college, and if 
the college were not completed and endowed by 
that period, the profits were to be so applied for a 
further term of nine years. From the instrument 
of appropriation it appears that the bishop was in- 
duced to found the college, in consequence* of the 
great pestilence which had recently swept away most 
of the clergy of his diocese, so that there could not 
be found sufficient to supply the parochial cures. (a) 
Soon afterwards, Robert de Stratton, LL.B., the first 
master, was instituted to this rectory with an annual 



(a) There is a bull of pope Clement VI., dated Avignon, 13th October, 
1349, granted at the request of bishop Bateman, dispensing with sixty 
clerks, though they were only shavelings and under twenty-one years 
of age, to hold rectories and other benefices in order that divine service 
might not cease in the diocese of Norwich. In this bull his holiness stated 
that he had been informed by the bishop that there had been and were 
no less than a thousand parish churches in the diocese void of incumbents. 



TRINITY HALL, 115 

allowance of 10. from the profits, or if he chose 
to live in college he might, and have meat, drink, 
and clothing as a fellow, and ten marks a year 
for the first nine years, and 10. a year for the 
next nine years, or otherwise if he chose he might 
have twenty marks a year and live where he pleased, 
so that he had the living served, all residence being 
dispensed with for eighteen years. 

King Edward III. by letters patent 23rd February, 
1349-50, gave licence to the keeper, fellows, and 
scholars, to acquire houses and hostels, and a place 
sufficient for their habitation in the town of Cam- 
bridge, also advowsons of churches to the value of 
one hundred marks per annum, which they might 
hold appropriated. 

On 3rd May, 1350, the king gave licence to 
Richard de Lyng, archdeacon of Norwich, Walter 
de Elvedon, and Simon de Rickynghale, parson of 
the church of Rollesby, (who were trustees for the 
founder) to grant to the college the advowsons of 
Kimberley and Briston in Norfolk. This grant having 
been accordingly made, those churches were on 14th 
of August in the same year, appropriated to the 
college, vicarages being ordained on each, to which 
the college were to nominate two, of whom the bishop 
was to choose which he pleased. 

On 3rd October, the same year, the bishop's 
trustees had the king's licence to grant to the college 
the advowson of Birmingham in Norfolk, and on 
the 15th of the same month that rectory was ap- 
propriated to the college. 

On 20th November following, the king gave a 

12 



116 TRINITY HALL. 

licence to the bishop's trustees to grant three mes- 
suages in Cambridge to the college. He also em- 
powered the prior and convent of Ely to grant 
the college a messuage and a place of land in the 
street called Mylnestrete. (a) This property was to 
be held by the master, fellows, and scholars, for 
their habitation. In the grant to the college from 
the prior and convent of Ely, their property is des- 
cribed as all that their messuage with Heney and 
all its appurtenances in the parish of S. John in 
Milne street. It is said, with much probability, 
that this messuage had been previously used as a 
hostel for the monks of Ely coming to study in 
this university. 

On 4th March, 1350-1, the prior and convent 
of Binham in Norfolk had the king's licence to grant 
to the college the advowson of Wooddalling in that 
county, and soon afterwards that rectory was ap- 
propriated to the college. A vicarage was endowed. 
To this vicarage the college were to present one 
turn. The other turn the college were to nominate 
two persons, one of whom the bishop was to select. 

King Edward III., on llth May, 1351, at the 
founder's request, granted a further licence to hold 
advowsons, and to obtain the impropriation thereof 
to the value of 60. per annum. 

On 4th November the same year, the king gave 
a licence to the abbat and convent of S. Benedict 
of Hulme in Norfolk, to grant the college the ad- 
vowson of Stalham in that county. This rectory 

(a) In recompense of this grant bishop Bateman appropriated to the 
prior and convent of Ely the rectory of Sudborne in Suffolk. 



TEIiNlTY HALL. 



117 



was appropriated to the college, and a vicarage was 
endowed. To this vicarage the college were to 
present two persons, that the bishop might choose 
one. 

On 7th January, 1351-2, a like licence was given 
to John son of John de Shardelowe and Thomas 
his brother, to grant the advowson of Cowlinge in 
Suffolk, which was soon afterwards duly appropriated 
to the college. 

On 1st June, 1352, the bishop gave the college 
a body of statutes confirmed by the archbishop of 
Canterbury on 1st December following, and by the 
university on the 9th of that month. 

It appears from these statutes that he intended 
that there should be twenty fellows besides the master. 
Ten at least were to be legists and seven at least 
canonists. It is observable that provision is made 
for an annual certificate to the bishop and the prior 
and convent of Norwich of the names of the fellows. 
An interpretation of his statutes was made by him 
at South Elmham 14th August, 1354. 

On 26th September, 1354, Robert Stratton, John 
Trunch, Walter Baketon, Walter de Aldeby, and 
Peter de Biteryng had the king's licence to grant 
to the college one messuage and seven waste places 
with the appurtenances, in the parish of S. John 
of Millestrete, and the like licence was given to 
Walter Baketon, Peter de Biteryng, and Thomas de 
Walsingham, to grant a messuage called Draxesentre, 
in the same parish. All this property was to be 
held for the habitation of the keeper, fellow;?, and 
scholars. 



118 TRINITY HALL. 

The bishop's death, to a great extent, frustrated 
his generous designs, so that only three fellowships 
were established by him. 

In September, 1401, this college was, with others, 
visited by Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, who soon afterwards granted a dispensation, 
increasing the commons of the master and fellows 
to Is. 4d. a week. 

Henry VI. gave the college two licences to hold 
lands in mortmain. The second of these was granted 
at the instance of the provost and scholars of King's 
college, some of the property of this college having 
been taken for the site of King's. The same monarch 
on 3rd March, 1445-6, granted to this college the 
hospital of S. Margaret near Huntingdon, with all 
lands &c. thereto belonging, after the death, cession, 
or deprivation of Henry Hammond, then master of 
that house. On the 21st of the same month he 
granted to the college the advowson of the church of 
S. Edward in Cambridge, which was in due course 
appropriated to the college, and on 5th December, 
1448, the society obtained from him the grant of 
a messuage called Colle's place, in Bipton Abbots, 
Huntingdonshire, and of certain lands there and 
in Eipton Regis. 

Edward IV. confirmed the grant of the hospital 
of S. Margaret near Huntingdon, and also gave the 
college a licence to hold and acquire lands. 

Further additions were made to the site of the 
college in 1544 and 1545. On 12th September, 
1544, the mayor, bailiffs, and burgesses of the town 
of Cambridge, conveyed to the college a piece of 



TRINITY HALL. 



119 



land or garden called Henneably, (a) lying between 
the college on the south part, and the ground per- 
taining to Michaelhouse, formerly parcel of Garret 
hostel on the north part, one head abutting on Milne- 
street towards the east, the other on the King's 
stream towards the west, (except and always reserved 
a common lane or way, of the breadth of ten feet, 
from Milnestreet towards the King's stream). On 
the 20th of the same month, the mayor, bailiifs, 
and burgesses, conveyed to the college one waste 
ground or piece of land, lying within the walls of 
the college and the river, and then in the tenure 
of the master and fellows of Michaelhouse on the 
north part, one head abutting on the common river 
towards the west, the other upon Henneably towards 
the east. On 16th April, 1545, the remainder of 
what is now the back garden, was granted to this 
college by the master and fellows of Michaelhouse. 

From the survey of this college made by Drs. 
Parker, Redman, and Mey, in February, 1545-6, 
it appears that the stipend, commons, and livery of 
the master was 6. 13s. 4d. per annum, and that 
eight fellow's priests had 5. 6s. 8d. each for stipend, 
commons, and livery. Two fellows, not priests, had 
stipends of 4. 13s. 4d. each. The allowance to six 

(a) The garden, called Henably, was granted to Henry VI. in the 
twenty-sixth year of his reign, by the prior and convent of Anglesey. 
On 15th March, in the thirty -third year of his reign. [1454-5] that monarch 
granted it to the mayor, burgesses, and commonalty of the town of 
Cambridge, to be used as a common way from Milnestrete to the water, 
called the Ree. It is described in the grant as lying between Trinity 
hall on the south, and Garret hostel on the north, and as abutting at 
the east head upon Milnestrete, and at the west head upon the King's 
stream. 



120 TRINITY HALL. 

scholars, for stipend, commons, and livery, was 2. 4s. 
each, and to another scholar, 2. 9s. 8d. The college 
estates were situate at Cambridge and Thriplow 
in Cambridgeshire; Huntingdon, Conington, and 
Stukeley in Huntingdonshire; Quenbury, Mytforde, 
and Turkes in Hertfordshire; Melton and Cowlinge 
in Suffolk; Wooddalling, Stalham, Briston, Burn- 
ingham, and Kimberley in Norfolk. The clear annual 
value was 119. 2s., and the yearly excess of ex- 
penses over revenue 20. 14s. 

The projected union of this college and Clare 
college in the reign of Edward VI., has been already 
noticed, (p. 34). 

In 1559 an act of parliament was passed which 
recites the foundation by bishop Bateman "in the 
time of Kyng Edwarde the Thirde," and that 
"alwayes sithens the tyme of the said foundation" 
the college had used the name of master, fellows, 
and scholars of the college or hall of the Holy 
Trinity in the university of Cambridge. "And 
forasmuche as yf cavillacion shulde at any time 
hereafter be had or used upon the simple wordes 
of that tyme, some question or doubte might aryse 
of the validitie of the Corporacion of the said 
Colledge or Hall, and thereupon daunger or hurte 
might growe as well to the said Colledge, as also 
to divers and sundrie personnes, who have here- 
tofore received, and which hereafter shall receive 
gyftes, grauntes or leases of the said College or 
Hall. For avoiding of which inconvenyencys, and 
for the sure establishment both of the Corporacion 
of the said College, and of all other men's rights 



TRINITY HALL. 121 

and interests," all grants to or by the college 
were confirmed; and its right to be and to remain 
a corporate body was fully recognised. 

King George II., on 8th April, 1742, granted to 
the college a further licence to hold lands in mort- 
main to the extent of 1000. per annum. 

John Andrew, LL.D., formerly a fellow of this 
college, who died in October, 1747, bequeathed a 
sum of money, the accumulations of which, to the 
extent of 20,000., were to be devoted to the erec- 
tion of a new building "to consist of two spacious 
wings to extend from the college towards the river 
leaving the prospect open." The college however 
never reaped any benefit from this bequest, having 
declined to carry out the other trusts of the will, 
which contemplated the establishment of fellowships 
and scholarships to be appropriated to Merchant 
Taylor's school in London. After a protracted 
chancery suit the money was handed over to S. 
John's college, Oxford, which body undertook the 
execution cy pres of the testator's intentions. 

BENEFACTORS. Henry, duke of Lancaster, was in- 
strumental in obtaining for the college the grant of 
the advowsons of Cowlinge and Swannington ; Simon 
Sudbury, archbishop of Canterbury, increased the build- 
ings of the college ; Simon Bailing, master, founded 
two fellowships and as many scholarships ; John 
Smith, LL.D., vicar-general of the diocese of Norwich, 
who died 1489, gave lands in Billingford to keep his 
obiit; William Balling, master, gave money and 
other valuables ; Walter Hewke, LL.D., master, founded 
a fellowship; Robert Goodknape, fellow, founded a 



122 TRINITY HALL. 

fellowship; John Purgold, LL.B., sometime fellow, 
founded a fellowship; Richard Nykke, bishop of 
Norwich, founded three fellowships and two scholar- 
ships ; Mr. Spicer founded a scholarship ; Stephen 
Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, master, bequeathed 
100.; Laurence Moptyd, master of Corpus Christi 
college, founded a scholarship ; Gabriel Donne, some- 
time abbat of Buckfastleigh, and afterwards canon 
residentiary of S. Paul's, founded a scholarship; 
Thomas Thirleby, fellow, bishop of Ely, granted 
or obtained the grant of several advowsons ; arch- 
bishop Parker founded a scholarship and gave 
fifty-one ounces of plate; Humphrey Busby, LL.D., 
fellow, founded two scholarships and gave money 
for a fire .in the hall; Henry Harvey, LL.D., 
master, much improved the college buildings, gave 
charcoal for the hall fire, and lands for maintain- 
ing the causeway from Cambridge towards Quy; (a) 
Benedict Thorowgood, fellow, bequeathed 46. 135. kd. 
with which the screen of the old hall was erected; 
William Mowse, LL.D., master, founded a fellowship, 
gave his law books and 1,400. for purchasing 
lands to maintain highways in and near Cam- 
bridge ; Robert Hare, esq., gave other lands to 
maintain highways, also many books to the library ; 

(a) Dr. Harvey made this causeway at his own great expence " for 
the more convenience of passengers in those dirty ways ; so that his 
bounty hath made summer unto them in the depth of winter." Thus 
Fuller, who adds the following story : " A noble person (but great anti- 
academic) met Dr. Harvey one morning overseeing his workmen, and 
bitterly reflecting on his (causelessly suspected) inclinations to popery, 
Doctor (said he) you think that this causeway is the high-way to heaven. 
To whom the other as tartly replied: Not so, Sir, for then I should not 
have met you in this place." 



TRINITY HALL. 123 

John Cowell, LL.D., master, founded a logic lecture- 
ship ; William Barlow, bishop of Lincoln, gave a 
tall standing cup, double gilt, also valuable books 
to the library; Edward Catcher, gave 100.; sir 
George Newman, LL.D., fellow, gave 50.; Thomas 
Eden, LL.D., master, settled lands which cost above 
1,000., and gave 40. to buy a fair arras hanging 
for the upper end of the hall ; Henry Pelsant, fellow, 
gave a house at Wethersfield with the goods and 
library ; William Davenant, gave 100. to buy books ; 
Thomas Cradock, LL.B., gave 100.; William Ayloffe, 
esq., of Melbourn, Cambridgeshire, gave 45. per 
annum in augmentation of the divinity fellowships 
and for other purposes; George Oxenden, LL.D., 
master, gave 40. to buy books, and his widow, in 
compliance with his intentions, founded a scholar- 
ship; Henry Fauconberge, LL.D., fellow, gave 50.; 
Marmaduke Fothergill, founded an exhibition ; James 
Johnson, LL.D., fellow, gave an estate at Oldhurst, 
Huntingdonshire, for augmenting a scholarship and 
increasing the endowment of the vicarage of Heming- 
ford Grey; William Allen, LL.D., fellow, gave all 
his latin, greek, and french books, and founded two 
scholarships; John Chetwode, LL.D., fellow, gave the 
altar piece, fitted up the combination room, and 
founded a scholarship ; sir Nathanael Lloyd, LL.D., 
master, besides various gifts in his lifetime be- 
queathed 3,000. for improving the buildings ; 
Horatio Goodbehere, esq., sometime fellow-com- 
moner, left funded property now producing upwards 
of 100. per annum for the purpose of founding a 
fellowship. 



124 TRINITY HALL. 

EMINENT MEN. Robert de Stratton, master, bishop 
of Liclifield and Coventry, died 1365. Marmaduke 
Lumley, master, chancellor of the university, and 
bishop of Lincoln, died 1450. Thomas Larke, (a) 
master, archdeacon successively of Sudbury and 
Norwich, living 1528. Richard Smith, {a) LL.D., 
fellow, one of the earliest adherents of the re- 
formation, died 1528-9. Thomas Bilney, (a) fellow, 
martyred at Norwich, 1531. Thomas Arthur, (a) an 
early reformer, author of latin tragedies and other 
works, and translator of Erasmus de Milite Christiano, 
died 1532. Richard Nykke, (o) bishop of Norwich, 
died 1535-6. Thomas Wriothesley, (a) earl of South- 
ampton, lord high chancellor, died 1550. Richard 
Sampson, (a) fellow, bishop of Liclifield and Coventry, 
died 1554. Stephen Gardiner, (a) master, {6) bishop of 
Winchester, lord high chancellor of England, and 
chancellor of the university, died 1555. Laurence 
Moptyd, (a) master of Corpus Christi college, died 
1557. Gabriel Donne, (0) sometime abbat of Buck- 
fastleigh, and afterwards canon residentiary of S. 
Paul's, died 1558. William May, (o) fellow, archbishop 
elect of York, died 1560. William Paget, (a) lord 

(a) These are noticed in Athense Cantabrigienses, Vol. I. 

(6) Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winton, and lord chancellor, held 
the mastership of Trinity hall to his dying day, and though he gave 
forty better preferments to others, he would never leave his interest in 
it, and did not conceal the cause, but said often, " If all his palaces were 
blown down by iniquity he would creep honestly into that shell," (Hacket's 
Life of archbishop Williams, part I. p. 63.) He became master 1525, being 
then chaplain and almoner to Henry VIII., and was preferred to the see of 
Winchester, 1531. He held the mastership till about February, 1551-2, 
at which time he was in the Tower. Immediately on the accession of Mary, 
he was restored to his bishopric and to this mastership, which he retained 
till his death. 



TRINITY HALL. 125 

Paget, K.G., distinguished as a statesman in the 
reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and 
Elizabeth, died 1563. Thomas Thirleby, (a) fellow, 
bishop of Ely, died 1570. Walter Haddon, (0) LL.D., 
master of this college, president of Magdalen college, 
Oxford, and distinguished also as a diplomatist and 
as a latin orator and poet, died 1571-2. William 
Howard, (a) lord Howard of Effingham, K.G., lord high 
admiral, died 1572-3. William Soone or Zoone, (a) 
fellow, regius professor of civil law in this university, 
and afterwards law professor at Louvaine, flourished 
1573, Thomas Tusser, (a ) poet, died 1580. Raphael 
Hollingshed, (a) the chronicler, died 1580. Henry 
Harvey, (a) LL.D., master, vicar-general of the province 
of Canterbury, and master in chancery, died 1584-5. 
William Goldingham, LL.D., fellow, author of the 
tragedy of Herodes, flourished 1586. William 
Mowse, LL.D., master of this college, dean of the 
arches, and regius professor of civil law at Ox- 
ford, died 1588. William Drury, LL.D., dean of 
the arches, died 1588. John Hammond, LL.D., 
master in chancery, and a civilian of high repute, 
died 1589. Thomas Preston, LL.D., master, author 
of the tragedy of Cambyses, died 1598. George 
Boleyn, D.D., dean of Lichfield, died 1602. John 
Cowell, LL.D., master, regius professor of civil law, 
author of the Interpreter, died 1611. William Barlow, 
bishop of Lincoln, died 1613. Henry Howard, earl 
of Northampton, K.G., lord privy seal, chancellor 
of the university, and distinguished for his literary 
attainments, died 1614. John Hone, LL.D., fellow, 

(a) These are noticed in Athense Cantabrigienses, Vol. I. 



126 TRINITY HALL. 

a distinguished advocate, and master in chancery, 
died about 1617. Thomas Edwards, LL.D., fellow, 
chancellor of the diocese of London, died about 1619. 
Henry Wriothesley, earl of Southampton, K.G., the 
friend and patron of Shakspere, and one of the 
founders of Virginia, died 1624. Richard Senhouse, 
bishop of Carlisle, died 1626. Thomas Wilson, fellow, 
keeper of the state papers to James I. and Charles I. 
Gabriel Harvey, LL.D., fellow, a poet and miscellaneous 
writer, the friend of Spenser, and the literary op- 
ponent of Robert Greene and Thomas Nash, died 
1630-1. Arthur Hildersham, a pious divine of puri- 
tanical principles, died 1631-2. Edmund Bolton, a 
critic of no mean ability, and a writer on heraldry 
and other subjects, died about 1633. William 
Austin, author of Devout, Godly, and Learned 
Meditations, died 1633-4. Sir Robert Naunton, 
secretary of state, died 1634-5. Robert Aylett, LL.D., 
master in chancery, and author of various poems, 
flourished 1642. Thomas Eden, LL.D., master, a 
singularly good advocate, Gresham professor of law, 
and M.P. for the university, died 1645. (a) John 
Exton, LL.D., fellow, appointed one of the judges of 
the admiralty, 1649. Clement Corbet, LL.D., master, 
Gresham professor of law, and chancellor of the diocese 
of Norwich, died 1652. William Clerke, LL.D., official 
of the arches, and afterwards one of the judges of 
the admiralty, died 1655. Benjamin Thorneton, 
LL.D., fellow, Gresham professor of law, died 1667. 
John Clark, LL.D., regius professor of civil law in 

(a) On Dr. Eden's death, the illustrious John Selden was elected master 
of this college. He however declined the office. 



TRINITY HALL. 127 

this university, and law professor at Gresham college, 
died 1672-3. Eobert Herrick, poet, died 1674. John 
Bond, LL.D., master, Gresham professor of law, one 
of the assembly of divines, and author of sermons 
and other works, died 1676. Robert King, LL.D., 
master, a sufferer for his loyalty, and chancellor of 
the diocese of Ely, died 1676. William Squire, author 
of works against the Romish Church, died 1677. 
Francis Glisson, M.D., regius professor of physic, 
author of numerous professional works, and famous 
as a physician and anatomist, died 1 677. Sir Mounde- 
ford Bramston, LL.D., fellow, master in chancery and 
chancellor of the diocese of Winchester, died 1679. 
Sir Peter Wyche, ambassador to Russia, and author 
of geographical works, nourished 1681. John Boord, 
LL.D., fellow, regius professor of civil law, died about 
1684. Sir Robert Wiseman, LL.D., dean of the arches, 
died 1687. Sir William Glasscock, judge of the ad- 
miralty in Ireland, died 1688. Sir Thomas Exton, 
LL.D., master, judge of the admiralty, and vicar-general 
of the province of Canterbury, died 1688. Roger 
Meredith, fellow, Gresham professor of law and master 
in chancery, died 1700-1. Sir Thomas Pinfold, 
LL.D., king's advocate, and chancellor of the diocese 
of Peterborough, died 1701. George Oxenden, LL.D., 
master, regius professor of civil law, and dean of 
the arches, died 1702-3. George Bramston, LL.D., 
master, deputy judge of the admiralty, died 1710. 
Henry Fauconberge, (0) LL.D., a munificent benefactor 

(a) See The Fauconberge Memorial : an account of Henry Fauconberge, 
LL.D., of Beccles, and of the endowment provided by his -will to encourage 
learning and the instruction of youth ; with notes and incidental biographical 
sketches by S. Wilton Rix, Ipswich, 4to. 1849. 



128 TRINITY HALL. 

to the town of Beccles for educational purposes, died 
1713. Thomas Ayloffe, LL.D., fellow, regius professor 
of civil law, died 1713-4. John Edwards, D.D., an 
able preacher, and famous controversialist, died 1716. 
Charles Pinfold, LL.D., fellow, an advocate in extensive 
practice, died 1721-2. Adam Ottley, fellow, bishop 
of S. David's, died 1723. John Brookbank, LL.D., 
fellow, chancellor of the diocese of Durham, died 
1724. James Johnson, LL.D., fellow, master of the 
faculties, and chancellor of the diocese of Ely, died 
1727-8. Elijah Fenton, poet, died 1730. Exton 
Sayer, LL.D., fellow, chancellor of the diocese of 
Durham, and surveyor of the land revenues of the 
crown, died 1731. John Dennis, the critic, died 
1733. Bevil Higgons, author of Remarks on Burnet's 
History of his own times, and of dramas and poems, 
died 1735. Sir Nathanael Lloyd, LL.D., master, king's 
advocate, died 1741. Richard Reynolds, bishop of 
Lincoln, died 1743-4. Charles Reynolds, D.D., author 
of a valuable treatise on Convocation, died 1744. 
William Warren, LL.D., fellow, an able antiquary, 
author of a MS. History of this college, died 1745-6. 
William Pate, a learned woollen-draper in London, 
the intimate friend of all the principal wits and 
scholars of his time, died 1746. John Andrew, LL.D., 
fellow, master of the faculties, and chancellor of the 
diocese of London, died 1747. Sir Henry Penrice, 
LL.D., fellow, judge of the admiralty, died 1752. 
Thomas Carte, author of numerous and important 
historical works, died 1754. Francis Dickins, LL.D., 
fellow, regius professor of civil law, died 1755. 
George Paul, LL.D., fellow, king's advocate, and 



TRINITY HALL. 129 

vicar-general of the province of Canterbury, died 
1755. Henry Monson, LL.D., fellow, regius professor 
of civil law, died 1757. Samuel Carte, a learned 
antiquary, died about 1760. Robert Midgeley, fifty- 
three years master of Coxwold school, and a man 
of fine taste in classical and polite literature, died 
1761. George Reynolds, archdeacon of Lincoln, 
author of an historical essay on the government of 
the church of England, died 1762. Sir Edward 
Simpson, LL.D., master, dean of the arches, died 
1764. Zachary Grey, LL.D., an able historical writer 
and critic, and editor of Hudibras, died 1766. William 
Ridlington, LL.D., fellow, regius professor of civil 
law, died 1770. Philip Dormer Stanhope, earl of 
Chesterfield, K.G., distinguished as a politician, orator, 
diplomatist, and man of letters, died 1773. Sir 
Thomas Salusbury, LL.D., fellow, judge of the ad- 
miralty, died 1773. Wharton Peck, LL.D., fellow, 
chancellor of the diocese of Ely, died 1777. Robert 
D'Arcy, earl of Holdernesse, secretary of state, died 
1778. William De Grey, lord Walsingham, chief- 
justice of the common pleas, died 1781. Peter Calvert, 
LL.D., fellow, dean of the arches, died 1788. Charles 
Pinfold, LL.D., fellow, advocate of the admiralty, and 
afterwards governor of Barbadoes, died 1788. Samuel 
Hallifax, fellow, bishop of S. Asaph, died 1790. Sir 
JohnEardley Wilmot, chief-justice of the common pleas, 
died 1792. William Johnson Temple, rector of S. 
Gluvias, Cornwall, and author of essays and memoirs 
which evince considerable ability, died 1796. Matthew 
Robinson, lord Rokeby, fellow, author of various 
political pamphlets, died 1800. Sir James Marriott, 

VOL. I. K 



130 TRINITY HALL. 

LL.D., master, judge of the admiralty, died 1803. 
Samuel Horsley, bishop of S. Asaph, died 1806. 
Norton Nicholls, distinguished for his talents and 
virtues, and the intimate friend of the poet Gray, 
died 1809. Joseph Jowett, LL.D., fellow, regius pro- 
fessor of civil law, died 1813. Beaumont Hotham, 
lord Hotham, baron of the exchequer, died 1814. 
Sir Nash Grose, fellow, justice of the king's bench, 
died 1814. Sir William Wynne, LL.D., master, dean 
of the arches, died 1815. Richard Fitzwilliam, vis- 
count Fitzwilliam, founder of the Fitzwilliam Museum, 
died 1816. Sir Simon Le Blanc, fellow, justice of 
the king's bench, died 1816. Sir Francis Blake, 
author of Political Tracts, died 1818. William Hayley, 
poet, died 1820. Charles Hague, MUS.D., professor 
of music, and a composer of high reputation, 
died 1821. Francis John Hyde Wollaston, fellow, 
Jacksonian professor, died 1823. John Jay, MUS.D., 
composer of numerous musical pieces, died 1824. 
Morgan Cove, author of an Essay on the Revenues 
of the Church of England, died 1830. Richard 
Duppa, author of the Life of Michael Angelo and 
of other works, died 1831. Henry Bankes, many 
years a leading member of the house of commons, 
and author of The Civil and Constitutional History 
of Rome from the foundation to the age of Augustus, 
died 1834. Montague Burgoyne, an active political 
and social reformer, died 1836. William Territt, 
LL.D., judge of the vice admiralty court, Bermuda, 
died 1836. William Battine, LL.D., fellow, advocate of 
the admiralty, and chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, 
died 1836. Daniel Corrie, bishop of Madras, died 



TRINITY HALL. 131 

1837. Robert Rankin, chief-justice of Sierra Leone, 
died 1839. Francis Wrangham, archdeacon of the 
east riding of York, a scholar of great and varied 
attainments, and a voluminous author, died 1842. 
Lewis Duval, fellow, a conveyancer of extraordinary 
repute, died 1844. John Sterling, a man of letters, 
whose life has been written by the late archdeacon 
Hare, and also by Mr. Thomas Carlyle, died 1844. 
Thomas Edwards, LL.D., fellow, author of Reports 
of Cases in the Admiralty Courts, and of other pub- 
lications, died 1845. Thomas Smart Hughes, fellow, 
author of a History of England in continuation of 
Hume and Smollet, and of other works, died 1847. 
Benjamin Clarke Raworth, the first projector of that 
useful work, the Cambridge University Calendar, 
died 1848. William Adams, LL.D., fellow, a very 
distinguished advocate, and one of the plenipoten- 
tiaries who concluded the treaties of peace and 
commerce with the United States, died 1851. Sir 
Herbert Jenner Fust, LL.D., master, dean of the 
arches, died 1852. George Bankes, fellow, cursitor 
baron of the exchequer, died 1856. John Haggard, 
LL.D., fellow, a distinguished advocate, and author 
of Reports of Cases in the Ecclesiastical Courts, 
died 1856. 

BUILDINGS. The buildings of the college were not 
completed during the founder's life. There is extant an 
indenture dated 17th September, 48 Edw. III. [1374], 
between Simon [Sudbury] bishop of London, executor 
of the founder, of the one part, and John de Mildenhale, 
of Cambridge, carpenter, of the other part. The latter 
covenants to provide good and sufficient oak timber for 

K2 



132 TEINITY HALL. 

all the new chambers to be made in the college, " vide- 
licet Copulas siye Sparres, Wyndbens, Suchlaces, 
Ashelars, Corbels, Jompes, Balkes, Symers sive Dor- 
mannos, Eystes et etiam Stures cum pertinentiis pro 
mediis parietibus in dictis cameris sub et supra vide- 
licet tarn in Solariis quam in Celariis ac etiam Steyres 
et Steycres." Moreover he covenants to find oak 
timber for constructing houses from the north end of the 
hall of the college towards the north, unto the common 
lane called Heney lane, of like matter, form, fabric, 
and goodness, as the fabric of the roof of the said 
hall, " cum Burners et Eystes" for the solars, " et cum 
Stures et Grunsils cum pertinentiis" for the mid- walls 
below and above the solars, towards the newly built 
kitchen. He also engages to find all necessary timber 
for all and singular houses, chambers, and such like 
as should be required, and to carry the same to the 
college, and there to work up the same according 
to the size, thickness, pattern, goodness and form 
of the fabric of the eastern chambers of habitation 
in the college. The contract was to be completed 
by the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, then next following. He was to work " omnia 
ostia tarn majora quam minora," and to find "ligam- 
ina lignea sufficientes et requisiti ac etiam fenestras 
et fenestrellas et Platchers" of all the chambers, the 
kitchen and the solars, and that within four months 
after being required so to do on behalf of the col- 
lege. Also he was to find "tabulas pro planchers 
ostiis et fenestris." His recompence was to be 100., 
whereof 50. was to be paid at the ensuing feast of 
S. Michael, 10. at Christmas, 10. at Easter, 10. 



TRINITY HALL. 



133 



at Midsummer, and 20. within fifteen days after 
the completion of the work. 

Dr. Henry Harvey, master, (15551584) greatly 
improved the college buildings. 

According to Loggan's view of the college, it then 
consisted principally of one court with other buildings 
to the south and the west. The only entrance from 
the street was by a double gateway near Clare college. 
The smaller gate still exists. 

Sir Nathanael Lloyd, master, greatly altered the 
chapel, and soon after his death, from the funds 
which he bequeathed, the hall was entirely rebuilt, 
the principal court was faced with stone and sashed, 
and a new front was erected with an entrance to the 
main court from the street. 

In 1823, new chambers were erected to the 
south, on the site of ancient buildings. These are 
of brick, without the least pretension to architectural 
beauty. 

In 1852, the front of the college was destroyed 
by an accidental fire. It was immediately after- 
wards rebuilt of stone in a very neat and appropriate 
style, from the design of A. Salvin, esq. The new 
building is loftier than that which previously occupied 
the same site. 

THE CHAPEL. Thomas de Lisle, bishop of Ely, 
by an instrument dated at Cambridge, 30th May, 
1352, gave the college a licence to have a chapel. 
The chapel erected in pursuance of this licence was 
altered during the mastership of Dr. Harvey, who 
erected stalls of oak. These are now removed. In 
1729, sir Nathanael Lloyd, master, caused the chapel 



134 TRINITY HALL. 

to be fitted up in its present form. The length 
(including the antichapel) is forty-three feet, and 
the breadth eighteen feet. The roof, which is coved, 
is divided into compartments containing the arms of 
bishop Bateman the founder, archbishop Sudbury, 
bishop Nykke, bishop Gardiner, archbishop Parker, 
Robert Goodknape, Laurence Moptyd, Dr. Mowse, 
Dr. Eden, Dr. Busby, Simon Dalling, Dr. Walter 
Hewke, Gabriel Donne, and Dr. Harvey. There are 
monuments for Dr. Hewke, (a) Laurence Moptyd, Dr. 
Preston, Dr. Cowell, Dr. Eden, Dr. King, sir 
Nathanael Lloyd, Daniel Darnelly, fellow, (who died 
1659), Dr. Andrew, and Dr. Jowett. Over the altar 
is a fine painting of the Presentation in the Temple, 
by Stella. This picture was the gift of John Chet- 
wode, LL.D., fellow. 

THE HALL. The old hall contained in a bow win- 
dow which was erected 1562, the arms of archbishop 
Parker and others. At the upper end was a piece 
of tapestry given by Dr. Eden, representing a roman 
triumph. The screen, the gift of Bennett Thorow- 
good, fellow, bore the date 1599. In 1646, James 
Bunce, esq., gave 10. for wainscotting the hall. 
The achievments of Chetham and of Dr. George 
Oxenden, master, were formerly displayed in this 
hall, which was pulled down about 1743, when the 
present structure was erected upon the same site, 
from the benefaction of sir Nathanael Lloyd. It is 
a handsome apartment, adorned in the italian taste, 
thirty-six feet in length, twenty-four feet in breadth, 

(a) Engraved in the Monumental Brasses, published by the Cambridge 
Camden Society. 



136 TKINITY HALL. 

of sir Edward Simpson, master; Clement Corbet, 
master ; Dr. James Johnson, fellow ; Dr. John Andrew, 
fellow; Dr. Francis Dickins, fellow; the earl of 
Chesterfield, (by Hoare), lord chief-justice Wilmot, 
and bishop Hallifax. 

THE MASTER'S LODGE, which adjoins the hall, and 
is opposite the library, has been much enlarged and 
improved by Dr. T. C. Geldart, the present master. 
In the hall of the lodge is a fine portrait of 
Nathanael Lord Crewe, bishop of Durham, who was 
sir N. Lloyd's godfather. 

THE LIBRARY, which forms the upper part of the 
northern wing of the small back court towards the 
river, is an ancient building communicating with the 
Combination Room. It contains an extensive and 
valuable collection of books relating to the civil, 
canon, and common law, and many works in other 
departments of literature. Amongst the manuscripts 
is a history of the monastery of S. Augustine Can- 
terbury, by Thomas of Elmham. (o) It was given 
to this college by Robert Hare, a celebrated anti- 
quary, with the somewhat singular condition, that 
if, God willing, that monastery should be re-estab- 
lished, the maste^ and fellows should return the 
volume thereto. 

On the walls are portraits of archbishops Bancroft, 
Abbot, Laud and Williams; bishops Gardiner (by 
Holbein), Home, Cox and Curie, and of sir Henry 
Martin. 



(a) Printed by direction of the master of the Rolls, under the editorial 
care of the Rev. Charles Hardwick, M.A., of 8 Catherine's college, (now 
archdeacon of Ely.) London, 8vo. 1858. 




A i>X^.cwv>v. XX. 

1 v 



TKINITY HALL. 137 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLAESHIPS. There are thirteen 
fellowships. Ten are usually filled by laymen. The 
others are appropriated to persons in holy orders. 
There are sixteen scholarships. Law studentships 
of 50. per annum were established by the college 
in 1849. The Chetwode and Oxenden exhibition 
produces upwards of 30. per annum. 

From the account of the university rendered to 
queen Elizabeth, at her visit in August, 1564, the 
society then consisted of the master and fifty other 
members, of whom two were doctors. According to 
Dr. Caius's History, compiled in 1573, there were 
then in the college the master, ten fellows, nine 
scholars, thirty-three pensioners, and five ministers 
(namely the cook, butler, steward, scullion and porter) 
in all fifty-eight. In 1621, there were the master, 
twelve fellows, and fourteen scholars, who with 
students, &c., made a total of fifty-six. According 
to Fuller, there were in 1634, a master, twelve fellows, 
fourteen scholars, besides officers and servants of the 
foundation, with other students, the whole number 
being threescore. In 1641, fifty-nine members of 
this college contributed to a poll tax. 

It appears that in 1672, the society consisted of 
the master, twelve fellows, and fourteen scholars, 
besides officers and servants of the foundation, with 
other students, the whole number being sixty-eight. 
Mr. Blomefield states that in January, 1742-3, the 
college consisted of the master, twelve fellows, ten 
scholars of the house, and ten pensioners. In 1749, 
Carter states the total number of members to be 
usually about fifty. 



138 TRINITY HALL. 

PATRONAGE. This college presents to eight bene- 
fices, viz. : S. Edward's, Cambridge ; Wethersfield 
in , Essex ; Fenstanton cum Hilton, Hemingford 
Grey, and Great Stukeley in Huntingdonshire; 
Swannington cum Woodalling in Norfolk ; Cowlinge, 
and Kentfbrd cum Gazeley in Suffolk, 




THE ENTKA^NCE GATEWAY. 



CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 

THIS college which presents a noble imposing 
and extended front towards Trumpington street, 
differs as respects its origin from every collegiate 
foundation in Cambridge and Oxford. (a) It owes its 
existence to the bounty not of one or two indi- 
viduals but of a religious society. 



(a) It is observable also that it is the only college in Cambridge or 
Oxford of which a history in the english language has been published. 
We refer to the History of the College of Corpus Christi and the 
Blessed Virgin Mary (commonly called Benet) in the University of Cambridge, 
from its Foundation to the present time, in two parts. I. Of its founders, 
benefactors and masters. II. Of its other principal members. By Robert 
Masters, B.D., fellow of the college, and of the society of antiquaries of 



140 CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 

THE GILD OF CORPUS CHRISTI AND S. MARY. 
A gild was a company of persons associated for 
charitable, religious, or mercantile purposes, (and 
sometimes for all these conjointly,) who for the better 
promotion thereof cast some part of their money, 
goods or lands into a common stock, out of which 
their processions, annual feasts, charities, and all 
other public expences were defrayed. The word 
is saxon, and there is no doubt that these asso- 
ciations began amongst our saxon ancestors, though 
they were not peculiar to them, but frequent like- 
wise among other northern nations. 

These societies or gilds were common in most 
cities and great towns throughout the kingdom. 
The most eminent in Cambridge were those of 
Corpus Christi and S. Mary. The first of these and 
the more celebrated of the two, was held in S. 
Benedict's parish, probably where this college now 
stands ; the latter opposite to Great S. Mary's church, 
where the Senate-House is situate. 

They seem to have been instituted principally 
for religious purposes, and consisted of persons of both 
sexes and of all ranks and denominations, (for there 
were amongst them nobles, knights, gentlemen, clergy, 
and merchants, with their wives, sisters and daughters,) 
but for the most part of such as lived in or bare 



London, Camb. 4to. 1753; and Masters' History of the College of Corpus 
Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary in the University of Cambridge. 
With additional matter and a continuation to the present time, by John 
Lamb, D.D., master of the college, Cambridge, 4to. 1831. It must be ob- 
served, that the latter work has not entirely superseded the former, as 
Dr. Lamb has omitted some of the documents given by Mr. Masters, and 
many of his biographical notices. 



CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 141 

some relation to the town or county. These united 
themselves together, to raise a fund for hiring priests 
to pray for their welfare and prosperity whilst alive, 
and for their souls after their decease. Every one 
who entered either society contributed money or 
goods at his first admission, in proportion to his 
circumstances or generosity. (o) Some gave lands and 
houses ; and the surplus moneys received from others 
were from time to time, with the sanction of the 
crown, laid out in the purchase of estates. From 
the rents and revenues of the societies, they pro- 
vided for the support of a number of chaplains to say 
mass daily in the churches of S. Benedict and S. 
Mary the Great respectively. 

The gild of S. Mary had a common seal ; and each 
gild had a common hall, with other apartments ad- 
joining, wherein they met for the choice of their 
officers, for going in procession on certain days to 
their churches, and for transacting the rest of their 
business ; from which meetings whosoever was vo- 
luntarily absent when summoned, or did not come 
in his best clothes, was liable to a small fine either 
in money or wax for the support of the lights. 

Each of them had also a body of statutes which 
every member upon his admission was sworn to 
observe ; they were governed by annual officers, 
the principal officer of each gild was styled alderman, 
each had also two treasurers, and there were other 

(a) William de Lenne skinner and Isabel his wife, on their entrance into 
the fraternity of Corpus Christi, gave 20s. in alms, 12d. for wax, and 
expended half a mark in the representation of the play of the children of 
Israel. Robert de Blaston and Adam de Newton were admitted upon 
promise of faithfully serving the gild as carpenters. 



142 CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 

officers called councillors and summoners. The officers 
were elected at a general assembly held for that 
purpose, upon which occasion, and at most other 
general meetings, they usually feasted together. The 
gild of Corpus Christi drank their ale (of which 
they kept good store in their cellars) out of a great 
horn, finely ornamented with silver gilt, which 
is still in the possession of the college. This was 
presented to the brethren by John Goldcorne, when 
alderman, and was liberally filled by them, especially 
upon the festival of Corpus Christi, when a magni- 
ficent procession was made throughout the town. 

Whenever any brother or sister departed out of 
this life, the whole fraternity was summoned to at- 
tend the corpse to the grave with the lights of the 
company; and thirty masses were said for the soul 
within ten days after the person's decease, at the 
common expence. If any one happened by mis- 
fortune to be reduced to poverty, he was to be 
relieved out of the common stock; and any in- 
dustrious member who wanted money to trade with, 
might borrow a certain sum from thence. No one 
who was known to be guilty of any notorious crime 
was to be admitted into either society; and if after 
admission, he should deviate from a good and regular 
course of life, he was first to be admonished by 
the alderman and his brethren, and if this had 
not its proper effect, he was to be expelled for ever. 
Every one was to be obedient to the alderman in 
all things lawful ; and no one was to go to law 
with another member without first laying his 
grievances before the alderman, who was to call in 



CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 143 

one or two of the brethren to assist him in ac- 
commodating such differences ; and if this had not 
its desired effect, he was then to give leave to 
go to law. The counsels of the fraternity were to 
be revealed to no stranger, lest any injury should 
be received thereby; and whoever discovered their 
secrets, was either punished with a pecuniary mulct 
or expelled for ever, as the circumstances required. 
Anniversary days were appointed for commemorating 
considerable benefactors. 

S. Mary's gild was probably the elder of the 
two. It was certainly in existence in the earlier 
part of the reign of Edward I., and on the 5th of 
the ides of February, 1322, John de Hotham, bishop 
of Ely, granted by indulgence forty days of pardon 
to all the benefactors thereto. 

Eventually the gild of Corpus Christi became the 
more popular and flourishing institution. 

Amongst the members of S. Mary's gild occur 
Adam Elyot, who founded a chantry in Great S. 
Mary's, in the reign of Edward I. John de Cambridge, 
alderman, afterwards a knight and justice of the 
king's bench ; Walter Reynold, archbishop of Canter- 
bury; Richard de Bury, the famous and learned 
bishop of Durham, and sir John Gras, knight. The 
gild of Corpus Christi could boast of Henry duke 
of Lancaster ; Thomas de Brotherton, earl marshal ; 
sir Walter de Manny, K.G., with Margaret his wife 
and his daughters ; sir John de Goldingham, knight, 
and Eleanor his wife ; sir William de Clopton, knight, 
and Mary his wife, with William their son; sir 
Richard Keleshall, knight; sir Thomas Haslearton, 



144 CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 

knight; sir John Rotsie, of Harlton, knight; and 
sir Henry Colville, knight, and Margaret his wife. 
Henry de Tangmer, the founder of the ancient 
hospital of S. Anthony and S. Eligius, was also a 
member of one of these societies. 

On Corpus Christi day, 1352, Henry duke of 
Lancaster accepted the aldermanship of Corpus 
Christi gild, in which office he continued many years. 
Shortly before the foundation of the college the 
two gilds were united, and the united gild con- 
tinued to subsist for about a hundred years after- 
wards. 

THE FOUNDATION. Edward III., by letters patent 
dated at the Tower of London the 7th of November, 
in the 26th year of his reign [1352], to the honour 
of Grod and for the increase of divine learning, also 
at the request of the duke of Lancaster, granted and 
licence gave to the alderman and brethren of the 
gild of the precious body of Jesus Christ and the 
glorious virgin Mary his mother, of Cambridge, 
that they might acquire to themselves in fee a certain 
house of scholars chaplains, and others, and might 
institute and found the same for all time to endure, 
under the name of the house of scholars of Corpus 
Christi and Blessed Mary of Cambridge, to be ruled 
by a certain master of the same house according 
to the ordinance of the same alderman and brethren : 
and that the same alderman and brethren might give 
and assign the aforesaid messuage, with the appur- 
tenances, to the aforesaid master and scholars; to 
hold to them and their successors for their habitation 
for ever. He also licenced the alderman and bre- 



CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 145 

thren to give and assign to the master and scholars 
for ever, the advowson of the church of S. Benedict 
of Cambridge, so that they might appropriate the 
same, and it, so appropriated, and the messuage 
aforesaid might hold to them and their successors 
for ever in aid of their sustentation. 

By other letters patent of the same date, the king 
at the duke's request granted and licence gave to 
the alderman, brethren, and sisters of the gild, that 
they twenty marks land and rent in the town of 
Cambridge and elsewhere, might acquire in fee ; 
and those so acquired, together with ten marks 
land and rent which the gild of S. Mary had acquired 
in fee before the gild of Corpus Christi was united 
thereto, might give and assign to the master and 
scholars chaplains of the house of the body of Jesus 
Christ and blessed Mary, by them the alderman and 
brethren in the town of Cambridge then of late 
founded, for divine service to be celebrated for ever 
in the church of S. Benedict of Cambridge for the 
healthful state of him and his consort whilst they 
lived, and for their souls when they should have 
departed this life, and for the souls of the brethren 
and sisters of the gild, and the heirs and successors 
of the said gild then existing, and the souls of all 
the faithful deceased. 

A formal transfer of lands and rents was made 
by the alderman and brethren of the gild, to the 
master and fellows of the college, by an instrument 
dated on the feast of S. Benedict 1352-3. 

On 1st June, 1353, .an agreement was made be- 
tween the duke of Lancaster, alderman of the gild 
VOL. i. L 



146 CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 

(with the consent of the college and gild) and the 
master and fellows of Gonville hall, for the exchange 
of certain property. Under this exchange, which 
was duly ratified by royal authority, this college 
acquired the site in Lurteburgh lane (now Freeschool 
lane,) upon which Gonville hall had been originally 
erected. 

In the first instance, the college consisted only 
of a master and two fellows. The number of fellows 
was however soon afterwards increased by various 
benefactions and acquisitions. Statutes for the govern- 
ment of the college were given by the alderman 
and brethren of the gild at the first foundation of 
the college, but these were superseded by another 
code under the seals of the gild and the master and 
fellows, and ratified by the bishop of Ely, the prior 
and convent of that church, the chancellor of the 
university, and the duke of Lancaster on S. Benedict's 
day 1356. 

This college suffered very considerably in the 
great riot which commenced in this town on 15th 
June, 1381. (a) The mob broke open the apartments 
of the scholars, and took away or destroyed the books, 
charters, writings and effects, together with plate 
to the amount of 80. The master and fellows 
subsequently recovered this sum for the damage 
which they had sustained on the occasion. 

About the close of the fourteenth century, the 
college began to be generally known as Benet college 
(from its proximity to the church of S. Benedict), 
and this adventitious title was so generally adopted 

(a) See Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, i. 120. 



CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 147 

at a later period, as entirely to supersede its correct 
designation of Corpus Christi, which indeed has only 
been generally revived within the last forty years. 

The college during the earlier period of its ex- 
istence appears to have considerably increased its 
prosperity, by purchasing estates in consideration of 
life annuities. 

From the survey taken by Drs. Parker, Redman 
and Mey, in February 1545-6, it appears that the 
society consisted of a master, who had 6. 13s. 4c?. 
per annum for stipend and commons ; nine fellows, 
of whom eight had each 5. 6s. 8d. and one 4. 
per annum for stipend and commons. Various sums 
amounting together to 6., were equally divided 
annually amongst the master and fellows. There 
were also three bible clerks, each having 405. per 
annum for stipend. The estates of the college, 
situate in Cambridge, Barnwell, Landbeach, Histon, 
Impington, Milton, Barton, Grantchester, Chatteris, 
and Over in Cambridgeshire, were returned as of the 
clear yearly value of 171. 7s. 6c?., being 18. 15s. 3d. 
less than the annual expenditure. 

BENEFACTORS. Henry de Tangmer, burgess of 
Cambridge, of whom mention has been already made, 
by will, 1361, gave lands and money to a great 
extent; Thomas de Cambridge, in the same year, 
gave eight marks per annum; William Horwode, 
sometime mayor of Cambridge, gave, in 1362, mes- 
suages, lands, and money; Thomas Lolleworth, of 
Cambridge, by will, dated 1393, gave S. Nicholas 
hostel and other messuages in Cambridge ; Thomas 
de Eltesle, the first master, who died 1399, gave 

L2 



148 COKPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 

plate and books, and left the college in a very 
flourishing condition ; Eobert Bingham, a brother of 
the gild, left, by will, four tenements in S. Botolphs, 
Cambridge; Richard de Billingford, D.D., master, 
and chancellor of the university, who died 1432, 
gave plate and books, and a sum of money which 
was deposited in a chest, whence loans were made 
to the master and fellows ; Thomas Markaunt, B.D., 
fellow, who died 1439, gave seventy-six books, valued 
at about 100.; John Botwright, D.D., master, gave, 
in 1473, a manor and lands at Over, in the county 
of Cambridge ; Walter Smyth, B.D., master, who 
died 1488, gave in his life-time a messuage and 
lands in Cambridge ; William Kent, fellow, who 
died 1485, gave, by will, a messuage in Cambridge ; 
Simon Grene, B.D., master, who died 1487, gave 
lands in Cambridge ; Richard Brocher, B.D., fellow, 
and rector of Landbeach, who died 1489, founded a 
bible clerkship ; Elizabeth, widow of John Mowbray, 
duke of Norfolk, and her sister Eleanor, widow of 
sir Thomas Botelar, (daughters of John Talbot, earl 
of Shrewsbury) out of the great devotion to the body 
of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary were sincere 
friends and great benefactors to this society, whereto 
they gave two hundred and twenty marks for the re- 
paration and reconstruction of the buildings ; Thomas 
Cosyn, D.D., master, who died 1515, gave forty- 
five acres of land in Barton, a tenement in Cam- 
bridge, 40. in money, also plate, and printed books ; 
Thomas Exton, of Cambridge, by will 1518, gave 
20., besides the residue of his goods; Peter Nobys, 
D.D., master, 1516 to 1523, gave money and books; 



CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 149 

John Sayntwarie and James Curson, fellows, founded 
a bible clerkship 1525 ; Laurence Moptyd, B.D., 
master, bequeathed 30. in 1557; a scholarship was 
founded in 1569 out of effects bequeathed for chari- 
table purposes by John Mere, M.A., one of the esquire 
bedels of the university ; Matthew Parker, D.D., 
master from 1544 to 1553, and subsequently arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, was a most munificent donor, 
giving lands, annuities, rectories, plate, and goods, 
and a most valuable library of which particular 
mention will hereafter be made. He also increased 
the number of fellowships and scholarships, and 
his frugal and faithful management of the revenues 
of the college during his government redounded 
greatly to its advantage; sir Nicholas Bacon, lord 
keeper of the great seal, sometime a student of this 
house, gave, in 1577, 20. per annum to found six 
scholarships, and in the following year 200. towards 
the erection of the chapel; Roger Manners, esq., of 
Uffington in the county of Lincoln, gave the rectory 
of East Chinnock in Somersetshire for the main- 
tenance of four poor scholars ; Mrs. Alice Caston, 
by will dated 161S, gave an annuity of 18. for 
founding three scholarships ; John Borage, of North 
Walsham in Norfolk, and sometime a member of 
Clare hall, left, by will in 1636, an annuity of 5. 
for a scholar; Edward Coleman, M.A., in 1659 gave 
20. per annum for four scholars; Richard Sterne, 
archbishop of York, sometime fellow, gave, in 1677, 
20. a year for the maintenance of two scholars ; 
John Spencer, D.D., master, and dean of Ely, gave, 
in 1687, an estate at Elmington in Northamptonshire, 



150 CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 

of the annual value of more than 200. to augment 
the mastership, fellowships, and scholarships, and for 
other purposes, moreover, by his will, he gave money 
and books ; Samuel Chapman, rector of Thorpe by 
Norwich, and sometime fellow, by will, dated 1700, 
gave 150. for Hebrew exhibitions; Thomas Tenison, 
archbishop of Canterbury, sometime fellow, gave in 
his lifetime the rectories of Duxford S. Peter in 
Cambridgeshire, and of Stalbridge in Dorsetshire, 
and by his will bequeathed 1,000. for augmen- 
tation of the mastership, fellowships, and scholar- 
ships; Nicholas Bacon, B.D., fellow, who died 1717, 
bequeathed 150.; Thomas Tooke, D.D., master of 
Bishop's Stortford school and sometime fellow, who 
died 1721, gave 20. for the increase of the library, 
and left, by will, the rectories of Great Braxted 
and Lambourne in the county of Essex; Thomas 
Herring, archbishop of Canterbury, sometime fellow, 
bequeathed in 1755 1,000. towards the rebuilding 
of the college; the rev. George Sykes, M.A. of 
Trinity college, left, by will in 1766, 1,000. for 
the maintenance of four scholars educated in S. Paul's 
school; Matthias Mawson, bishop of Ely, sometime 
master, by will dated 1770, gave 6,000. for the 
foundation of twelve scholarships, also 3,000. to 
accumulate until it should amount to a sufficient sum 
to defray the charges of taking down and rebuilding 
the college ; John Green, bishop of Ely, sometime 
master, bequeathed the lease of the rectory of Alford 
for certain annual prizes to scholars, undergraduates, 
and bachelors of arts, 300. for rebuilding the college, 
and 50. for the purchase of books ; Mr. John Stock 



CORPUS CHEISTI COLLEGE. 151 

of Hampstead, left, by will in 1781, 1,000. for 
founding a scholarship in connexion with S. Paul's 
school; Edward Bradford, B.D., rector of Stalbridge, 
and sometime fellow, in 1811 gave 500. to accu- 
mulate until the income should be 50. per annum, 
such income to be then applied to whatever purpose 
the college might think fit ; Henry Flitcroft, esq., M.A. 
of Hampstead, sometime fellow-commoner, bequeathed 
to the college in 1826 all his greek and latin books, 
in number about five hundred and fifty, consisting 
of the best editions of the classics. 

EMINENT MEN. John de Neketon, D.D., master, 
chancellor of the university, died 1397. Richard 
de Billingford, D.D., master, chancellor of the uni- 
versity, died 1432. Thomas Markaunt, fellow, 
author of collections respecting the privileges, 
charters, and lands of the university, died 1439. 
Edmund Connyngesburgh, archbishop of Armagh, 
died 1477. John Sycling, (a) fellow of this college, 
last master of God's house and first master of Christ's 
college, died 1509. Thomas Cosyn, (a) D.D., master, 
chancellor of the university and Margaret professor, 
died 1515. John Edenham, (a) D.D., master, almoner, 
and confessor to Arthur, prince of Wales, died 
1516-7. Thomas Dusgate alias Bennet, (ffl) fellow, 
martyred near Exeter, 1531-2. Richard Reynolds, (a) 
fellow, executed for denying the king's supremacy, 
1535. Richard Wolman, (a) LL.D., dean of Wells 
and a distinguished canonist, died 1537. George 
Wishart, (a) martyred at S. Andrew's, 1545-6. William 

(a) These are noticed in Athense Cantabrigienses, by C. II. and 
Thompson Cooper, Vol. I. 



152 COKPUS CHEISTI COLLEGE. 

Warner, (a) D.D., fellow, one of the early reformers, 
flourished 1553. Thomas Goodrich, (o) bishop of Ely 
and lord chancellor, died 1554. John Palsgrave, (a) 
chaplain to Henry VIII., and author of a french 
grammar and other works, died 1554. George 
Day, (a) bishop of Chichester, died 1556. Edmund 
Allen, (a) fellow, bishop elect of Rochester, died 1559. 
William Tolwyn, (o) fellow, an early reformer and 
sufferer for his religious opinions, flourished 1559. 
Matthew Parker, (0) master, archbishop of Canterbury, 
died 1575. Richard Taverner, (o) editor of a trans- 
lation of the Bible, author of Postils upon the epistles 
and gospels, and numerous other works, and a com- 
poser of church music, died 1575. William Birch, (a) 
fellow, warden of Manchester, died 1575. Thomas 
Aldrich, (0) master, and a noted puritan, died 1576-7. 
Sir Nicholas Bacon, (a} lord keeper of the great seal, 
died 1578-9. Peter Bignon, (o) reader of hebrew in 
this university and afterwards at Oxford, flourished 
1580. William Latimer, (o) D.D., dean of Peterborough, 
and chaplain to queen Elizabeth, died 1583. Francis 
Kett, fellow, burnt for arian opinions at Norwich, 
1588. Edward Leeds, LL.D., master of Clare hall, 
and master in chancery, died 1589-90. John Lowth, 
an early reformer, ultimately archdeacon of Notting- 
ham, died 1590. John Copcot, D.D., master, a 
strenuous opponent of puritanism, died 1590; John 
Greenwood and Henry Barrow, executed for pub- 
lishing books against the church establishment, 1593. 
Christopher Marlowe, a dramatic poet of high ex- 

(o) These are noticed in Athense Cantabrigienses, by C. H. and 
Thompson Cooper, Vol. I. 



CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 153 

cellence, died 1593. Andrew Peerson, fellow, one 
of the translators of the Bishop's Bible, died 1594. 
Robert Harrison, a leader amongst the Brownists, 
died about 1595. Richard Fletcher, fellow, bishop 
of London, died 1596. Richard Cavendish, translator 
into english of Euclid's Elements, died about 1600. 
Samuel Bird, fellow, minister at Ipswich, and author 
of Lectures on the Scriptures and other works, 
flourished 1605. Thomas Legge, LL.D., master of 
Caius college, died 1607. Roger Manners, fifth 
earl of Rutland, a famous traveller and ambas- 
sador to Denmark, died 1612. Benjamin Carier, 
fellow, canon of Canterbury, an excellent scholar, 
who went over to the church of Rome, died 1614. 
Robert Parker, fellow, a noted puritan divine, 
author of a Discourse against symbolizing with Anti- 
christ, and other works, died 1616. John Jegon, 
master, bishop of Norwich, died 1617-8. John 
Boyle, bishop of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross, died 1620. 
Dabridgcourt Belchier, author of poems and trans- 
lations, died 1621. John Boys, D.D., dean of Canter- 
bury, author of postils and sermons, died 1625. 
John Fletcher, author of numerous excellent dra- 
matic works, chiefly written in conjunction with 
Francis Beaumont, died 1625. John Cotta, M.D., 
a physician at Northampton, author of several curious 
works, flourished 1628. Robert Browne, a noted 
Independent, from whom that sect were termed 
Brownists, died 1630. Edward Lapworth, M.D., 
Sedleian professor of natural philosophy at Oxford, 
and a distinguished physicipji at Bath, died 1636. 
Sir Robert Dallington, master of Charterhouse, author 



154 CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 

of Travels in Tuscany and other works, died 1637. 
Eobert Bertie, earl of Lindsey, K.G, lord high admiral, 
and commander of the forces of king Charles I., died 
of wounds received at Edgehill 1642. Eichard 
Boyle, the great earl of Cork, died 1643. Richard 
Boyle, archbishop of Tuam, died 1644-5. James 
Tabor, registrary of the university, author of valu- 
able collections relative to the rights and privi- 
leges of that body, died 1645. Richard Love, D.D., 
master, dean of Ely and Margaret professor, died 
1660-1. Benjamin Thornton, LL.D., law professor 
at Gresham college, died 1667. Francis Wilford, 
D.D., master, dean of Ely, died 1667. William 
Rawley, D.D., lord Bacon's learned chaplain and 
editor of the works of that great philosopher, died 
1667. Edward Boys, fellow, author of a volume 
of sermons, died about 1667. Daniel Langhorne, 
fellow, a learned antiquary and historian, died 1681. 
Richard Sterne, fellow, archbishop of York, died 

1683. Peter Gunning, master, bishop of Ely, died 

1684. Laurence Womack, bishop of S. David's, 
died 1685. John Spencer, D.D., master, dean of 
Ely, author of the famous work De Legibus He- 
brseorum, died 1693. William Howard, lord Howard 
of Escrick, deeply implicated in plots against the 
government of Charles II., died 1694. William 
Smith, D.D., canon of Norwich, a great scholar and 
divine, died 1697. John Houghton, F.R.S., author 
of various useful compilations on agriculture and 
trade, flourished 1699. John Aucher, D.D., canon 
of Canterbury, a sufferer for his loyalty to Charles I., 
and author of several publications, died 1700. John 



CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 155 

Fairfax, fellow, a pious nonconformist minister of 
high reputation as a preacher, died 1700. William 
Briggs, M.D., fellow, a great oculist, and a good 
linguist and philosopher, died 1704. Edward Tyson, 
M.D., a skilful anatomist and ingenious writer, died 
1708. Thomas Tenison, fellow, archbishop of Can- 
terbury, died 1715. Henry Briggs, LL.D., fellow, 
Gresham professor of law, died 1718. Thomas 
Herne, fellow of Merton college, Oxford, a writer 
in the Bangorian controversy, died 1722. John 
Johnson, fellow elect, author of the Unbloody Sacri- 
fice Unveiled, a Collection of Canons, and other 
works, died 1725. Benjamin Ibbot, D.D., fellow, 
treasurer of the church of Wells, author of Discourses 
against Freethinking, and other sermons, died 1725. 
Eobert Moss, D.D., fellow, dean of Ely, author of 
numerous sermons, died 1729. Timothy Goodwin, 
archbishop of Cashel, died 1729. Samuel Bradford, 
master, bishop of Rochester, died 1731. William 
Stanley, D.D., master, dean of S. Asaph, a learned 
and charitable divine, author of discourses against 
the church of Rome, and compiler of the first printed 
catalogue of archbishop Parker's MSS., died 1731. 
Elias Sydal, fellow, bishop of Gloucester, died 1733. 
Nathanael Salmon, author of the antiquities of Hert- 
fordshire, Essex, and Surrey, Lives of the english 
bishops, and a Survey of the Roman Stations in 
England, died about 1733. Edward Tenison, bishop 
of Ossory, died 1735. Samuel Wesley, author of 
a paraphrase on Job, a Life of Christ, and father 
of John and Charles Wesley, founders of the sect of 
Methodists, died 1735. Michael Stanhope,' D.D., 



156 COKPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 

canon of Windsor, author of sermons, died 1737. 
Thomas Greene, master, bishop of Ely, died 1738. 
Alured Clarke, D.D., dean of Exeter, author of an 
Essay towards the character of queen Caroline, and 
sermons, died 1742. Thomas Brett, LL.D., a famous 
nonjuring divine, author of numerous controversial 
works, died 1743-4. John Lewis, author of a history 
of the translations of the Bible, lives of Wicliffe, 
bishop Pecok, and bishop Fisher, and of numerous 
other works, historical and theological, died 1746. 
Edmund Castle, master, public orator, and dean of 
Hereford, died 1750. Sir Charles Clarke, baron of the 
Exchequer, died 1750. Brock Rand, fellow, rector 
of Leverington, an industrious antiquary, who made 
valuable collections for a parochial history of Cam- 
bridgeshire, died 1753. Edward Braddock, a mili- 
tary commander, who was slain in an attempt to 
drive the French from the Ohio, 1755. Arthur 
Ashley Sykes, D.D., author of numerous controversial 
tracts, died 1756. John Micklebourgh, fellow, pro- 
fessor of Chemistry, died 1756. Richard Arnald, 
author of a commentary on the apocrypha, died 
1756. Benjamin Hoadley, M.D., physician to the 
royal household, author of the comedy of the Sus- 
picious Husband, and of various professional and 
scientific works, died 1757. Thomas Herring, fel- 
low, archbishop of Canterbury, died 1757. Stephen 
Hales, D.D., fellow, a natural and experimental phi- 
losopher of great ability, died 1761. Charles Powlett, 
duke of Bolton, died 1765. William Stukely, M.D., 
a highly distinguished antiquary, author of Itine- 
rarium Curiosum, and other works of repute, died 



CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 157 

1765. John Denne, D.D., fellow, archdeacon of 
Rochester, author of collections for a history of the 
church of Rochester, died 1767. Henry Gaily, D.D., 
canon of Gloucester and Norwich, author of a treatise 
on greek accents, and translator of Theophrastus, 
died 1769. Sir John Gust, speaker of the house of 
commons, died 1770. Charles Yorke, lord high chan- 
cellor, (intended to have been created lord Morden), 
died 1770. Matthias Mawson, master, bishop of 
Ely, died 1770. George North, vicar of Codicote, a 
man of extraordinary knowledge in the history and 
antiquities of this kingdom, died 1772. John 
Lawry, canon of Rochester, one of the authors of 
Athenian Letters, died 1773. James Bate, fellow 
elect, author of sermons, and works against the 
Methodists and Quakers, died 1775. John Hoadley, 
LL.D., master of S. Cross by Winchester, and author 
of various poems and dramatic works, died 1776. 
Henry Heaton, fellow, canon of Ely, one of the 
authors of Athenian Letters, died 1777. Samuel 
Salter, D.D., fellow, master of Charterhouse, and an 
accurate greek scholar, died 1778. John Green, 
master, bishop of Lincoln, died 1779. Michael Tyson, 
fellow, a good antiquary and artist, died 1780. John 
Duncombe, fellow, author of poems, criticisms, and 
works connected with history and antiquities, died 
1786. Benjamin Newton, author of two volumes of 
sermons, died 1787. Edward Burnaby Green, author 
of poems, essays and translations, died 1788. Richard 
Rigby, master of the rolls in Ireland, paymaster of 
the forces, and a celebrated politician, died 1788. 
Richard Elliott, a dissenting minister, author of 



158 CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 

various controversial works, died 1788. Philip Yorke, 
second earl of Hardwicke, high steward of the uni- 
versity, editor of State Papers, and one of the authors 
of Athenian Letters, died 1790. Sir William Ash- 
burnham, fellow, bishop of Chichester, died 1797. 
Robert Masters, fellow, author of the history of this 
college and other antiquarian works, died 1798. 
Samuel Denne, author of numerous topographical 
publications, died 1799. Anthony Morris Storer, a 
man of singularly varied accomplishments and a great 
collector of books and prints, died 1799. Frederic 
Hervey, earl of Bristol, and bishop of Derry, died 
1803. Philip Yorke, author of The Royal Tribes 
of Wales, died 1804. Brownlow Gust, first lord 
Brownlow, died 1807. James Yorke, bishop of Ely, 
died 1808. James Nasmith, D.D., fellow, editor of 
Tanner's Notitia Monastica, and compiler of cata- 
logues of the MSS. in the libraries of this college 
and of the university, died 1808. Richard Gough, 
editor of Camden's Britannia, author of the Sepul- 
chral Monuments of Great Britain, and of numerous 
other historical, topographical and antiquarian works 
of great merit, died 1809. David Pitcairn, M.D., a 
physician in extensive practice, and much celebrated 
for his sagacity and sound judgment, died 1809. 
Sir William Addington, one of the metropolitan 
police magistrates, author of an abridgment of the 
penal statutes and other works, died 1811. Anthony 
Hamilton, D.D., archdeacon of Colchester, died 1812. 
Matthias D'Oyly, fellow, archdeacon of Lewes, died 
1815. William Beloe, translator of Herodotus, and 
author of the Sexagenarian, Anecdotes of Literature, 



CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 159 

criticisms, &c., died 1817. John Owen, fellow, a 
preacher of much ability, author of the history of 
the Bible Society, Travels in various parts of Europe, 
and other works, died 1822. Sir John D'Oyly, 
fellow, governor of Ceylon, and a great oriental 
scholar, died 1824. Luke Heslop, fellow, archdeacon 
of Buckingham, died 1825. Thomas Clare, vicar of 
S. Bride's, London, a preacher of much celebrity, 
died 1829. Peter Sandiford, D.D., fellow, professor of 
astronomy at Gresham college, died 1835. Thomas 
Singleton, D.D., archdeacon of Northumberland, died 
1842. Richard Povah, LL.D., many years a popular 
London preacher, died 1842. William Chafy, D.D., 
master of Sidney college, died 1843. Thomas 
Edwards Hankinson, author of a volume of Seatonian 
prize and other poems, died 1843. James Bowstead, 
fellow, bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, died 1843. 
George D'Oyly, D.D., fellow, editor, with bishop 
Mant, of the Family Bible, and author of the Life 
of archbishop Sancroft, died 1846. John Lamb, D.D., 
master, dean of Bristol, editor and continuator of 
Masters's history of this college, and author of 
several works in elucidation of ecclesiastical and 
academical history, died 1850. Thomas Image, rector 
of Whepstead, an accomplished geologist, musician, 
artist, and general scholar, died 1856. Sir Charles 
Mansfield Clarke, M.D., a distinguished physician in 
London, died 1857. 

BUILDINGS. Previously to 1823 this college con- 
sisted principally of one court, the entrance to which 
was the small gateway near the western end of 
S. Benedict's church. Southward of this court (then 



160 



CORPUS CHEISTI COLLEGE. 







WINDOW OF THE OLD HALL. 



called the great court, but now known as the old 
court), were a number of irregularly placed buildings 
including the chapel and what was known as the 
Pensionary. The middle of the south side of the 
first court was occupied by the hall, to the east of 
which stood the master's lodge, and to the west the 
kitchen. The disposition of the old buildings is ex- 
hibited in Loggan's view. Dr. Lamb's edition of 
Masters contains a plate of the chapel with the 
library over it, and the Pensionary. 

The old buildings having been found too small 
for the increased number of students, (a) it was re- 

(a) The stone for the original buildings came from Cherryhinton. 
In 1686 the buildings were found upon a survey to be so much de- 
cayed in the foundation, walls, and roof, that, in the judgment of able 
workmen, the charge of repair would amount to 1,000. or more. The 
society being unable to raise that sum drew up a paper soliciting contri- 
butions from such as were or had been members of the house, and from 



CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 161 

solved to build, with funds which had accumulated 
for the purpose, a new court extending to Trump- 
ington street, on the site of houses belonging to 
the college. These houses having been pulled down, 
the first stone of the new buildings was laid on the 
2nd of July, 1823, by Philip, earl of Hardwicke, 
high steward of the university. As the works pro- 
ceeded it was thought requisite to take down much 
of the old edifice, and to build a new hall, chapel, 
library, and master's lodge. The architect was 
William Wilkins, R.A., sometime fellow of Caius 
college. 

The chief entrance to the college now opens into 
Trumpington street, opposite S. Catharine's college. 
The new buildings are certainly handsome and the 

all lovers of knowledge and good works. It seems however that little 
money was collected. Mr. Masters (1753) represents the buildings as 
being in a bad and ruinous condition, notwithstanding the large sums 
which had from time to time been expended in supporting them. He gave 
his plan for new buildings. According to this the old court and hall were 
to be retained and a new court erected of three sides open to Trumpington 
street, and extending to S. Botolph's church yard. He proposed that the 
master's lodge should be between the hall and chapel, that the chapel 
should be in the centre of the eastern side of this court with a cloister of 
seventeen arches in front. Over this cloister was to have been a gallery 
and the library. The combination room and kitchen were to have been 
on the northern side of the court. The residue of that side and the whole 
of the southern side consisting of apartments for the fellows and students. 
The style of architecture is Italian, exceedingly plain, with the exception of 
a portico to the chapel of six Ionic columns supporting a pediment with a 
cupola. Mr. James Essex, a Cambridge architect of considerable repu- 
tation, alleged, and it seems truly, that this design was a plagiarism. 
(See Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 480; v. 117; ix. 788.) Mr. Essex's design 
for the new buildings, which differs but slightly from Mr. Masters's, may be 
seen in an engraving which now hangs on the staircase leading to the 
college library. There also may be seen an elaborate plan shewing the 
state of the site now occupied by the new buildings of the college, im- 
mediately before such buildings were erected. 

VOL. I. M 



162 COKPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 

front of the college forms one of the chief ornaments 
of the town. It is two hundred and twenty-two 
feet in length. The interior quadrangle measures 
one hundred and fifty-eight feet by one hundred 
and twenty-nine. The centre of the east side is 
occupied by the chapel, to the south of which is 
the entrance to the master's lodge. On the south 
side of the court is the library, and on the north 
the hall and combination room, with a passage lead- 
ing to the old court. 

THE CHAPEL. Previously to the reformation the 
religious services of the society were performed in 
the adjacent churches of S. Benedict and S. Botolph. 
The latter edifice does not appear to have been used 
by the college after the reformation. It was not till 
1579 that the college began to build a chapel. 

Towards the cost sir Nicholas Bacon, lord-keeper, 
gave 200., and his widow forty marks. Amongst 
the other contributors were the dean and chapter of 
Canterbury, archbishop Grrindal, the corporation of 
Norwich, sir Francis Drake the famous circumnavi- 
gator, John Parker, esq., serjeant Bendlowes, Dr. 
Norgate, master, and Edward Leeds, LL.D., master of 
Clare hall. Queen Elizabeth gave timber from 
Barton, a portion of the stone came from the dis- 
solved priory of Barnwell, and the residue was given 
by the earl of Bedford from his quarries at Thorney. 
The chapel was not finished till 1594. 

It is somewhat remarkable that this chapel was 
not consecrated till the feast of S. Matthew, 1662, 
when the ceremony was performed by Matthew 
Wren bishop of Ely. Upon that occasion an organ 



CORPUS CHKISTI COLLEGE. 163 

was put up. It was presented by Dr. Wilford, then 
master, and Dr. Lawrence Woniack, afterwards bishop 
of S. Davids, and was taken down in 1742, having 
been long previously disused. 

The present, chapel which is not of large dimen- 
sions, was erected in 1827. It is a neat gothic 
structure, with a groined roof of five bays. On 
the floor are inscriptions commemorative of John 
Spencer, D.D., master and dean of Ely, 27th May, 
1693 ; John Barnardiston, D.D., master, 17th June, 
1778; William Colman, D.D., master, 2nd January, 
1822 ; John Lamb, D.D., master and dean of Bristol, 
19th April, 1850. In the ante-chapel is a small 
slab commemorative of William Wilkins, esq., M.A., 
R.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Professor of architecture in the 
Royal academy, who was the architect of this 
college, and died 31st August, 1839. All these 
inscriptions, except those which commemorate Dr. 
Lamb and Mr. Wilkins, are from the old chapel. 

In the centre of the chapel is an eagle lectern 
of wood. The stall work which was removed 
from the old chapel is very neat and appropriately 
simple. 

The eastern window and two of the side windows 
are occupied by stained glass, representing scriptural 
subjects. The glass in the side windows was pre- 
sented by Mr. Wilkins, the architect, and the Rev. 
Thomas Shelford, fellow of this society, and their 
arms appear in the upper compartments of one of 
these windows. 

The west window is also filled with stained 
glass, purchased by eighty-two gentlemen chiefly 

M2 



164 CORPUS CHEISTI COLLEGE. 

members of the society. It is however now entirely 
concealed by an organ which was put up in 1855. 

Choral service is performed in this chapel on Sun- 
days and other Feast days. 

THE HALL which is approached by a flight 
of stone steps, is a handsome apartment in the 
gothic style with an ornamental roof. At the 
western end on the south side is a spacious oriel, 
with a groined roof and a good window. On the 
wall opposite to the oriel is a portrait of bishop 
Bowstead, and over the fellows' table are the por- 
traits of archishops Parker, Tenison, and Herring. 

All the windows except two are occupied by 
stained glass, exhibiting the armorial bearings of the 
college, Henry duke of Lancaster, archbishop Parker, 
Thomas Butts, esq., (quartering Bacon of Bacons- 
thorpe), Laurence Moptyd master, Richard Aungier, 
esq., Roger Manners fifth earl of Rutland, (twenty 
quarterings), Edward Lucas, esq., Henry Butts, D.D. 
master, Edward the Confessor, Francis Russell second 
earl of Bedford, (eight quarterings,) archbishop 
Grindal, archbishop Tenison, archbishop Herring, 
Dr. John Spencer master, Thomas Greene .bishop 
of Ely, sir John Cust speaker of the house of com- 
mons, Brownlow Cust first lord Brownlow, bishop 
Mawson, John Green bishop of Lincoln, bishop 
Yorke, Philip Yorke second earl of Hardwicke, Dr. 
Philip Douglas master, Dr. John Lamb master, 
the city of Norwich, the city of Canterbury, the 
borough of Thetford, Newburgh and Beauchamp 
quarterly, Scrope and Tiptoft quarterly, Delapole 
and Wingfield, William Bendlowes serjeant-at-law, 



CORPUS CHKISTI COLLEGE. 165 

Edward Croucliback earl of Lancaster, Thomas de 
Eltisle the first master, the dean and chapter of 
Canterbury, bishop Bradford, Philip Yorke esq. of 
Erthig, Dr. John Barnardiston master, and Dr. 
William Colman, master. The smaller lights con- 
tain the arms of the rev. Edward Bradford rector 
of Stalbridge, Thomas Herring rector of Braxted, 
Edward Addison rector of Landbeach, Thomas 
Greene fellow, John Gust lord Brownlow, Dr. 
George D'Oyly, Dr. Peter Sandiford rector of Ful- 
modeston, and Henry Porcher, esq., M.P. Some of 
the stained glass is old. The residue was executed 
by Mr. Yarrington of Norwich, by whose skill the 
older coats were repaired, and the windows fitted 
up as they now appear. 

THE COMBINATION EOOM. This comfortable apart- 
ment which is situate immediately behind the western 
end of the hall, contains portraits of Erasmus, 
dean Colet, dean Spencer, Dr. Tenison bishop of 
Ossory, Dr. Thomas Tooke, sir John Cust, and also 
engravings of bishop Bowstead and Edward Edwards 
rector of S. Edmund's Lynn. There is also a large 
painting of the School of Athens, by Nicholas Poussin 
after Raffaelle, the gift of Mr. Wilkins the architect. 
On the north side is a bow window filled with stained 
glass representing the arms of the college, Henry 
duke of Lancaster, archbishops Parker, Sterne, Tenison, 
and Herring, bishops Fletcher, Jegon, Gunning, 
Sydal, Bradford, Mawson, Green, Ashburnham, and 
Bowstead, Allen bishop elect of Rochester, deans 
Spencer, Castle, and Lamb, and George Wishart the 
martyr. 



166 CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. . 

THE LIBRARY. The college library was at first 
kept in a room adjoining to the old master's lodge. 
Early in the reign of Elizabeth it was removed to 
an apartment built for the purpose over the butteries 
and kitchen. When the chapel was erected it was 
again removed to a room over that building, where 
it remained until the erection of the present library, 
which is a very handsome apartment eighty-seven 
feet long, twenty- two wide and twenty-five high, with 
a good coved roof. The manuscripts kept at the 
western end were nearly all collected by archbishop 
Parker soon after the dissolution of monasteries. 
Although the number of volumes does not exceed 
four hundred, the collection is of a very valuable and 
interesting character. (a) An excellent catalogue was 
published by James Nasmith fellow of the society, 
Cambridge, 4to. 1777. Although the archbishop's 
regulations for the conservation of his MSS. are some- 
what stringent, (6) strangers desirous of consulting them 

(a) Fuller says it was the Sun of English antiquity before it was 
eclipsed by that of sir Robert Cotton. Some notion of the nature of 
the collection may be obtained from A collection of letters, statutes, and 
other documents from the MS. Library of Corp. Christi Coll., illustrative 
of the History of the University of Cambridge, during the period of the 
Reformation, from A.B.MD., to A.D.MDLXXII. edited by John Lamb, D.D., 
Master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and Dean of Bristol. Lond. 
8vo. 1838. The volume from which the greater part of these Documents 
is taken is No. 106. The remaining documents are taken from Nos. 108, 
114, 118 and 242. 

(b) The Masters of Caius college and Trinity hall are required to 
make a survey of the library annually on the 6th of August. If six MSS. 
in folio, eight in quarto, and twelve of a less size be lost through supine 
negligence and not returned within six months, the collection is to be 
forfeited to Caius college, and if that society should be guilty of the 
like neglect Trinity hall is to be entitled thereto. The collection is still 
we are glad to say intact. 



CORPUS CHKISTI COLLEGE. 167 

can readily obtain permission to do so from the 
master and fellows. 

THE MASTER'S LODGE contains portraits of archbishop 
Parker, bishops Jegon, Greene, Bradford, and Maw- 
son, Drs. Love, Spencer, Stanley, Colman, Barnar- 
diston, Douglas, and Lamb, all of whom were masters 
of the college : and of sir Nicholas Bacon and Mr. 
Baron Clarke. 

THE PLATE. This college possesses the following 
curious specimens of ancient plate. 

The horn given to the gild of Corpus Christi in 
1347, by John Groldcorne, the alderman of that body. 
It is tipped with silver. No description can give an 
adequate idea of this remarkable relic of antiquity. (<l) 

The cup of the three kings is of small dimensions, 
having a shallow bowl four-and-a-half inches in 
diameter, on the lip of which are the names Jasper, 
Melchior, Balthassar, and three crowns. The ma- 
terial is a dark brown and hard wood, with silver 
embellishments. At the bottom of the bowl is a 
circular and raised medallion, on which is engraven 
a squirrel cracking nuts and sitting on the back 
of a fish. The stem of this cup is of silver gilt, 
twisted in the form of a six threaded screw, and 
is three-and-a-quarter inches in height. (6) 

Thirteen silver gilt spoons with knops having 
the figures of Christ and the twelve Apostles, given 

(a) Engraved from a drawing by Michael Tyson, in Archeeologia, iii. 1 9. 
There are also two engravings of it in the Cambridge Portfolio, from 
drawings by sir Henry Dryden, bart. 

(6) All these articles are engraved in Specimens of College Plate, by 
Kev. J. J. Smith, Camb. 4to. 1845. There is also an engraving of the 
salt-cellar in Dibdin's Reminiscences. 



168 COKPUS CHKISTI COLLEGE. 

for the use of the master and twelve fellows, by 
archbishop Parker. They weigh twenty-two ounces. 
Each spoon is seven inches long. (a) 

A salt-cellar of elegant form, eleven inches and 
three-quarters in height, the gift of Archbishop Parker. 
It stands on three feet, representing the forepart 
of some strange mythological animal apparently 
three-toed and web-footed. On these is placed a 
highly ornamented base or circular moulding, above 
which is the cylindrical body of the salt-cellar. In 
the middle section or circumference it is decorated 
with three different heads of horned satyrs, sur- 
rounded by oval borders, and there are appropriate 
inscriptions on narrow bands at the top and bottom. 
The lid or cover is of very elegant shape, and is 
highly ornamented and chased. On the top is a 
pepper-box, supported by three curious projecting 
figures of sea-horses. (a) 

A splendid ewer and bason, also the gift of arch- 
bishop Parker. (a) 

A cup with cover, weighing fifty-three ounces, 
chased in a quaint and singular fashion, the gift 
of archbishop Parker, 1st January, 1569-70. (J) 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS. There are twelve 
fellowships, two of them are appropriated to the 
county of Norfolk, and two to the Norwich scholars 
on archbishop Parker's foundation. The number of 
scholarships is sixty. 

(a) All these articles are engraved in Specimens of College Plate, by 
Rev. J. J. Smith, Camb. 4to. 1845. There is also an engraving of the 
salt-cellar in Dibdin's Reminiscences. 

(6) Engraved in Cambridge Portfolio. 



CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE. 169 

When queen Elizabeth visited the university in 
August, 1564, the society consisted of the master, 
eight fellows, six pensioners in fellows commons (in- 
cluding Latimer dean of Peterborough, and two 
masters of arts) three bible clerks, six poor scholars, 
and eight pensioners in scholars commons. In all 
thirty-two. 

Dr. Caius in his History of the University, pub- 
lished 1573, states that the college consisted of the 
master, twelve fellows, twenty scholars, four bible 
clerks, six inferior ministers, and fifty-four pensioners, 
making a total of ninety-seven members. 

In 1621 there were the master, twelve fellows, 
and fourteen scholars, making with students, &c., 
a total of one hundred and forty. 

Fuller states, that in 1637, the society consisted 
of the master, twelve fellows, and thirty-seven scholars, 
besides officers and servants of the foundation, the 
whole number being one hundred and twenty-six. 

In August, 1641, one hundred and eight members 
of this college contributed to a poll-tax. 

There were in 1672 the master, twelve fellows, 
and thirty-seven scholars, besides officers and servants 
of the foundation, the whole number of the society 
being one hundred and forty-five. 

Carter in 1749 states that the college consisted 
of the master, twelve fellows, and forty-five scholars 
and exhibitioners, the total number being usually 
about sixty. 

PATRONAGE. The patronage of this college com- 
prises the benefices of Duxford S. Peter, Landbeach, 
Little Wilbraham, Grantchester, and S. Benedict Cam- 



170 CORPUS CHEISTI COLLEGE. 

bridge, in Cambridgeshire ; Stalbridge in Dorsetshire ; 
Great Braxted and Lambourne in Essex; S. Mary 
Abchurch with S. Laurence Pounteney in London ; 
and Thurning and Fulmodeston with Croxton in 
Norfolk. 




GATEWAY TO THE OLD BUILDINGS, KING'S COLLEGE. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 

THIS college was founded by King Henry the 
Sixth. In the first instance it was designed on 
a scale not greatly superior to those foundations 
which we have already noticed, but the monarch 
soon enlarged his views, and the result was the estab- 
lishment of a college which in every respect far 
excelled all others which had previously existed in 
this university. We proceed to give a brief sketch 
of the personal history of the pious but unfortunate 
founder. 



172 KING'S COLLEGE. 

THE FOUNDER. Henry the Sixth, the only son 
of king Henry the Fifth by Catharine of Valois, 
youngest daughter of Charles VI., king of France, 
was born at Windsor on the feast of S. Nicholas, 1421. 
His father was then in France, and on hearing of 
the event is said to have prophetically exclaimed, 
" I, Henry of Monmouth shall gain much in my short 
reign, but Henry of Windsor will reign much longer 
and lose all, but God's will be done." 

By the death of his father which occurred in 
France, 31st August, 1422, when he was only nine 
months old, he succeeded to the crowns of France 
and England. His uncle the duke of Gloucester was 
constituted lord protector of England, and his uncle 
the duke of Bedford became Regent of France. 

He was knighted by the duke of Bedford before 
he was four years old, and on the 6th November, 
1429, was crowned king of England at Westminster 
by archbishop Chichele. On the 17th November, 
1431, he was also crowned king of France at Paris 
by cardinal Beaufort. 

He was married at Southwick in Hampshire, on the 
22nd April, 1445, to Margaret daughter of Rene, duke 
of Anjou and titular king of Jerusalem, Sicily, Arra- 
gon, Valence, &c. Of this lady we shall hereafter 
have to speak as the foundress of Queens' college. 

The reign of Henry VI. was a series of disasters. 
The English were driven out of France. A formid- 
able rebellion headed by Jack Cade was followed 
by a fierce civil war arising out of the claims of 
the house of York to the crown, and in 1461, Henry 
ceased to reign. He was restored during a brief 



KING'S COLLEGE. 173 

interval in 1470, but was at length murdered in the 
Tower, 21st May, 1472. 

On the following day his body was brought to 
S. Paul's in an open coffin barefaced. The body 
bled. Thence it was carried to the Blackfriars, 
where it bled afresh. It was then taken in a boat 
to Chertsey abbey without priest or clerk, torch or 
taper, and there buried. Edward IV. caused the 
body to be removed to S. George's chapel at Windsor, 
and to be there interred under a fair monument of 
which there are now no remains. 

His only son Edward, prince of Wales, was mur- 
dered soon after the battle of Tewkesbury. 

Henry VI. had none of the qualities which make 
a good king. More fitted for the cloister than the 
throne, he was ill able to contend with the turbulent 
spirit of the times, or control the animosities of civil 
strife. His misfortunes and meek piety however, 
greatly endeared him to the common people, who 
reverenced his memory with intense devotion. It 
was believed that miracles were wrought at his tomb, 
and Henry VII. made an attempt to get him canon- 
ized. To shew the feeling with which he was once 
regarded, we subjoin a latin hymn written about the 
beginning of the sixteenth century by a canon of 
Windsor, with a translation by Mr. P. H. Howard : 

Salve ! miles preciose, Hail Henry soldier of the Lord ! 

Rex Henrice generose, In whom all precious gifts accord ; 

Palmes vitis celice ; Branch of the heavenly vine, 

In radice caritatis Rooted in charity and love, 

Vernans flore sanctitatis, Serenely blooming as above 

Viteque angelice. The saints angelic shine. 



174 



KING'S COLLEGE. 



Salve ! flos nobilitatls, 
Laus et honor dignitatis, 

Seu corone regie ; 
Pie pater orphanorum, 
Vera salus populorum, 

Robur et ecclesie. 

Salve ! forma pietatis, 
Exemplar humilitatis, 

Decus innocencie ! 
Vi oppressis vel turbatis, 
Mestis atque desolatis, 

Scola paciencie. 

Salve ! fax superne lucis, 
Per quam servi summi ducis 

Illustrantur undique : 
Dum virtute lucis vere, 
Meruisti prefulgere, 

Tantis signis gratie. 

'Salve! quern Bex seculorum 
Choris jungens angelorum 

Civem fecit patrie ; 
Te laudare cupientes 
Fac ut semper sint fruentes 

Tecum vita glorie ! Amen, 



Hail, flower of true nobility, 
Honour, and praise, and dignity, 

Adorn thy diadem ; 
Meek father of the fatherless, 
The people's succour in distress, 

The church's strength and gem. 

Hail pious king ! in whom we see 
The graces of humility, 

With spotless goodness crown'd ; 
By sorrow stricken and oppress'd, 
To those who vainly sigh for rest, 

Mirror of patience found. 

Hail, beacon of celestial light ! 
Whose beams may guide our steps 
aright 

Thy blessed course to trace ; 
In virtue's paths for ever seen, 
Mild and ineffably serene, 

Radiant with every grace. 

Hail, whom the King of endless time 
Hath called to angel-choirs sublime 

In realms for ever bless'd ! 
May we who now admiring raise 
These all-unworthy notes of praise, 

Share in thy glorious rest ! 



The circumstances of his death have given rise 
to much controversy, and doubt has been expressed 
as to the day on which that event occurred. In ad- 
dition to the overwhelming evidence already adduced 
to prove that it was the 21st of May, we may 
state that on that day his obiit was annually kept 
both here and at Eton college. 

THE FIRST FOUNDATION. On the 12th of February, 
1440-1, king Henry VI. by charter, founded a college 



KING'S COLLEGE. 175 

in this university, to consist of a rector and twelve 
scholars (more or less, according to the revenues,) 
to be governed by such statutes and ordinances as 
should be established by William Alnwick, bishop 
of Lincoln, William Aiscough, bishop of Salisbury, 
William Lyndewode, keeper of the privy seal, (after- 
wards bishop of S. Davids,) John Somerseth, chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, and John Langton, (a) chancellor 
of the university, or the greater part of them. The 
rector and scholars were to pray for the good estate 
of the king during his life, and for his soul and the 
souls of his father and mother, his progenitors, and 
all the faithful deceased, and were to reside in build- 
ings to be erected upon certain soil of* the king's, 
near the new schools of Divinity and Canon JLaw 
in the School-street. He appointed master William 
Millyngton, D.D., rector, and John Kirkeby and 
William Hatteclyffe two of the scholars ; and incor- 
porated the society by the name of the rector and 
scholars of the King's college of S. Nicholas, of 
Cambridge. 

By another charter, granted at the same time or 
soon afterwards, the king gave to the rector and 
scholars the reversion of the manors of Ruyslip, in the 
county of Middlesex, and Great and Little Okeburne, 
in the county of Wilts, parcel of the possessions of the 
priory of Okeburne which had been a cell to the 
abbey of Bee, in Normandy. These estates had 
been granted by the king to the university, but 

(a) Langton appears to have first suggested to the king the idea of 
founding a college in Cambridge, and to have instigated and advised 
him in carrying it out. 



176 KING'S COLLEGE. 

were surrendered to him to the intent that they 
might form part of the endowment of this college. 

By another charter, dated 31st of July, 1441, 
the king granted to the rector and scholars 100s. 
rent of the lands of the abbey of Lucerne, after the 
death of his uncle Humphrey duke of Gloucester ; the 
reversion of the manor of Willoughton, in Lincolnshire, 
which had belonged to the abbey of S. Nicholas, at 
Angers ; the reversion of the alien priory of Allerton 
Mauleverer, in the county of York, formerly belong- 
ing to the abbey of Marmoutier, in the suburbs of 
Tours ; the reversion of 100s. rent which the prior of 
Wenlock, in the county of Salop, was wont to render 
to the house of Clugny ; the reversion of the manors 
of Monkeston and Combe, in the county of Hants.; 
the reversion of a pension of 100s. out of the rectory 
of West Kington, in the county of Wilts., late belong- 
ing to the abbey of Foulgeres ; the reversion of the 
pension of 20., formerly paid by the abbat of 
Rufford for the moiety of the church of Rotherham 
to the alien abbey of Clarevaux ; the annual pension 
of 40s. formerly paid by the prior of Blythe, in the 
county of Nottingham, to his chief house beyond 
the seas (S. Catharine near Rouen) ; and the reversion 
of the priory and manor of Stour Preaux, formerly 
belonging to the abbey of S. Leger de Preaux, in 
Normandy. 

On the 15th of March, 1441-2, the king granted to 
the rector and scholars the priory of Mount S. Michael, 
and the manor of Tyleshyde in Cornwall, also the 
manor and rectory of Felsted in Essex, all of which 
estates were parcel of the possessions of the abbey 



KING'S COLLEGE. 177 

of Caen, the lands, tenements, and possessions in 
Spalding, Lincolnshire, formerly the possessions of 
the abbey of S. Nicholas at Angers, and the profits 
of the church of Cosham in the county of Wilts., 
late belonging to the same abbey. 

On the 7th of June, 1443, he granted to the rector 
and scholars the manor of Brighston Deverell, in the 
county of Wilts., which had been parcel of the pos- 
sessions of the alien priory of Okeburne. 

THE SECOND FOUNDATION. On the 10th of July, 
1443, the king issued letters patent for altering the 
foundation of the college, to which he directed that 
the scholars of Eton, when sufficiently learned in 
the rudiments of grammar, should be transferred. 
He changed the title of rector to provost, continu- 
ing William Millyngton in that office; he directed 
the corporate title to be, the provost and scholars 
of the King's college of our Lady and S. Nicholas 
in Cambridge ; and he exonerated the bishop of Lin- 
coln and others from the charge of making statutes, 
reserving that power to himself. The number of 
scholars was fixed at seventy. 

By a charter dated 12th of December, 1443, the 
king granted to the provost and scholars the rever- 
sion of the priory of Wotton, with the appurtenances 
in the counties of Warwick and Worcester, and the 
manors of West Wrotham in Norfolk and Molkeley 
in Warwickshire. These estates had all pertained to 
the alien abbey of S. Peter de Conches in Normandy. 

On the 8th of February, 1443-4, John Langton 
licentiate in decrees, chancellor of the university, 
and the congregation of regents and non-regents, 
VOL i. N 



178 KING'S COLLEGE. 

by an instrument under the seal of the university 
and that of the office of chancellor, decreed that, 
during the king's life, in every school of the uni- 
versity, there should at all times be an exhortation 
to pray for him, as the founder of King's college 
and of the college of Eton, and as the munificent 
benefactor of other colleges in the university; and 
that after his death, divine service should be cele- 
brated for his soul. 

On the 16th of June, 1444, the king empowered 
Reginald Ely and others to press masons, carpen- 
ters, and other workmen for the buildings of this 
college. 

On the 1st of July, 1444, was executed an Ami- 
cabilis Concordia between the two colleges founded 
by William of Wykeham, at Oxford and Winchester, 
and the two colleges founded by the king, at Cam- 
bridge and Eton. By this instrument these colleges 
agreed mutually to assist each other in all suits and 
controversies. 

On the 6th of July, 1444, the king granted to the 
provost and scholars two tuns of Gascony wine 
yearly, and by another charter dated the 15th of 
the same month, he granted to them the reversion 
of the priory of S. James near Exeter, which had 
pertained to the .house of S. Martin des Champs 
near Paris, also of the manor of Withiham, alias 
Monkecourt. 

On the 16th March, 1444-5, the king by the advice 
and assent of parliament granted a charter to the 
college, containing extensive concessions, exemptions, 
and privileges to the provost and scholars, and to 



KING'S COLLEGE. 179 

their farmers, men, and tenants, and the residents 
within their lordships, lands, tenements, fees, and 
possessions. He thereby also granted to the provost 
and scholars a tenement or inn, late of Edmund 
Goldyngton, in the parish of S. Edward, between 
the tenement of John Colbrooke on the north, and 
the tenement late of Agnes Jacob on the south : 
a messuage or cottage, late of the said Edmund 
Goldyngton, abutting on the high street and lying 
between the tenement of Agnes Jacob on the north, 
and the tenement of John Duxworth on the south : 
the advowsou of S. John the Baptist, with license 
to appropriate the same: a tenement, mansion, or 
hostel, near the said church, called S. John's hostel : 
a tenement, mansion, or hostel, lying between 
Pyron-lane, and the tenement late of William Lin- 
coln on the north, and the tenement late of John 
Colbrooke on the south ; the said tenement, mansion, 
or hostel being lately called S. Edward's hostel : 
a certain parcel of the way, street, or lane called 
Mylne-street, otherwise Saint John's-street, extending 
towards the south from the lane lying under the wall 
of the friars Carmelite called Cholle's-lane, otherwise 
Whitefrere-lane, to Clare hall towards the north : 
and a certain parcel of the way called Scole-lanes, 
stretching towards the west from the high street, 
containing in length one hundred and eighty-five 
feet : also the whole lane called Pyron-lane ; also the 
lane called Strawe-lane ; together with a certain bank 
called Salthithe; and all the soil lying common 
between the said lane called Cholle's, otherwise 
Whitefrere-lane on the south, and Clare hall on 

N2 



180 KING'S COLLEGE. 

the north, and between Mylne-street, otherwise Saint 
John's-street, on the east, and the high river bank 
on the west ; which parcels of way, street, or lane, 
with the bank and soil aforesaid, had been lately 
granted to the king by the mayor, bailiffs, and com- 
monalty of Cambridge : (license was also given by the 
king to the provost and scholars to enclose the same :) 
a tenement or hostel lying in the parish of S. John, 
abutting on Mylne-street, and called S. Edmund's 
hostel : a tenement or hostel situate in the same 
parish, abutting on the way aforesaid and called 
S. Nicholas' hostel, lately purchased by the king of 
Simon Dallyng clerk: a tenement or inn, called the 
Boar's Head, situate between Nut-lane on the north, 
and the tenement of Thomas Mast and the tenement 
late of Robert Couper on the south, lately purchased 
by the king of Edmund Goldyngton. 

License was also given to John Langton, clerk; 
Henry Somer, esq. ; Walter Taillard and John Coote, 
clerk, to grant to the Provost and scholars all those 
tenements, messuages, buildings, mansions, gardens, 
curtilages, and soil in the town of Cambridge which 
they or any or either of them had in fee simple to 
them and their heirs, as the same was divided and 
parcelled between the Scole-lanes under Gronville 
hall, and the tenement of the prior and convent of 
Anglesey, late in the tenure of Roger Dodd, deceased, 
on the north, Nut-lane on the south, and between 
the High-street on the east, and Mylne-street on the 
west, and between Mylne-street and the common 
river and between Clare hall on the north, and 
Cholles-lane or Whitefrere-lane on the south. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 181 

By the same charter the prior and convent of 
Barnwell were empowered to grant a parcel of land 
or soil called Holwelle, lying at Madingley, in the 
field of that place, near their grange, called Moor- 
bernes, containing thirty feet in length and thirty 
feet in breadth, to the Provost and scholars, for the 
construction of a subterranean aqueduct, to lead there- 
from to the college, with power for the prior and 
convent and all the king's subjects, at the will of the 
provost and scholars, to dig the soil between the 
said land and the college, for laying water-pipes 
and repairing the aqueduct. 

Licence was also given to Henry Grey, lord 
Powys, to grant to the college the priory of Kersey, 
in the county of Suffolk, with all the manors and 
lands pertaining to the same. 

By the same charter the king granted to the provost 
and scholars the priory of Brysett, in the county of 
Suffolk, with all its lands and possessions. This 
priory had been a cell to the priory of Nobiliac, in 
the diocese of Limoges. He also granted a messuage 
in S. Botolph's, Cambridge, and certain lands in 
Newnham and Grantchester, together with the rever- 
sion of an annual sum of 40. payable by the 
abbat, prior, and convent of Bury S. Edmund's for 
the custody of the temporalities of that abbey. 

By a charter, dated 3rd of May, 1445, the king 
granted to the provost and scholars all the lands, 
tenements, and possessions in Spalding and Pinch- 
beck, in the county of Lincoln, formerly pertaining 
to the abbey of S. Nicholas at Angers ; and the alien 
priory of Cosham and portions of tithes in Rip- 



182 KING'S COLLEGE. 

pingale and Wyberton, in the same county, which 
the abbat of Angers formerly had. 

By charters dated 6th of August, and 6th of 
November, 1445, he granted to the college the ad- 
vowson of Prescot, in Lancashire. 

On the llth of November, 1445, he granted the 
reversion of the deanery of S. Burien, Cornwall, 
which had belonged to the alien priory there. 

By two several charters, dated 7th of February, 
1445-6, he granted the advowson of the church of 
Ringwood, in Hampshire, and an acre of land there, 
also a tun of wine to be taken yearly in the ports 
of Bishops Lynn or London. 

An elaborate code of statutes prepared by William 
Waynflete (himself afterwards the munificent founder 
of Magdalen college, Oxford) was formally accepted 
by the college, 20th July, 1446. One clause permits 
the election by the choristers of a boy-bishop, who 
might on the feast of S. Nicholas perform divine 
offices except the secret mass, but is expressly pro- 
hibited from officiating on Innocent's day. By an 
additional statute, the scholars after three years of 
probation, were to swear that they would not favour 
the damnable opinions, errors, or heresies of John 
Wicklif, Reginald Pecock, or any other heretic. (0) 

William Millyngton, the provost, had conscien- 
tious objections to the statutes and refused to swear 
to their observance, whereupon he was ejected from 
the provostship by Thomas Beckington, bishop of 
Bath and Wells, Walter le Hart, bishop of Norwich, 

(a) These statutes with other matters relating to this and Eton college, 
were published by Messrs. Heywood and Wright. Lond. 8vo. 1850. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 183 

and William marquess and earl of Suffolk, acting 
under a royal commission directed to them and 
others. (ffl) 

By a charter dated 15th of February, 1446-7, the 
king granted to the college a wood called Blackholly, 
parcel of the forest of Waltham, in Essex. 

By another charter dated the 23rd of the same 
month, he granted to the college the reversion of 
houses in the parish of S. Andrew, in the ward of 
Baynard castle, London, then held by Humphrey 
duke of Gloucester. 

On the 1st of March following, he granted lands 
and tenements in Fordingbridge, Hampshire, and the 
advowson of the church there, with licence to hold 
the same appropriated. This estate the king had 
under a grant to him from Humphrey duke of Buck- 
ingham. 

Henry Beaufort, cardinal of S. Eusebius and bishop 
of "Winchester, died the llth of April, 1447. By a 
codicil to his will, dated at his palace of Wolvesey 
two days before his death, he gave 1000. to 
each of the colleges of Eton and King's, to be 
disposed of at the king's discretion, on condition 
that a special collect should be said for his soul 

(a) See notices of William Millington, first provost of King's college, 
by George Williams, B.D., fellow of King's college. In Communications 
to Camb. Antiq. Soc. i. 287-328. In this paper its author satisfactorily 
shews the inaccuracy of the oft repeated statements, that William Milling- 
ton was concerned in framing the statutes of King's college, and that 
he was expelled from the provostship for having in the execution of that 
task shewn partiality to his own countrymen, the natives of the north 
of England. Mr. Williams also clearly proves, that William Millington, 
although a benefactor to Clare hall, was not master of that society, and that 
he has been confounded with John Millington, bachelor of the canon 
law, master of Clare hall 1455 to 1466. 



184 KING'S COLLEGE. 

daily (except at certain specified feasts), and that 
his obiit should be annually celebrated with a mass 
of requiem, and exequies on the day preceding, in 
each college. 

On the 30th of October, 1447, Thomas Crosse, 
mayor of Cambridge, and the commonalty of the 
town, granted to the provost and scholars a certain 
parcel of pasture or meadow, late of the common of 
the town, with the hedges and ditches enclosing the 
same, lying within the common of the town, be- 
tween the river or water called Le Re on the east, 
and the land late of Merton college in Oxford on 
the west, containing in length, from the exterior part 
of the ditch on the south to the exterior part of the 
ditch on the north near the river, eight hundred 
and ten feet, and near the Willoughs between both 
the ditches aforesaid eight hundred and fifty feet, 
and containing in breadth on the south three hun- 
dred and ninety feet, and on the north three hun- 
dred and eighty-six feet. 

The grants of Blackholly, of the houses in London 
and of Fordingbridge were confirmed by a charter 
granted in parliament 25 Henry VI., and. by that 
charter were granted the stonehouse in Cambridge, 
called Merton hall, fourteen tofts, one watermill, two 
several fisheries, two hundred and sixty acres of 
arable land, twenty-eight acres of meadow, fifteen 
acres of pasture, 1155. 8d. rent of assize, liberty of 
half-fold, and various rents in kind in Cambridge, 
Howes, Girton, Grantchester, Coton, Over, Chester- 
ton, and Barnwell in the county of Cambridge, which 
were of the ancient foundation of Merton college, 



\ 




KING'S COLLEGE. 185 

but had been conveyed by the warden and scholars 
of that house to the use of this college ; also the re- 
version of the manor and advowson of the church 
of Cheshunt in the county of Hertford. 

On the 12th of March, 1447-8, the king made 
a will, dated at his college of Eton, and which 
relates almost exclusively to that and King's college. 
After reciting, that by four several letters patent 
confirmed by Parliament, he had enfeoffed to the 
use of his will, certain prelates, noblemen, and 
others, in divers castles, lordships, manors, lands, 
tenements, &c. parcel of the duchy of Lancaster, 
and of the gross annual value of 3395. 11s. 7d.] 
he charged the feoffees, that until the edifications 
and other works of bridges, conduits, cloisters, and 
other things began and advised by him in his 
colleges of Eton and Cambridge, were fully per- 
formed and accomplished, they should pay yearly 
2000. for those edifications and works, viz. 1000. 
to the provost of either college, from Michaelmas 
preceding for twenty years, or if the edifications 
were not finished within that term, he directed the 
feoffees to pay each college 1000. yearly after 
that time, until the works were completed, with 
provision that if the buildings of one college were 
completed before those of the other, the latter should 
receive the whole 2000. a year till its buildings 
were finished. 

He then proceeds to specify the plan, dimen- 
sions, &c. of the intended buildings of the two 
colleges. Subjoined is what relates to King's 
college : 



186 KING'S COLLEGE. 

THE COLLEGE OP CAMBRIDGE. 

AND as touchyng the demensions of the chirch of my said 
college of our lady and Saint Nicholas of Cambrige, I have 
devised and appointed that the same church shal conteyne in 
lenghte cc iiij viij fete of assize, withoute any yles, and alle of 
the widenesse of xl feete, and the lengthe of the same chirch 
from the west ende unto the auter atte the queris dors, shal 
conteyne cxx fete, And from the Provostes stalle unto the grece 
called Gradus Chori iiij feete, for 36 stalles on either side of 
the same quere, answeryng to Ixx felowes and x prestes con- 
ductes, which must be de prima forma, And from the said 
stalles unto the Est end of the said chirch Ixij feet of assize: 
Also a reredos beryng the Rodeloft departyng the quere and 
the body of the chirch, conteynyng in lengthe xl fete and in 
brede xiiii fete ; the walls of the same chirche to be in height of 
iiij feete, embatalled, vauted, and chare rofed, sufficiently bote- 
raced, and ev'y boterace fined with finials: and in the est 
ende of the said chirch shal be a wyndowe of xj dayes, and 
in the West ende of the same chirch a windowe of ix daies, 
and betwix every boterace a wyndowe of v bays, and betwix 
every of the same boteraces in the body of the chirche on 
bothe sides of the same chirche, a closette with an auter therein 
conteynyng in lengthe xx feete, and in breadth 10 feete vauted 
and finisshed, unther the soil of the yle windowes: and the 
pavement of the chirch to be enhaunced iiij feet above the 
groundes without, and the height of the pavement of the quere 
one fote diameter above the pavement of the chirche, and the 
pavement at the high auter iij fete above that. Item, on the 
north side of the quere a vestiarie, conteynyng in lengthe 
1 feete, and in brede xxij fete departed into ij houses benethe 
and ij houses above, which shal conteyne in height xxij feete 
in al, with an entre from the quere vauted. Item atte the 
west ende of the chirche a cloistre square the Est pane con- 
teynyng in lengthe clxxv fete, and the west pane as-muche; 
and the north pane cc fete, and the south pane as-muche; 
of the which the deambulatorie xiij fete wide, and in height 
xx fete to the corbel table, with clere stories and boteraced 
with finialls vauted and embatelled and the grounde thereof iiij 
fete lower than the chirch grounde; and in the myddel of 



KING'S COLLEGE. 187 

the west pane of the cloistre a strong toure square, conteyn- 
ing xxiiij fete within the walles, and in height cxx feete 
unto the corbel table, and iiij smale tourrettis over that fined 
with pynacles, and a doore into the said cloistre-ward, and 
outward noon. 

And as touchyng the demensions of the housyng of the said 
College, I have devised and appointed in the south side of 
the said church, a quadrant closyng unto bothe endes of the 
same chirch, the Est pane whereof shal conteyne ccxxx fete 
in lengthe, and in brede within the walls 22 feete; in the 
same pane myddes of the touer for a gatehouse conteynyng in 
lengthe xxx feete, and in brede 22 feete, and in height Ix fete, 
with iij chambres over the gate, every above other; and on 
either side of the same gate, iiij chambres, ev'y conteynyng 
in lengthe xxv fete, and in brede xxij fete ; and over ev'y 
of thoo chambres ij chambres above of the same mesure or 
more, with two toures outward and two toures inward. The 
south pane shall conteyne in lengthe ccxxxviij fete, and in 
brede xxii fete within, in which shal be vij chambres, ev'y 
conteynyng in length xxix fete, and in brede xxii, with a 
chambre, parcelle of the Provostes loggyng, conteynyng in 
length xxxv fete, and with a chambre in the East corner of the 
same pane, conteynyng in lengthe xxv fete, and in brede xxii 
feete; and over every of alle the same chambres ii chambres, 
and with v toures outeward, and iii toures inward : the west 
pane shal conteyne in lengthe ccxxx fete, and in brede within 
with xxiiij fete ; in which atte the ende toward the chirch 
shal be a librarie conteynyng in lengthe ex fete, and in breadth 
xxiiij fete, and under hit a large hous for redyng and dispu- 
tacions, couteynyng in length xl fete, and ii chambres under 
the same librarie, ev'y conteynyng xxix fete in lengthe, and 
in brede xxiiij fete; and over the said librarie an hows of 
the same largenesse for diverse stuf of the college : in the other 
end of the same pane an halle conteynyng in lengthe c fete, 
upon a vaute of xij fete high, ordeigned for the celer and 
boterie, and the brede of the halle xxxiiij fete, on ev'n side 
thereof a bay windowe, and in the nether ende of the same 
halle, toward the myddel of the said pane a panetrie and boterie, 
every of them in lengthe xx fete, and in breadth xvij fete, and 



188 KING'S COLLEGE. 

over that ii chambres for officers, and atte the nether ende of the 
halle toward the west a goodly kichen : and the same pane shal 
have ii towers inward ordeigned for the waies in to the halle 
and librarie, and in ev'y corner of said the quadrant shal be ij 
corner toures, oon inward and oon outward, mo then the toures 
above reherced ; and at the over ende of the halle the Provostes 
loggyng, that is to wete, mooe then the chambres above for hym 
specified, a parlour oon the ground, conteynyng xxxiiij fete in 
lengthe, and xxij in brede, ii chambres above of y e same quantite, 
and westward closing thereto his kichin, larder, hous, stable, and 
other necessarie housyns and groundes ; and westward beyonde 
thees housynges and the said kechen ordeigned for the halle, 
a bakhowse and brue hous, and other houses of offices, betwene 
which ther is left a grounde square of nij fete in every pane for 
wode and suche stuffe ; and in the middel of the said large 
quadrant shal be a condute goodly devised for the ease of 
the said college : And I wol that the edificacion of my same 
college precede in large fourme clene and substancial settyng 
a parte superfluite of too gret curious werkes of entaylle and 
besy moldyng. And I have devised and appoynted that the 
precincte of my same college of our Lady and Saint Nicholas, 
as wel on bothe sides of the gardine from the seid college unto 
the water, as in alle other places of the same precincte, be enclosed 
with a substancial wal of the height of xiiij fete, with a large 
tour at the principal entree ageyns the middel of the east 
pane out of the High strete ; and in the same tour a large 
gate, and another toure in the middel of the west ende at the 
newe brigge ; and the seid wal to be crested, and ernbatelled, 
and fortified with toures, as many as shal be thought conve- 
nient thereto. And I wol that bothe my seid colleges be edified 
of the moste substancial and best abidyng stuffe of stone, leede, 
glas, and iron, that may goodly be had and provided thereto j 
and that the chirch of Saint John, which muste be take to the 
enlargyng of my same college, be wel and sufficientli made 
agayn in the grounde in whiche the Provost and Scholers 
aboveseyd now be logged or nigh by where hit may be thought 
most convenient, to the intent that Divine service shall mow be 
doon thereyn worshipfully unto the honoure of God, our Blessed 
Lady Cristis moder, Saint John Baptist, and alle Saintis : And 



KING'S COLLEGE. 189 

also for the expedicion of the werkes aboveseid, I woll that my 
seid college of Cambrige have and perceyve yerely of the issues, 
profites, and revenues, comyng of the said castells, lordsheps, 
manors, landes, tenementes, rents, servyces, and other possessions 
abovesaid, cxvijfo*. vis. ~s.d. duryng alle the tyme of the edifica- 
tions of the same college, for the yerely wages and rewards 
of officers and ministres longing to the werkes there; that 
is to wete, for the maister of the werkes, Hi. for the clerke of the 
werkes, xiiifo'. vis. viiie?. for the chief mason, xvifo'. xiiis. ivd. for 
the chief carpenter xii?t. viiis. for the chief smyth vilt. xiiis. ivd. j 
and for ii purveours, eyther of them at \\d. by day, xviiifc vs. vie?. 

And, as lie desired that the full number of members 
appointed by him for his colleges, should "be ful- 
filled in as hasty time as they goodly may," and 
as part of the estates with which the colleges were 
endowed were then only in reversion, he charged 
his feoffees to pay to either college, 1000 marks 
per annum, during the lives of certain parties, and 
to deliver to the provost of either college 1000. 
in good gold of sufficient weight, for a treasure to 
be kept, for divers great causes specified in the 
statutes. He also required them to pay 200. to 
Eton college for the purchase of books, and the 
like sum to King's college "for to stuff them with 
Jewells for the service of Grod in the same college." 

After making provision for the appointment of 
new feoffees, and stating that he had ordained William 
Tresham, Esq., chancellor, and Nicholas Willoughbie, 
receiver-general, of the enfeoffed estates, and had 
appointed a seal for the office of chancellor; he 
directed, that after his death, the appointment to 
the offices of chancellor and receiver-general, upon 
vacancies occurring, and the appointment of stewards 



190 KING'S COLLEGE. 

and other officers, should be by the feoffees, at the 
nomination of the provosts of his colleges. 

He appointed William Waynflete, bishop of Win- 
chester, (whose high truth and fervent zeal unto 
his weal he had proved) surveyor, executor, and 
director of his will, during that prelate's life, with 
ample powers ; and after his death, a lord spiritual 
or temporal named by the bishop, was to succeed 
him as surveyor, subject to removal by the provosts. 

The will concludes with the following solemn 
charge to his executors and successors: 

And that this my seid wil in ev'y poynt before reherced 
may the more effectually be executed, I not oonly pray and 
desire, but also exorte in Crist require and charge alle and 
ev'y of my seid feffees, my executours, and surveour or sur- 
veours, in the vertue of the aspercion of Cristes blessed blode 
and of his paneful passion, that they havyng God and myne 
entent oonly before their eyen, not lettyng for drede or favour 
of any personne lyving, of what estat, degree, or condicion that 
he be, truely, feithfully, and diligently execute my same wil, 
and every parte thereof, as they wol answere before the blessed 
and dredeful visage of cure Lord Jhesu, in his most fereful and 
last doine, when every man shal most streitly examined and 
denied after his demeritees. And furthermore, for the more 
sure accomplisshment of this my seid wil, I in the most entier 
and most fervent wise pray my seid heirs and successours and 
every of theym, that they shewe them self wel-willyng, feithful, 
and tender lovers of my desire in this behalf; and in the bowells 
of Christ our alder, juste and streite juge, exorte theym to 
remembre the terrible commynacions' and ful-fereful impre- 
cacions of holy scripture agayns the brekers of the lawe of 
God, and the letters of goode and holy werkes. The which 
imprecacions holy scripture reherceth in the book of Deuteronomy 
saying, Quod si audire nolueris, venient super te omnes male- 
dictiones istae, et apprehendent te. Maledictus eris in civitate, 
rnaledictus in agro : maledictus fructus ventris tui, et fructus 



KING'S COLLEGE. 191 

terras tuae. Maledictus eris, egrediens, et maledictus eris in- 
grediens. Mittet tibi Dominus famem et esurienij et increpa- 
cionem in omnia opera tua quae tu facies, donee conterat te et 
perdat velociter, propter adinventiones tuas pessimas. Adjungat 
tibi pestilenciam : percuciat te dominus egestate febri et frigore 
ardore et estu, et aere corrupto ac rubigine et persequatur 
donee pereas. Tradat te dominus corruentem ante hostes tuos, 
&c. I also, in amyable wise, exorte my seid heires and suc- 
cessours in Crist Jesu, the liberal re warder of alle good deedis, 
to remembre the desiderable blessings and the moste bounteuouse 
grace, promytted to al suche as observe the preceptor of the 
lawes of Crist beyng helpers and promoters of good and vertues 
desires 5 {Scripture in the same place saying unto such : Venient 
super te universae benedictiones istae, et apprehendent te. 
Benedictus tu in civitate, et benedictus in agro: benedictus 
fructus ventris tui, et benedictus fructus terrae tuae ; benedictus 
eris ingrediens et egrediens. Dabit dominus inimicos tuos qui 
consurgent adversum te corruentes in conspectu tuo. Per unam 
viarn venient contra te, et per septem fugient a facie tua. 
Mittet dominus benedictionem super celaria tua et super omnia 
opera manuum tuarum ; suscitabit te dominus sibi in populum 
sanctum, videbuutque omnes terrarum populi, quod nomen 
domini invocatum sit super te, et timebunt te : abundare te 
faciet dominus omnibus bonis, &c. 

On the 1st of January, 1448-9, the king by 
letters patent, assigned to the college the following 
arms : sable, three roses argent, on a chief party 
per pale, azure with a flower of France, and gules 
with a lion passant, or. He designed by the colour 
of the field, to denote the perpetuity of his foun- 
dation ; by the roses, his hope that the college 
might bring forth the choicest flowers, redolent of 
science of every kind, to the honour and most 
devout worship of Almighty Grod and the undefiled 
virgin and glorious mother; and by the chief, 
containing portions of the arms of France and 



192 KING'S COLLEGE. 

England, he intended to impart something of royal 
nobility, which might declare the work to be truly 
regal and renowned. On the 30th of the same 
month, he granted to Nicholas Cloos clerk (after- 
wards bishop of Lichfield and Coventry) for his ser- 
vices in building the college, that he should be 
noble, and in sign thereof should bear for arms : 
argent, on a cheveron sable, three passion nails of 
the first, on a chief sable, three roses argent. 

In addition to the various privileges granted by 
him with the sanction of Parliament, to the college, 
the king obtained bulls from the Pope exempting the 
college and its members from the power and juris- 
diction of the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop 
and archdeacon of Ely, and the chancellor of the 
university; and on the 31st of January, 1448-9, 
the university, by an instrument under its common 
seal, granted that the college, the provost, fellows, 
and scholars, their servants and ministers, should 
be exempt from the power, dominion, and juris- 
diction of the chancellor, vicechancellor, proctors 
and ministers of the university ; but in all matters 
relating to the various scholastic acts, exercises, 
lectures, and disputations necessary for degrees, 
and the sermons, masses, general processions, con- 
gregations, convocations, elections of chancellor 
proctors and other officers, (not being repugnant 
to their peculiar privileges) they were, as true 
gremials and scholars of the university, to be 
obedient to the chancellor, vicechancellor, and proc- 
tors, as other scholars were. To this grant was 
annexed a condition that it should be void, in 



KING'S COLLEGE. 193 

case the bishops of Salisbury, Lincoln, and Carlisle 
should consider it inconsistent with the statutes, 
privileges, and laudable customs of the university. 
Another composition, of a more limited nature, was 
made eight years afterwards. (a) 

By a charter dated the 13th of September, 1448, 
the king granted the prebends of Chalk in Wiltshire, 
and of Ewern in Dorsetshire; and on the 6th of 
February, 1448-9, he granted the patronage or 
advowson of the priory of Borden in Essex, with 
all its possessions. 

On the 10th of February, 1 448-9 j the king granted 
to the provost and scholars a tenement in the parish 
of Blessed Mary near the Market, in the High 
street, between the tenement of Robert Lincoln on 
the south, and the tenement late of the master and 
brethren of the Hospital of S. John the Evangelist 
on the north: the ground or soil in the Scole- 
lanes between the tenement late of Corpus Christi 
college on the east, and other ground or soil late 
of Robert Lincoln on the west : the ground or soil 
lying in Scole-lanes under the gardens of Gonville 
hall, between a piece of soil or ground late of the 
master or warden and scholars of the house of 
S. Michael towards the east, and a garden late of 
the warden and fellows of the Hall of the Holy 
Trinity on the west, lately granted to the king by 
William Sida and Jojin Brunne, wardens of the church 
of Blessed Mary near the Market, and the p'arishioners : 

(a) Mr. Williams's Notices of William Millington, contain a letter from 
Henry VI. enjoining the abandonment of the first composition with the 
university. 

VOL. I. O 



194 KING'S COLLEGE. 

a messuage in the parish of S. Edward, between 
the tenement late of the master and brethren of 
the Hospital of S. John the Evangelist on the one 
part, and the tenement late of Thomas Fordham 
of the other part, one head abutting on the king's 
highway, which messuage the king had by the lease 
and delivery of Richard Gybbes of Cambridge, Tho- 
mas Fordham and Robert Joynour of the same town : 
a messuage situate in the late parish of S. John 
the Baptist, in Milnestrete, between the tenement 
of John Goldyngton on the north, and the tene- 
ment late of Robert Tyller on the south, one head 
abutting upon Milnestrete, and the other upon the 
tenement of the said John Groldyngton, which 
messuage the king had by the gift and grant of 
Hugh Tapton and Andrew Dokett clerks : a garden 
near the hostel of S. Edward, late in the tenure 
of Robert Joynour: a garden near the common 
river, and late in the tenure of John Wellys clerk : 
a tenement called the Horshede, situate in the 
High-street, in the parish of Blessed Mary near 
the Market, abutting upon Scole-lane on the north, 
and the tenement of the aforesaid master and bre- 
thren of the house and hospital of S. John the 
Evangelist on the south, and upon a certain parcel 
of ground belonging to the king on the east : a 
tenement late in the tenure of Geoffrey Neville, 
situate in Milnestrete, abutting upon ground late 
of the said Greoffrey Neville on the north, and the 
tenement of Agnes Jacob on the south: a certain 
piece of ground in Milnestrete, late in the tenure 
of William Lincoln : a cottage or house and garden 



KING'S COLLEGE. 195 

near Plutes-lane, otherwise called Nut-lane, between 
the king's tenement which was Agnes Jacob's : all 
lately granted to the king by the master and scholars 
of Corpus Christi college: a messuage or hostel 
called S. Austyn's hostel, with the garden and other 
tenements adjoining, in Milnestrete, in the parish late 
of S. John the Baptist, situate between the cemetery 
late of the same church on the north, and another 
tenement late the hostel of S. Edmund on the south, 
granted to the king by the master and fellows of the 
hall or house of Clare : a tenement in Milnestrete, in 
the said parish late of S. John the Baptist, between 
Pyron-lane on the north, and a certain tenement of 
the prioress and nuns of S. Mary and S. Ehadegund 
on the south: a piece of ground lying within the 
precincts of the King's college, and adjoining the 
late hostel of S. Edward, granted to the king by the 
prior and canons of the chapel of S. Edmund in Cam- 
bridge, of the order of S. Gilbert of Sempringham : 
a tenement with the appurtenances, in the parish 
of S. Mary near the market, between the tenements 
of the master and scholars of Corpus Christi college 
on the north, and the king's tenement late belonging 
to the chantry in the church of S. Mary near the 
market on the south : a tenement in the parish of 
S. Edward, situate between the king's tenement on 
the north, and another of the king's tenements on the 
south, lately granted to the king by the master and 
brethren of the house and hospital of S. John the 
Evangelist : a tenement in Plutes-lane, otherwise Nut- 
lane, between the king's tenement late of Agnes Jacob 
on the west, and a tenement of the master and scholars 

02 



196 KING'S COLLEGE. 

of Corpus Christ! college on the east, lately granted 
to the king by the abbess and nuns of Denny: 
a piece of soil or ground lying near the divinity 
schools, between Scoles-lanes on the east, and a 
garden of the king's late of the chantry in the church 
of Blessed Mary near the market, recently granted 
to the king by the master or warden and scholars 
of the house of S. Michael : a certain tenement or 
certain pieces of ground or soil with their appur- 
tenances, lying together in the parish late of S. John 
the Baptist, newly built upon, then called Seynt 
Austyn's hostel, between the tenement of the master 
and scholars of Corpus Christi college on the east, 
and Milne-street on the west, Nut-lane, otherwise 
Plutes-lane on the south, and a certain new lane 
lying under the said king's college on the north, 
and containing in length by the said lane called 
Nut-lane, otherwise Plutes-lane two hundred and 
thirty-five feet, and also in length by the said new 
lane two hundred and five feet, and in breadth 
at the east end between the said lanes sixty-three 
feet, and also at the west end in length between 
the said lanes ninety-three feet, granted to the king 
by the master and scholars of Corpus Christi college, 
the abbess and nuns of Denny, Agnes Jacob, and 
John Wering of Cambridge. 

By the same charter the king granted the college 
a messuage and a void piece of land in the town of 
Huntingdon. 

The king in parliament also declared, that the 
following property belonging to the provost and 
scholars should be the site on which the church and 



KING'S COLLEGE. 197 

buildings should be erected: the ground lying be- 
tween the High-street on the east, and the common 
river on the west, and between Whitefrere-lane and 
the new lane near the hostel, then called S. Austyn's 
hostel, on the south, and between Clare hall and the 
east part of the Scole-lanes on the north, containing 
in breadth at the east end four hundred and ten feet, 
and at the west end three hundred and eighty-four 
feet, and in length seven hundred feet. 

In 1454, there were very riotous assemblies in 
the university. King's college was an especial 
object of attack, and the rioters had provided guns 
and habiliments of war, against that college. One 
of the principal rioters was Master William Yvers 
of Michaelhouse, to whom on the 13th of June, 
the king addressed letters, requiring him to appear 
before himself and his council at the palace of 
Westminster, on the 18th of the same month. 
Similar letters were addressed to Mr. William 
Ayscough and others, and by other letters the Lord 
Scales was required to use his best devoir to put 
down the riots, and the mayor was commanded to 
seize the guns and habiliments of war. 

On the 26th of June in the same year, the univer- 
sity made certain statutes which prevented the members ' 
of King's college from taking degrees until they 
renounced the privileges granted to them by the king 
and the pope, which they refused to do. The college 
therefore complained to the king their founder, who 
on the 1st of July directed letters to be issued com- 
manding the admission of those whose degrees had 
been refused. 



198 KING'S COLLEGE. 

In 1456 the king constituted the provost for the 
time being a justice of the peace for the town and 
county of Cambridge. 

On the 14th of February, 1456-7, an indenture 
was made between Laurence Bothe, licentiate in 
laws, chancellor, and the doctors and masters regent 
and non-regent of the university of the one part, 
and Robert Woodlark, D.D., provost, and the fellows 
and scholars of this college of the other part, for 
setting at rest all matters of dissension respecting 
the several jurisdictions of the chancellor and provost. 
This composition was to this effect : 

1. That the provost, his locum tenens, or commissary, should 
have all manner of spiritual and temporal jursidiction, in all 
causes and matters arising in the precincts of the college and 
the orchards and gardens of the same, between the scholars, 
their household and domestic servants, and the conducts, clerks 
of the chapel, and choristers of the college, dwelling therein, 
and particularly the probate of the wills, and administration 
of the effects, of such of them as should die within the college. 

2. That should dissension or controversy arise between one 
of the university, and one of the college, within the precincts 
of the college, the provost &c. should have jurisdiction, if 
one of the university should be the party aggrieved ; and the 
chancellor &c. in case the party aggrieved should be one of 
the college. 

3. That the chancellor &c. should have jurisdiction over the 
provost, vice-provost, fellows, scholars, their servants, domestics, 
and tenants, chaplains, conducts, clerks, and choristers, in all 
matters and causes arising out of the college, and probate of 
the wills, and administration of the effects, of such of them as 
should die without the college. 

4. That the chancellor &c. should have power to summon 
the provost, vice-provost, fellows, scholars, and others of the 
college to make inquisition of breaches of the peace, to give 
evidence in all causes, and to attend scholastic acts, processions, 



KING'S COLLEGE. 199 

masses, exequies, congregations, &c., and to punish them for 
neglect, unless they should be prevented by being engaged in 
defence of the college or in the exercise of their jurisdiction. 

5. That the college precincts should be understood as includ- 
ing all within the stone walls of the college eastward of the 
water of Ree, and the garden on the west side, as the same is 
described by metes, bounds, length, and breadth in the charter 
granted to the provost and scholars by authority of parliament. 

6. That the members of the college should not, on taking 
their degrees, be required to take any oath inconsistent with 
this composition, and that they should be admitted to degrees 
and offices as freely as other members of the university. 

7. That every member of the university admitted to any 
degree or office, and the provost, fellows, and scholars of the 
college, on their admissions, should swear not to infringe this 
composition. 

The foregoing composition was confirmed by the 
king's charter of Inspeximus, tested at Coventry 
the 18th of February, 1456-7. 

In the parliament of 1459 the various grants 
made by the king to this college were fully ratified 
and confirmed. 

King Edward IV. gave to the college the priory 
of Tofte Monachorum in Suffolk, which had belonged 
to the monks of S. Peter de Preaux in Normandy, 
also the priory of Lessingham in the same county, 
which had belonged to the abbey of Bee. Both 
these priories had been granted by Henry VI. to 
Eton college. On the other hand, the estates in 
and near Cambridge which had belonged to Merton 
college, Oxford, were re-granted to that society ; the 
deanery of S. Burien was granted to the chapel of 
S. George at Windsor; the abbey of Sion obtained 
the priory of S. Michael's Mount ; and the allowance 



200 KING'S COLLEGE. 

for the college buildings from the duchy of Lancaster 
was stopped. During the greater part of that reign 
the works of the chapel were consequently suspended. 
At length in 1479, Walter Field warden of Win- 
chester college and chaplain to the king, was ap- 
pointed provost of this college. By his intercession 
1000. was obtained from the king. Field was 
appointed overseer of the works, whereon in little 
more than three years 1296. Is. Sd. was expended. 
Of this sum Thomas Rotheram, bishop of Lincoln and 
chancellor of England, sometime fellow of the college, 
and ultimately archbishop of York, gave 140. 

On the last of February, 1484-5, king Eichard III. 
directed the payment of 351. out of the revenues 
of the see of Exeter to Walter Field the provost 
towards the building of the chapel. Altogether the 
sum expended on the building during that short 
reign was 746. 10s. 9JJ. of which the king con- 
tributed 700. 

In 1489 an act of parliament was passed con- 
stituting the two archbishops and certain spiritual 
and temporal peers and others, a special but tem- 
porary court of judicature for the investigation of 
the titles of those persons who had dispossessed 
this college and the college of Eton of estates com- 
prised in the grants from Henry VI. 

On the 22nd of April, 1506, king Henry VII. visited 
Cambridge and kept the eve of the feast of S. George 
in the college chapel which was not then finished. 
Two years afterwards the works at the chapel were 
resumed at his majesty's expence. On the 31st of 
March, 1509, being three weeks before his death, 



KING'S COLLEGE. 



201 




AKMS OF HENRY VII. IN THE CHAPEL. 



he gave 5000. for the completion of the chapel. 
On the same day he made his will which contains 
the subjoined clause: 

Also where oure Uncle of blissed memorie, King Henry the 
Sixt, to the laude of God, and the encreace of connyng and 
doctrine in the lawes of God, to the edeficacion of our feith, 
and the weale of Cristen soule, founded and endued a famous 
College in our Universitie of Cambridge called the new College, 
and in the same begune a grete and large Churche, for divine 
service to be said and doon in the same, by the Fellowes of 
the said College, which church restith as yet vnperfited and 
vnfmisshed, litle or nothing wrought or doon thereupon syns 
the deceasse of our said Uncle : Saving that nowe of late to the 
honour of God, the weale of our soule, and for the singuler trust 
that we have to the praiers of our said Uncle, for the grete 
holynesse of life and vertue that he was of in erthe, we have 
at our propre costs and charges, caused workmen in a good 
nombre to worke upon the advancement of the building of 
the same Churche, intending by Godds grace incessantly to 



202 KING'S COLLEGE. 

contynue the same, til the said Church be perfitely buylded 
and fully finished. 

And for the more sure perfourmance and perfite finishing 
of the said Church, and other the premisses, and for the more 
redy paiement of the money necessarie in that behalve, we 
have delivered in redy money before the hande, to the Provost 
and Scolers of oure said College, the some of five thousand 
poundes, as by writings betwixt us and theim testifieng the 
same payments and receipte, and bering date at Richemount 
the laste daye of Marche the xxim yere of our Reigne it dooth 
more plainly appere ; the same V. M 1 . and every parcell thereof, 
to be truly emploied and bestowed by the said Provost, and 
other Provosts of the said College for the tyme being, vpon 
to and for the buylding and finishing of the said Churche, from 
tyme to tyme as nede shall require, by the advise, comptrolle- 
ment, and oversight, of suche personnes as we in our life, and 
our Executours after our desesse, if it be not doon in our life, 
shall depute and assigne, without discontynuyng the said works 
or any parte of theim, till thei bee fully finished, perfourmed 
and accomplished, as farre as the said Some of money of V. M 1 . 
shall extende. And that the said Provost that nowe is, and 
that hereafter shal be, bee accountable for the employeng and 
bestowing of the said V. M 1 . upon the said workes, to us in 
our life, and our Executours after our decesse, for such parcell 
thereof as shall reste not accompted for before that tyme, 
and not emploied nor bestowed upon the said works, as often 
and whansoever we or they shall calle hym therunto, as it is 
more largely expressed in the said Indentures. And in case 
the said v.Mi. shall not suffice for perfourmance and accom- 
plisshment of the said werkes and every parcell of theim, and 
that thei be not perfitely finisshed by us in our daies, we than 
wol that oure Executours from tyme to tyme as necessitie shall 
require, deliver to the said Provost for the tyme being, as moch 
money above the said Y.M 1 . as shall suffice for the perfite finisshing 
and perfourming of the said works, and every parte of theim ; 
the same money to be emploied and bestowed upon the perfite 
finisshing and perfourming of the said works, by the said 
Provost for the tyme being by the foresaid advise, oversight, 
comptrollement, and accompte, without desisting or discon- 



KING'S COLLEGE. 203 

tynueng the same werks in any wise, till thei and every parcell 
of theim as before is said, be fully and perfitely accomplisshed 
and performed, in manner and fourme before rehersed. And 
that the said Provost for the tyme being, for such somes of 
money as shall be delivered to hym by our Executours to the 
entente above rehersed, bee accomptable to theim as often 
and whansoever thei shall require. 

The king's executors on the 8th of February, 
1512-3, contributed a second sum of 5000. for the 
completion of the chapel. 

The college acquired by purchase a portion of 
the garden of the Carmelite friars soon after the 
suppression of religious houses. 

Surveys were made of all the colleges in Cam- 
bridge by Matthew Parker, D.D., John Redman, D.D., 
and William May, LL.D. in February, 1545-6. At 
that period this was by far the largest and most 
important foundation in the university. 

The annual emoluments of its members and officers 
were as follows : Provost : stipend 66. 135. 4e?. ; 
livery of himself and household 6. 135. 4d. ; from 
exequies of the founder and others 1. 3s. 4J. = 74. 105. 
Vice-provost : stipend as fellow 1. 15$. 6d. ; commons 
4. 65. 8d. ; office 4. ; livery 1. 6s. 8d. ; exequies 
13$. 4id. = 12. 2s. 2d. ; Dean of divinity: stipend 
as fellow 1. 65. 8^. ; commons 4. 6s. 3d. ; office 
1.; livery 1.; exequies lls. 8^. = 8. 5s. Each 
of two deans of arts : stipend 1. 6s. 8d. ; commons 
4. 6s. 8dj office and lectureship 4.; livery 1. ; 
exequies 8s. 4^. = 11. Is. 8d. Each of three bursars : 
stipend 1. Gd. 8d. ; commons 4. 6s. 8d. ; office 2. ; 
livery 1.; exequies 8s. 4d. = 9. 5s. 8d. Sacrist: 
stipend 1. 6s. 8d. ; commons 4. 6s. 8d. ; office 1. ; 



204 KING'S COLLEGE. 

livery 1.; exequies 11s. 8d. = 8. 5s. Each of four 
priests fellows : stipend 1. 65. 8d. ; commons 4. 65. 8d. ; 
livery 1. ; exequies 11s. Sd. = 7. 5s. Each of fifteen 
fellows M.A. but not priests: stipend 1. 6s. 8d.; 
commons 4. 6s. 8d.; livery 1. ; exequies 8s. 4J. = 
7. Is. 8d. Each of nineteen B.A. fellows : stipend 
1. ; commons 4. 6s. Sd. ; livery 16s. ; exequies 
8s. 4:d. = 6. 11s. Each of twenty-four scholars: 
stipend 13s. 4d. ; commons 4. 6s. 8^. ; livery 9s. ; 
exequies 5s. = 5. 14s. Five fellows lecturers, viz. 
of dialectics and philosophy 3. ; of greek and hebrew 
2. 13s. 4:d. = 5. 13s. 4e?. Ten priests conducts: 
of whom the precentor had for stipend 4. 6s. 8J; 
another 3. 13s. 4:d. eight 2. 13s. 4c?. each; and 
one 1. additional for the office of curate ; each 
had for commons 4. 6s. 8d. ; livery 13s. 4J. ; exe- 
quies 6s. 8d. ; Six clerks conducts : of whom the 
organist had for stipend 5. ; the informator choris- 
tarum 4. 6s. 8d. ; another 4. ; another 3. 13s. Id. 
and each of the two others 3. ; each had for commons 
4. 6s. 8d. ; livery 9s. ; exequies 5s. Each of six- 
teen choristers: exhibition and wages 3. 6s. 8d. ; 
exequies 2s. 6d. = 3. 9s. 2d. Auditor : stipend 3. ; 
commons of himself and servant during the time of 
account communibus annis 4. 6s. 8d. ; horse-food 
during same time 1. 6s. 8d. = 8. 13s. 4< Clerk of 
accounts and of the bursars and bailiff at Cambridge : 
stipend 6. ; commons 4. 6s. 8d. ; livery 12s. = 
10. 18s. 8d. Steward : fee 4. Clerk of the sacristry : 
stipend 3. 6s. 8d. ; commons 4. 6s. 8d. ; livery 9s. 
= 8. 2s. 4:d. Pantler, cook, barber, baker, groom, 
launder and porter each for stipend 2. Undercook, 



KING'S COLLEGE. 205 

two lads in the stable, and bell-ringer, each for wages 
1. 6s. 8d. Cellarer and scullion each 13s. 4J. Each 
servant had for livery 8s. ; the commons of the porter 
were 4. 6s. 8d. and of each of the others 2. 13s. 4J. 
The Vice-provost, Dean of divinity, and three of 
the priests fellows had extra allowances from par- 
ticular benefactions for sermons at Cambridge and 
elsewhere. 

The expences communibus annis are thus stated: 
Chapel : for amendment of copes and utensils, the 
purchase of lead, wine, wax-candles, and bell-ropes, 
for cleansing the lead, and for repairs 20. Com- 
mons of the provost strangers and visitors dining 
on certain days in the hall, and for wax, paper, 
ink, and purchase and repair of utensils 40. Pur- 
chase of horses for the use of the college, with hay, 
oats, and litter, and repair of bridles, saddles, and 
other matters pertaining to the stable, 30. Ex- 
traordinary expences 46. 13s. 4d. Repairs as well 
of the mansion of the college, as of all the possessions 
of the same 70. 

The estates of the college were the manors of 
Fordingbridge, Ringwood, Monxton, and Combe in 
Hampshire; the manors of Brixton Deverell, Hom- 
ington, and Chalke, and the late priory or manor 
of Okeburn in Wiltshire ; the manor of Stour Priaulx 
in Dorsetshire ; the priory or manor of S. James 
near Exeter, and Cotteley wood in Devonshire; the 
manors of Borehouse, and Overhall, the mill of Box- 
ford, the priory or manor of Kersey, with a mill in 
Ekynge, and the priory or manor of Bricet in Suf- 
folk; the late priory or manor of Toft Monks, the 



206 KING'S COLLEGE. 

manors of Lessingham, Coltishall, Horstead, and 
West Wrotham in Norfolk; the manors of Wotton 
Waven and Mockley, and an annual pension in 
Atherstone in Warwickshire; the manor of Willoughton 
in Lincolnshire ; a pension at Blythe in Nottingham- 
shire ; pastures and marshes of Kersey priory, and the 
manor of Dunton in Essex ; the manor of Wythiham 
in Sussex; the manor of Isleham, lands in Great 
Abington, Little Abington, Tadlow and Hilder- 
sham, the manor of Grantchester, tenements, shops, 
stables and gardens in Cambridge, and the rectory 
and manor of Barton in Cambridgeshire; the late 
priory or manor of Ruyslip in Middlesex; mansions 
in London; and the hospital or manor of Biggin 
in Hertfordshire. The total clear annual value of 
these estates was 1010. 12s. llj^. and the annual 
expences are stated to exceed the revenues by 
4,8. 6s. 4J d. 

When queen Elizabeth visited Cambridge in 
August, 1564, she lodged in this college. (a} The 
members of the university were ranged in order 
for her reception from the south gate of the college 
to the west door of the chapel on the day of her 
arrival, Saturday the 5th of August. In the after- 
noon the queen attended divine service in the chapel, 
and greatly commended the beauty of the structure 
as " above all other in her realme." On the follow- 
ing day (Sunday) her majesty attended morning 
service in the chapel, the sermon being preached 
by Dr. Andrew Perne, dean of Ely and master of 

(a) King James I. and all the succeeding sovereigns on visiting the 
university have been entertained at Trinity college. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 207 

Peterhouse. She also came unexpectedly to evening 
prayer, after which the Aulularia of Plautus was 
acted by scholars of other colleges before her majesty 
by torch-light on a stage erected for the purpose 
in the chapel. On the evening of Monday the 7th 
a play called Dido was exhibited by scholars of 
this college in the chapel before her majesty. On 
Tuesday the 8th an english play called Ezechias 
written by Nicholas Udall, was also acted by the 
scholars of this college before the queen in the 
chapel. 

The gallery and other chambers in the provost's 
lodge served for the queen's lodging; the buttery 
was in the chorister's school; the pantry and ewry 
were two chambers in the college ; the open kitchens 
and sculleries were raised against S. Austin's wall; 
the cellar was in the provost's buttery; the council 
chamber was in the small chapel on the south called 
Dr. Argentine's chapel; the guard chamber was the 
lower hall of the provost's lodge; the chamber of 
presence was the lodging over that; Dr. Haddon 
(sometime fellow of the college), lady Strange, and 
divers other ladies were lodged in the fellows chambers. 
Against the queen's arrival the chapel was adorned 
with tapestry. The greater part of the floor was 
strewed with rushes, but a fine turkey carpet was 
laid down between the north and south doors. During 
her majesty's residence here the college was desig- 
nated the Court and the Palace. 

In 1569, Richard Cox bishop of Ely, Dr. Whit- 
gift master of Trinity college, Thomas Watts arch- 
deacon of Middlesex, Dr. Ithel master of Jesus 



208 KING'S COLLEGE. 

college, Dr. May master of Catharine hall, after- 
wards bishop of Carlisle, and others were appointed 
special commissioners to visit the college. Articles 
were exhibited to them charging Dr. Philip Baker 
the provost with various misdemeanours. It was 
especially alleged that, to the great infamy of the 
college, he kept a heap of popish pelf, mass-books 
and legends, couchers, &c., superstitious vestments, 
candlesticks, crosses and the very brazen rood, nor 
would he be persuaded by either private entreaties 
or public admonition to make them away, but pre- 
served these relics in the vestry. He absconded 
during the visitation, and was in February 1569-70, 
formally deprived of his office by the bishop of Ely. 

For many years the provostship of this college 
was reputed to be in the gift of the crown, inasmuch 
as the fellows had always elected the person who 
had been recommended to them by the sovereign, 
and it appears that on one occasion James I. per- 
emptorily refused to allow them a free choice. On 
the death of John Copleston, D.D., provost, which 
occurred 24th of August, 1689, the fellows de- 
termined to recover the right of election conferred 
upon them by the statutes. William and Mary sent 
a mandamus for Stephen Upman, M.A., fellow of 
Eton college. The fellows addressed a remonstrance 
to the king, wherein they set forth their right to 
choose their own provost, and expressed a hope that 
his majesty would not infringe the same, much less 
impose upon them one who had preached a sermon 
in Eton chapel in favour of king James's declaration 
of indulgence. Upon this another mandamus was 



KING'S COLLEGE. 209 

sent on behalf of Mr. (afterwards sir) Isaac Newton, 
fellow of Trinity college. In answer the fellows 
again insisted on their right of free election, and 
represented that Mr. Newton was ineligible, not 
being, or having been a member of one of the 
royal foundations of Eton or King's. This occa- 
sioned a hearing before the king and council on 
the 29th of August. The result was that the design 
of appointing Mr. Newton was abandoned, but sub- 
sequently a third mandamus issued in favour of John 
Hartcliffe, B.D. fellow of this college, and master of 
Merchant Taylor's school. This mandamus was 
sent down on the 2nd of September. The college 
having obtained timely notice of what would happen, 
all the officers took care to be out of the way, 
every fellow's door was shut, and no one was at 
home. The messenger not finding any one to whom 
he could deliver the mandamus, laid it on the hall 
table, from whence at night by an unknown hand 
it was thrown over the wall. On the next day 
the fellows assembled for election in the chapel. 
Mr. Hartcliffe had but three votes including his own. 
All the other fellows voted for Charles Roderick, 
head master of Eton, who was not statutably eligible 
not being in orders or a doctor, but the university 
created him LL.D., and Spratt, bishop of Rochester, 
privately ordained him. He went over to Buckden 
to obtain admission from the bishop of Lincoln, the 
visitor of the college. That prelate however made 
objections and would not admit him. The society 
apprehending that legal proceedings would ensue, 
passed a resolution that there should be no dividend 
VOL i. p 



210 KING'S COLLEGE. 

till such proceedings were ended. They also applied 
to their friends for pecuniary assistance, and Lord 
Dartmouth, their high steward, subscribed 1000. 
Subsequently Oliver Doyley, M.A., George Stanhope, 
M.A., (afterwards dean of Canterbury) and John 
Layton, M.A., three of the fellows, were deputed 
to attend the privy council at Hampton Court, to 
defend the rights of the college. (a) On the 7th of 
October the king arrived at Cambridge and visited 
the college, attended by the duke of Somerset 
chancellor of the university. His majesty said that at 
the intercession of the duke he gave his consent 
that the man they had chosen should be their provost. 
Mr. Layton made a speech of thanks on his knees. 
The duke soon afterwards came to the college and 



(a) John Reynolds, fellow of Eton college and canon of Exeter, 
who was admitted of this college 1689, drew up an account of this affair. 
He tells us that Mr. Layton who was his tutor and reckoned the best 
scholar of his college, was " thick of hearing and purblind." With respect 
to the proceedings of the deputation at Hampton court he says : " When 
they came to Hampton Court they were conducted into a room that opened 
into the gallery where the Attorney and Solicitor General came to them, 
to whom they clearly proved, That the right of electing the Provost was 
fixed in the College itself, by the Grant of the King the Founder, and 
by the statutes themselves. To this the Attorney General replied, that 
notwithstanding the Founder's Grant to the College, the Kings his 
successors had, from time to time, put in the Provosts j and then pulled 
out a long list of all the Provosts, of this put in by one King, and 
that by another, and so on to the present time; concluding, with some 
warmth, that the King could not but highly resent their disputing with 
him, what had never been disputed with any of his predecessors. At 
which John Layton, not a little nettled, rose up; when at that very 
instant, was a hush, and a whisper, that the Queen was coming through 
the Gallery, and all the company rose up; but John, through the defect 
of his eyes, and ears, observed neither, but knocking down his hand 
upon the table, cried out with a loud voice : " Mr. Attorney General, 
if we must bear the grievances of former Reigns, then is the King in 
vain come in," which words the Queen heard not a little startled. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 211 

said it was his majesty's pleasure that Mr. Layton 
should go out D.D., but he, with expressions of 
gratitude, begged that the duke would intercede 
that he should be excused, as he was unwilling to 
go over the heads of many persons more worthy 
than himself. Dr. Eoderick was admitted provost 
on the 13th of October, 1689. 

The undergraduate fellows of this college, in the 
exercise of an ancient and acknowledged privilege, 
had been accustomed to claim and receive the degree 
of B.A. without having passed any of the previous 
examinations required from the undergraduates of 
other colleges ; but the provost and scholars, having 
taken into consideration the objections that naturally 
attached to such diversity of discipline, and being at 
the same time desirous of establishing a more perfect 
system of equality and unity of interest with the uni- 
versity, by an instrument under seal dated the 1st of 
May, 1851, voluntarily and unanimously surrendered 
and relinquished such peculiar privilege and claim, 
and all right and title to be exempt from the ordinary 
examinations of the university, on the part of all 
such scholars as should be admitted into the college 
after that date: provided that nothing therein con- 
tained should be considered, deemed or taken in any 
way to surrender, waive, compromise, or invalidate 
the composition existing between the university and 
the college, approved by their royal founder king 
Henry VI. in the year 1457, and thereby bearing 
equal validity with any and all the statutes of the 
college. 

BENEFACTORS. The gift of Henry Beaufort, bishop 

P 2 



212 KING'S COLLEGE. 

of Winchester, and cardinal of S. Eusebius, has been 
already noticed. John Hodgkins, D.D., (admitted 
1450) afterwards vicar of Ringwood, John Plente, 
fellow in 1484, William Towne, D.D., fellow, and 
rector of Kingston, who died 1494-5, John Dogget, 
LL.D., provost, who died 1501, and William Scales, 
vice-provost in 1508, gave salaries for the exhibition of 
priests to say masses, and sing dirges in the chapel 
according to the religion of their times. Henry 
Pauley, B.D., vice-provost of Eton, gave a yearly 
exhibition of 5. to such scholars as are or intend to 
be priests. Henry Purvey, alias Purefoy, gave 20. 
per annum to be distributed amongst the scholars. 
William Skelton, M.D., fellow, who died 1471, gave 
his library. John Bennet, rector of S. Margarets, 
Lothbury, London, in 1494, bequeathed a third of 
his goods. Thomas Rotheram, archbishop of York, 
sometime fellow, gave large sums in his lifetime 
towards completing the chapel, also 100. for the 
same purpose by will, together with his best suit 
of red and gold vestments, with six copes and all 
things pertaining to priest, deacon, and subdeacon. 
John Argentine, M.D. and D.D., provost, who died 
1507-8, gave by will 100 marks and a silver basin 
and ewer, weighing 80 oz. 15dwts., with his arms 
enamelled thereon. William Wyche, fellow, who 
died 1515, gave many good books to the library. 
Robert Hacomblen, D.D., provost, who died 1528, 
gave 100 nobles and a fine brazen desk, now in 
the choir of the college chapel. Geoffrey Blythe, 
bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, sometime fellow, 
who died 1530, gave in his lifetime a gilt mitre and 



KING'S COLLEGE. 213 

a rochet of the best cloth for the boy-bishop, a pair 
of great organs, and a fair banner of the assumption 
of the blessed virgin Mary. Nicholas West, bishop of 
Ely, sometime fellow, who died 1533, gave rich plate 
and built part of the then provost's lodge. Sir Francis 
Walsingham, secretary of state, who died 1590, 
gave books to the library. Roger Goad, D.D., pro- 
vost, who died 1610-11, gave the sinecure rectory 
of Milton. John Cowell, LL.D., sometime fellow 
of this college, and afterwards master of Trinity 
hall, who died 1611, gave plate and books. Rodolph 
Waddington, fellow, master of Christ's hospital, 
London, who died 1614, gave many good books to 
the library. William Smith, D.D., provost, who 
died 1615, gave 100. to the library, a silver salt 
worth 40., a fine standing cup with pendent 
moving figures, and other legacies. Richard Day, 
elected to this college in 1590, gave the rectory 
of Weedon Pinkney in Northamptonshire, and 8. 
yearly to the scholars. Thomas Weaver, elected to 
this college in 1592, and ultimately vice-provost of 
Eton college, wainscoted both sides of the choir of 
the chapel. Thomas Goad, D.D., rector of Hadleigh, 
Suffolk, and formerly fellow, who died 1638, be- 
queathed an estate for the purchase of divinity books 
for the library. Henry Bard, viscount Bellamont, who 
died 1656, whilst fellow, gave to the library a fine 
copy of the Alcoran which he brought from Egypt. 
Nicholas Hobart, fellow, who died about 1659, left 
a large collection of books to the library. Thomas 
Crouch, sometime fellow and M.P. for the university, 
who died 1679, also gave many hundred volumes to 



214 KING'S COLLEGE. 

the library. Sir Thomas Page, knight, provost, who 
died 1681, whilst fellow, gave plate and candlesticks 
for the altar. Edmund Vintfeer, M.D., and John Price, 
D.D., gave exhibitions for the maintenance of the 
fellows and scholars. Benjamin Whichcote, D.D., 
sometime provost, who died 1683, gave 100. to the 
library. Barnabas Oley, fellow of Clare hall and 
archdeacon of Ely, gave 100. Richard Elliot, fellow, 
who died 1696, bequeathed 700. for the purchase of 
advowsons. William Bullock, sometime fellow, who 
died 1708, devised an estate for the purchase of 
advowsons. Diana, relict of Richard Stevens, rector 
of Milton, and sometime fellow, who died 1727, 
gave 100. towards the new building. John Hun- 
gerford, esq., who died 1729, left a considerable 
legacy. Andrew Snape, D.D., provost, who died 1742, 
contributed 250. towards the new building. Francis, 
lord Godolphin, in 1774, paved the ante-chapel. 
Edward Betham, fellow of Eton, and sometime fellow 
of this college, who died 1783, founded four exhibi- 
tions. John Smith, many years bursar, gave an 
estate to purchase advowsons. Walter Chetwynd, 
esq., fellow, who died 1786, left a handsome legacy to 
the college. William Cooke, D.D., provost and dean 
of Ely, who died 1797, gave 6. per annum for prizes 
to scholars. Edward Ephraim Pote, fellow, about 
1798 gave a good collection of oriental MSS. to the 
library. Robert Glynn, M.D., fellow, who died 1800, 
left 20. per annum for prizes for learning and regu- 
larity of conduct. Jacob Bryant, esq., fellow, who 
died 1804, bequeathed his large and valuable library. 
Thomas James, D.D., head master of Rugby school, 



KING'S COLLEGE. 215 

sometime fellow, who died 1804, gave 100. for 
the establishment of a latin declamation prize. 
Jonathan Davies, D.D., provost of Eton college, and 
sometime fellow of this college, who died 1812, be- 
queathed 2000. in augmentation of a fund for the 
purchase of advowsons. Joseph Davidson, fellow, 
gave large sums of money for the maintenance of 
the chapel and for other purposes. John Manistre, 
fellow, bequeathed 500. to purchase books and plate. 
Francis Barnes, D.D., fellow and master of Peterhouse, 
bequeathed 400. George Thackeray, D.D., late 
provost, bequeathed 2000. for the repairs and 
embellishment of the chapel. George Richards, 
fellow, who died 1848, gave 50. per annum for 
classical, theological, and mathematical prizes to 
the scholars. 

EMINENT MEN. Nicholas Cloos, fellow, bishop of 
Lichfield and Coventry, and chancellor of the uni- 
versity, died 1453. John Chedworth, provost, bishop 
of Lincoln, died 1471. Robert Wodelark, D.D., 
provost, chancellor of the university and founder of 
the college or hall of S. Catharine, died 1479. John 
Hodgkins, D.D., fellow, a mathematician of repute, 
flourished 1485. William Hatteclyffe, fellow, sec- 
retary to king Edward IV., and under-treasurer of 
Ireland in 1494. Thomas Rotheram, (a) fellow, arch- 
bishop of York, and chancellor of England and of 
the university, died 1500. John Dogget, (a) LL.D., 
provost, ambassador to Sicily, Hungary, and Den- 
mark, died 1501. Alexander Legh, (a) LL.D., fellow, 
ambassador to Scotland, died about 1501. Oliver 

(a) These are noticed in Athenae Cantabrigienses, vol. I, 



216 KING'S COLLEGE. 

King,W fellow, bishop of Bath and Wells, died 1503. 
John Barker, (a] fellow, author of Scutum inexpug- 
nabile, and commonly called the sophister of King's, 
flourished 1503. John Reynolds, fellow, archdeacon 
of Cleveland, died 1506. John Argentine/" M.D. and 
D.D., provost, of high reputation for his skill in all arts 
and faculties, died 1507-8. Richard Hatton, (rt) LL.D., 
provost, employed on various important embassies, 
died 1509. William Clerke, (a) fellow, editor of the 
ordinal or pie according to the use of Sarum, died 
1509.^ John Sniith, (a) D.D., fellow, head master of Eton 
school, and twice vice-chancellor of the university, 
died 1509. Philip Morgan, (a) M.D., fellow, physician 
to Margaret countess of Richmond, died about 1515. 
John Sampson, (a) D.D., fellow, editor of the Paris 
Psalter, 1519. William Cosyn, (a) D.D., fellow, dean 
of Wells, died 1524-5. Robert Hacomblen/" D.D., 
provost, author of a commentary on Aristotle's 
Ethics, died 1528. Geoffrey Blythe, fellow, bishop 
of Lichfield and Coventry, died 1530. Bryan Rowe, (a) 
fellow, author of latin poems and orations, flourished 
1530. Thomas Ashley, (a} Margaret professor of 
divinity, died 1532. James Denton, (a) LL.D., fellow, 
dean of Lichfield, and lord president of Wales, 
died 1532-3. John Ritwyse, { 2 fellow, master of S. 
Paul's school, an admirable latin poet and gram- 
marian, died 1532. Nicholas West, (a) fellow, bishop 
of Ely, died 1533. John Frith, (a} author of many 
works against the church of Rome, martyred 1533. 
Richard Master, {a) fellow, an excellent natural philo- 
sopher, executed for being concerned in the business 
of Elizabeth Barton, the holy maid of Kent, 1534. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 217 

Nicholas Hawkins, (a) fellow, king's orator at Rome, 
and bishop elect of Ely, died about 1534. William 
Herman, (a) vice-provost of Eton, an excellent gram- 
marian, died 1535. John Kite, (a) fellow, archbishop 
of Armagh, and bishop of Carlisle, died 1537. 
Rodolph Bradford, (a) D.D., fellow, an early adherent 
of the reformation, died about 1537. Edward Fox, (<1!) 
provost, bishop of Hereford, died 1538. Sir William 
Conyngsby/* fellow, justice of the king's bench, 
died 1540. Simon Mathew, (rt) alias Cour, fellow, an 
advocate of the reformation, and author of sermons, 
died 1541. Geoffrey Blythe, (a) LL.D., fellow, arch- 
deacon of Stafford, and master of King's hall, died 
1541-2. William Skete, (a) D.D., fellow, Margaret 
professor of divinity, 1542-4. Sir Thomas Legh, (0) 
LL.D., fellow, master in chancery, and one of the 
chief instruments in the dissolution of religious 
houses, died 1545. Edward Hall, (a) scholar, author 
of an excellent chronicle of England, died 1547. 
Robert Blythe, (a) fellow, bishop of Down and Connor, 
and abbat of Thorney, died 1547. Giles Eyre, (a) D.D., 
fellow, dean of Chichester, and chaplain to Edward VI., 
died 1551. Thomas Goodrich, (a) bishop of Ely and lord 
chancellor of England, died 1554. John Croke, (a) 
scholar, master in chancery and author of a translation 
of certain Psalms into English verse, died 1554. 
Laurence Saunders, (a) fellow, martyred at Coventry 
1554-5. Richard Pallady, (a) fellow, architect of old 
Somerset-house in London, flourished 1555. John 
Hullier, (fl) fellow, martyred at Cambridge 1555. 
Robert Glover, (<l) fellow, martyred at Coventry 
1555. William Franklyn, (a1 fellow, dean of Windsor, 



218 KING'S COLLEGE. 

president of Queens' college and ambassador to Scot 
land, died 1555-6. Eobert Aldrich, (0) fellow, bishop 
of Carlisle, died 1555-6. Richard Atkinson, (0) D.D. 
provost, author of a commentary on the first epistle 
to the Corinthians, died 1556. George Day, (o) pro- 
vost, bishop of Chichester, died 1556. Sir John 
Cheke, w provost, tutor to Edward VI. secretary of 
state and an admirable scholar, died 1557. Thomas 
Cornwallis, (fl fellow, archdeacon of Norwich, died 
1557. John Blythe, (a) M.D., fellow, first Regius pro- 
fessor of physic, flourished 1557. John Mere, (a) 
fellow, registrary of the university and author of 
valuable collections relating to academical affairs, 
died 1558. Richard Croke, (a) D.D., fellow, first public 
orator, agent for Henry VIII. in Italy, and famed 
for his profound knowledge of greek, died 1558. 
Nicholas Tubman, (o) scholar, Lancaster herald, died 
1558-9. John Stokys, (0) fellow, public orator, died 
1559. John Fryer, (a] M.D., fellow, an able London 
physician, died 1563. Nicholas Carvell, {a) fellow, 
an exile for religion and author of English poems 
in the Mirror for Magistrates, died 1564. Edward 
Halliwell, (a) fellow, author of the latin tragedy of 
Dido acted before queen Elizabeth at this college 
1564. William Alley, (a) fellow, bishop of Exeter, 
died 1570. James Calf hill, (a) scholar, bishop elect of 
Worcester, author of an answer to Martial's Treatise 
of the Cross and of other works, died 1570. William 
Buckley, (0) fellow, famed for his skill in arithmetic 
and geometry, and author of Arithmetica Memorativa, 
died about 1570. John Taylor, (a) fellow, author of 
a translation into English of Valerius Maxiinus, with 



KING'S COLLEGE. 219 

parallels from English history, flourished 1570. 
Thomas Cole, (a) D.D. fellow, an eloquent and famous 
preacher, an exile for religion, and ultimately arch- 
deacon of Essex, died 1571. Walter Haddon, (a) LL.D. 
fellow, successively master of Trinity hall, president 
of Magdalen college, Oxford, and master of the 
Requests, and distinguished as a latin orator and 
poet, and as a diplomatist, died 1571-2. Gregory 
Scott, {a) fellow, author of a treatise in English verse 
against certain errors of the Romish church, died 
1576. Edmund Guest, (a} fellow, bishop of Salis- 
bury, died 1576-7. Richard Jugge, (a) scholar, a 
London printer of repute, died about 1577. Chris- 
topher Langton, (a) M.D., fellow, author of several 
medical works, died 1578. Thomas Wilson, (a) LL.D., 
fellow, secretary of state, and author of treatises 
on rhetoric, logic and usury, and of other works, 
died 1581. Richard Cox, (a) fellow, bishop of Ely, 
died 1581. John Bourchier, (a) fellow, abbat of Lei- 
cester and bishop designate of Gloucester, died 
about 1581. Thomas Hatcher, (a) fellow, author 
of a catalogue of the provosts, fellows, and scholars 
of this college, an admired latin poet, and editor 
of works of Dr. Nicholas Carr and Dr. Walter 
Haddon, died 1583. William Whitlock,^ fellow, 
author of historical collections relative to the church 
of Lichfield, died 1583-4. Thomas Browne, w fellow, 
master of Westminster school, author of Thebais 
a latin tragedy, died 1585. Thomas Gardiner, (a) 
fellow, public orator, died about 1585. Edward 
Aglionby, fellow, recorder and M.P., for Warwick, 
an excellent scholar, died about 1587. Richard 



220 KING'S COLLEGE. 

Bridgwater, LL.D., fellow, public orator, died 1587-8. 
Thomas Thomas, fellow, printer to the university 
and author of a latin dictionary, died 1588. Edward 
Threlkeld, LL.D., fellow, archdeacon of Carlisle, died 

1588. John Long, fellow, archbishop of Armagh, 
died 1589. Bartholomew Clerke, LL.D., fellow, dean 
of the arches, and famed for his scholarship, died 

1589. William Masters, LL.D., fellow, public orator, 
died 1589-90. Sir Francis Walsingham, secretary 
of state, died 1590. John Cooke, fellow, head master 
of S. Paul's school, died 1590. William King, fellow, 
archdeacon of Northumberland, died 1590. William 
Malyn, fellow, master of S. Paul's and Eton schools, 
died about 1594. John Aylmer, bishop of London, 
died 1594. William Wickham, fellow, bishop of Win- 
chester, died 1595. William Day, fellow, provost of 
Eton, bishop of Winchester, died 1596. William 
Ward, M.D., fellow, regius professor of physic, 1596. 
John Harrison, fellow, master of S. Paul's school, an 
able antiquary and numismatist, died 1596. Thomas 
Preston, LL.D., fellow, master of Trinity hall, died 
1598. Keuben Sherwood, M.D., fellow, a distinguished 
physician at Bath, where he died 1598. Abraham 
Hartwell, fellow, a good latin poet and ingenious 
writer, died 1599. Giles Fletcher, LL.D., fellow, 
employed in various embassies, master of the Requests 
and author of the Russe Common Wealth, (a) died 
1610. Hugh Blythe, fellow, archdeacon of Lei- 
cester, died 1610. Edward Spooner, fellow, arch- 
deacon of Ossory, 1586-1610. Roger Goad, D.D., 

(a) Reprinted under the editorship of Edward A. Bond, for the 
Hakluyt Society. Lond. 8vo. 1856. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 221 

provost for more than forty years, and thrice vice- 
chancellor of the university, died 1610-11. John 
Cowell, LL.D., fellow, master of Trinity hall, Regius 
professor of civil law, and author of the Interpreter, 
died 1611. Richard Muleaster, fellow, master of 
Merchant Taylor's school, and an excellent scholar, 
died 1611. Thomas Morrison, LL.D., fellow, Regius 
professor of civil law, 1611. John lord Harington 
of Exton, died 1613. Henry Howard, earl of 
Northampton, K.G., lord privy seal, and a man of 
letters, died 1614. Rodolph Waddington, fellow, 
master of Christ's hospital, and author of various 
works, died 1614. Richard Langley, D.D., fellow, 
head master of Eton, died 1615. William Smith, 
D.D., provost, and previously master of Clare hall, 
died 1615. Geoffrey King, fellow, Regius professor of 
Hebrew and one of the translators of the Bible, died 
about 1616. Samuel Hieron, fellow, vicar of Modbury, 
Devon, a famous divine, author of sermons, lectures, 
and devotional works, died 1617. Samuel Fleming, 
D.D., fellow, excellent both as a divine and poet, died 
1620. Edward Lister, M.D., fellow, physician to 
Elizabeth and James I., and treasurer of the college 
of physicians, died 1620. Osmund Lakes, fellow, 
vicar of Ringwood, author of many theological 
works, died 1621. William Burton, M.D., fellow, 
Regius professor of physic, died 1623. Robert 
Ward, D.D., fellow, prebendary of Chichester, one 
of the translators of the Bible, died about 1623. Sir 
Albert Morton, fellow, secretary of state, died 1625. 
William Sclater, fellow, author of commentaries on 
the Romans and Thessalonians, and other learned 



222 KING'S COLLEGE. 

works, died 1626. Anthony Wotton, fellow, pro- 
fessor of divinity at Gresham college, a noted preacher 
and author of controversial and other works, died 
1626. Sir William Temple, LL.D., fellow, provost 
of Trinity college, Dublin, and an author of repute, 
died 1626-7. Sir Thomas Ridley, LL.D., fellow, 
master in chancery, vicar-general of the province of 
Canterbury, and author of a View of the Civil and 
Ecclesiastical Law, died 1628-9. Matthew Bust, 
fellow, head master of Eton school, 161 1-1629. Thomas 
Mountford, M.D., fellow, physician to Elizabeth, 
James I. and Charles I., and president of the college 
of physicians, died 1630. Lionel Sharp, D.D., fellow, 
archdeacon of Berks, and a sufferer for liberal opinions, 
died 1630. Samuel Harsnet, archbishop of York, 
died 1631. Elnathan Parr, fellow, rector of Palgrave, 
Suffolk, author of the Grounds of the Scriptures, and 
other works, died about 1632. Henry Mowtlowe, 
LL.D., fellow, public orator, law-professor at Gresham 
college, and M.P. for the university, died 1634. 
Thomas Ram, fellow, bishop of Ferns, died 1634. 
Ralph Winterton, M.D., fellow, Regius professor of 
physic, an admirable classical scholar, and editor of 
various works, died 1636. William Lisle, fellow, a 
skilful antiquary and Anglo-Saxon scholar, died 1637. 
Thomas Goad, D.D., fellow, rector of Hadleigh, Suffolk, 
a learned divine, and one of the representatives of 
the English church at the synod of Dort, died 1638. 
William Murray, bishop of Llandaff, died 1639. 
Richard Montagu, fellow, bishop of Norwich, died 
1641. Henry Wickham, D.D., fellow, archdeacon of 
York, died 1641. Edward Kellet, D.D., fellow, pre- 



KING'S COLLEGE. 223 

bendary of Exeter, author of Miscellanies in Divinity, 
and other works, flourished 1641. Simeon Fox, M.D., 
fellow, president of the college of physicians, died 
1642. Gerard Wood, fellow, archdeaconxrf Wells, died 
about 1645. Anthony Ascham, fellow, ambassador to 
Spain, assassinated at Madrid 1650. Samuel Collins, 
D.D., provost, Regius professor of divinity, famed for 
his prodigious learning, died 1650. Phineas Fletcher, 
fellow, author of the Purple Island nd other admired 
poems, died about 1650. William Sclater, D.D., fel- 
low, prebendary of Exeter, and author of sermons, 
flourished 1651. William Gouge, D.D., fellow, the 
pious minister of S. Anne's, Blackfriars, and one 
of the assembly of divines, died 1653. Robert Austin, 
fellow, employed in correcting the text of the Persic 
gospels, died 1654. William Day, fellow, author 
of an Exposition on Isaiah, 1654. Theophilus 
Wodenote, fellow, a great sufferer for his loyalty, 
and author of various works, died about 1654. 
Henry Bard, fellow, viscount Bellamont, a com- 
mander in the army of Charles I., died in Persia 
1656. John Janeway, fellow, famed for exemplary 
piety, died 1657. Henry Molle, fellow, public orator, 
died 1658. William Oughtred, fellow, in his day the 
most famous mathematician in Europe, died 1660. 
Laurence Rooke, scholar, professor successively of 
astronomy and geometry at Gresham college, and 
a distinguished natural philosopher, died 1662. 
Thomas Goad, LL.D., fellow, Regius professor of 
law, died 1666. Samuel Hammond, preacher suc- 
cessively at S. Giles's, Cambridge, Newcastle upon 
Tyne, and Stockholm, author of various works, died 



224: KING'S COLLEGE. 

1666. Richard Pearson, LL.D., fellow, law professor 
at Gresham college, a great traveller, and an ex- 
cellent greek scholar, died 1670. Samuel Collins, 
M.D., fellow, author of an Historical Account of Russia, 
died 1670. George Goad, fellow, head master of Eton, 
died 1671. Richard Carpenter, fellow, famed for 
mutability in religion, author of sermons, a comedy, 
and other publications, living 1676. John Fisk, an 
able preacher in 'New England, author of The Olive 
Plant Watered, died 1676. Charles Mason, LL.D., 
fellow, prebendary of S. Paul's and Salisbury, author 
of sermons, poems, and tracts, died 1677. Thomas 
Crouch, fellow, M.P. for the university, died 1679. 
Grindal Sheafe, D.D., fellow, archdeacon of Wells, 
died 1680. Samuel Wotton, fellow, translator of 
Ramus's Logic, died 1680. Nathanael Ball, preacher 
successively at Barley, Royston, and Epping, author 
of Spiritual Bondage and Freedom, a Chaldee gram- 
mar, and sermons, died 1681. John Beal, D.D., 
fellow, an admirable natural philosopher, died 1681. 
Thomas Gouge, fellow, ejected vicar of S. Sepul- 
chre's, London, author of several pious and excellent 
works, and memorable for his earnest endeavours 
to disseminate religious knowledge throughout Wales, 
died 1681. James Fleetwood, provost, bishop of 
Worcester, died 1683. Benjamin Whichcote, D.D., 
provost, author of moral and theological works 
of great repute, died 1683. Robert Wittie, M.D., 
a noted physician at Hull, and author of numerous 
works principally connected with his profession, 
died 1684. William Home, fellow, head master 
of Harrow school, died 1685. John Pearson, fellow, 




a 



KING'S COLLEGE. 225 

bishop of Chester, died 1686. Edmund Waller, 
the famous poet, died 1687. William Whitfield, 
fellow, author of a Defence of the Ordination and 
Ministry of the Church of England, 1688. Richard 
Hunt, fellow, rhetoric professor at Gresham college, 
a profound oriental scholar, died 1690. Christopher 
Wasse, fellow, master of Tunbridge school, author 
of Senarius and other learned works, died 1690. 
John Price, D.D., fellow, who as chaplain to general 
Monk, was very instrumental in effecting the re- 
storation, died 1691. George Legge, lord Dartmouth, 
admiral of the fleet, and master of the horse to 
James II., died 1691. Thomas Montagu, fellow, head 
master of Eton, died 1691. Henry Rider, bishop 
of Killaloe, died 1695-6. William Bates, D.D., a 
nonconformist divine of high character, author of 
numerous excellent theological works, died 1699. 
Matthew Mead, scholar, a popular preacher at Stepney, 
and a noted casuist and writer, died 1699. Thomas 
Hyde, D.D., scholar, successively keeper of the Bodleian 
library, professor of Arabic, and Regius professor 
of Hebrew at Oxford, and archdeacon of Gloucester, 
an admirable oriental scholar, died 1702-3. William 
Bowles, fellow, prebendary of Lichfield, author of 
excellent poems and translations, died 1705. Na- 
thanael Johnston, M.D., physician at Pontefract, author 
of various published works and of large MSS. col- 
lections illustrative of the history of Yorkshire, died 
1705. Roger Palmer, earl of Castlemaine, ambassador 
from James II. to Rome, died 1705. John Fleetwood, 
fellow, archdeacon of Worcester, died 1705. Henry 
Dethick, fellow, Richmond Herald, died 1707. John 

VOL. I. Q 



KING'S COLLEGE. 

Hartcliffe, fellow, canon of Windsor, and master of 
Merchant Taylor's school, author of sermons and a 
treatise on moral and intellectual virtues, died 1708. 
Charles Roderick, D.D., provost, dean of Ely, died 
1712. John Newborough, fellow, head master of 
Eton, and rector of Hitcham, Bucks., died 1712. 
William Higden, D.D., rector of S. Paul's, Shadwell, 
author of works against the non-jurors, died 1715. 
Joseph Rawson, D.D., fellow, canon of Lichfield and 
Canterbury, author of various sermons, died 1719. 
John Adams, D.D., provost, canon of Windsor and 
Canterbury, author of sermons and a treatise on 
self-murder, died 1719. Edward Martin, fellow, 
professor of rhetoric at Gresham college, died 1720. 
Knightley Chetwood, D.D., fellow, dean of Gloucester, 
and author of learned and ingenious works, died 
1720. Henry Jones, fellow, author of the Abridg- 
ment of the Philosophical Transactions, 1709 to 1720. 
Thomas Byrdall, M.A., 1721, rector of Dunchidiock 
in Devonshire, who is said to have corrected Newton's 
Principia. Robert Cannon, D.D., fellow, dean of 
Lincoln, died 1722. William Fleetwood, fellow, 
bishop of Ely, died 1723. William Reeves, fellow, 
rector of Cranford, Middlesex, and vicar of S. Mary's, 
Reading, author of sermons and other works, died 
1726. George Stanhope, D.D., fellow, dean of Canter- 
bury, a celebrated preacher and author of many 
valuable publications, died 1727-8. John King, fellow, 
a physician of repute at Stamford, and editor of 
three of the tragedies of Euripides, died 1728. 
William Trimnell, D.D., fellow, dean of Winchester, 
died 1729. Anthony Collins, a voluminous but dis- 



KING'S COLLEGE. 227 

ingenuous, artful, and impious writer, died 1729. 
Thomas Bryan, fellow, head master of Harrow school, 
died 1730. Edward Edlin, fellow, baron of the ex- 
chequer in Scotland 1730. Thomas Cole, D.D., fellow, 
dean of Norwich, died 1730-1. Edward Waddington, 
fellow, bishop of Chichester, died 1731. Edward 
Littleton, LL.D., fellow, vicar of Mapledurham, Ox- 
fordshire, author of two volumes of sermons and of 
admired poems, died 1734. Thomas Johnson, fellow, 
editor of Sophocles and other works, flourished 1735. 
Adam Batty, fellow, rector of S. John's, Clerkenwell, 
author of two volumes of sermons, died 1737. Charles 
Bush, fellow, clerk of the records in the Tower, an 
able antiquary, flourished 1737. William Willymott, 
LL.D., fellow, editor of educational works, died 1737. 
Charles Fleetwood, fellow, archdeacon of Cornwall, 
died 1737. Henry Crispe, fellow, author of various 
poems and translations, died about 1737. George 
Townshend, viscount Townshend, K.G., lord president 
of the council, ambassador to the states general, 
and secretary of state, died 1738. Francis Hare, 
fellow, bishop of Chichester, died 1740. Ralph 
Thicknesse, fellow, editor of Phsedrus, and a musical 
composer, died 1741. Stephen Weston, fellow, bishop 
of Exeter, died 1741-2. Andrew Snape, D.D., provost, 
canon of Windsor, author of sermons and controversial 
works, died 1742. Greorge Baker, fellow, archdeacon 
of Totnes, died 1743. Thomas Pellett, M.D., a London 
physician of repute, died 1744. John Whaley, fellow, 
author of two volumes of poems, died 1745. Robert 
Walpole, scholar, earl of Orford, E.G. for many years 
prime minister, died 1745-6. Henry Bland )<fc D.D., 

Q2 



228 KING'S COLLEGE. 

fellow, provost of Eton, and dean of Durham, author 
of a latin version of Addison's Soliloquy of Cato, 
died 1746. Robert Bankes, M.D., fellow, professor of 
anatomy, and physician to Christ's hospital, died 
1746. William Goldwin, fellow, author of sermons, 
and a poetical description of Bristol, died 1747. 
James Upton, fellow, rector of Plympton, author 
and editor of numerous works, died 1749. Stephen 
Poyntz, fellow, ambassador to Sweden, died 1750. 
Ealph Skerrett, D.D., vicar of Greenwich, author 
of various sermons, died 1751. Samuel Haynes, 
D.D., fellow, canon of Windsor, editor of a valuable 
collection of state papers, died 1752. Nicholas Mann, 
fellow, master of Charterhouse, author of Chrono- 
logical Dissertations on the birth and death of Christ, 
died 1753. Anthony Allen, fellow, master in chan- 
cery, author of a MS. biographical account of the 
members of this college, died 1754. William George, 
D.D., provost, dean of Lincoln, an accurate greek 
scholar, and good latin poet, died 1756. Horatio 
Walpole, fellow, lord Walpole of Woolterton, em- 
ployed in various embassies, died 1757. Nicholas 
Hardinge, fellow, successively clerk of the house of 
commons, and secretary to the treasury, a good 
scholar, lawyer, and antiquary, and author of latin 
and english poems of merit, died 1758. John Rey- 
nolds, fellow, canon of Exeter, and author of geo- 
graphical works, died 1758. John Read, fellow, 
clerk-assistant to the house of commons, author of 
latin orations, died 1760. Bendal Martin, fellow, 
a writer in the Spectator, and an admirable musician, 
died 1761. Septimius Plumptre, fellow, vicar of 



KING'S COLLEGE. 229 

Mansfield, 1761, author of a greek grammar, and editor 
of uEsop in greek and latin. Edward Cobden, D.D., 
archdeacon of London, author of discourses and essays 
in prose and verse, died 1764. Thomas Thackeray, 
fellow, head master of Harrow school, died 1764. 
Stephen Sleech, D.D., fellow, provost of Eton, died 
1765. Francis Godolphin, earl Godolphin, died 1766. 
George Graham, fellow, author of Telemachus, a 
masque which has received high commendation, died 
1767. Richard Lyne, D.D., fellow, a good latin poet, 
died about 1767. Richard Mounteney, fellow, baron 
of the exchequer in Ireland, and editor of select 
orations of Demosthenes, died 1768. Sneyd Davies, 
D.D., fellow, archdeacon of Derby, author of esteemed 
latin and english poems, died 1769. Robert Carey 
Sumner, D.D., head master of Harrow school, died 
1771. John Sumner, D.D., provost of this college, 
and previously head master of Eton, died 1772. 
Edward Young, fellow, bishop of Ferns, died 1772. 
John Clubbe, rector of Wheatfield, Suffolk, an in- 
genious and witty writer, died 1773. Robert Blen- 
cowe, M.D., fellow, a physician in extensive practice 
at Northampton, where he died 1774. John Foster, 
D.D., fellow, head master of Eton, author of a learned 
essay on Accent and Quantity, died 1774. John 
Ewer, fellow, bishop of Bangor, died 1774. Thomas 
Ashton, D.D., fellow, preacher at Lincoln's Inn, author 
of discourses, dissertations, and controversial works, 
died 1775. Nathanael Kent, fellow, editor of Lucian, 
flourished 1775. William Battie, M.D., fellow, an 
able physician, editor of Isocrates, author of Exer- 
citationes, Aphorismi and a Treatise on Madness, and 



230 KING'S COLLEGE. 

the founder of a university scholarship, died 1776. 
Edward Weston, fellow, secretary of state for Ireland, 
and although a layman, author of a volume of sermons, 
died about 1776. Thomas Dampier, D.D., fellow, 
dean of Durham, died 1777. Samuel Ogden, D.D., 
Woodwardian professor, an admired preacher, and 
author of excellent sermons, died 1778. Henry Hinck- 
ley, M.D., physician to Guy's hospital, and treasurer 
of the college of physicians, died 1779. George Toilet, 
author of valuable notes on Shakspere, died 1779. 
Elias Thackeray, D.D., fellow, head master of Harrow 
school, died 1781. Samuel Howard, MUS.D., a famous 
composer of secular music, died 1782. William 
Cole, an industrious and able antiquary, who made 
vast collections in elucidation of the history of the 
county, town, and university of Cambridge, died 
1782. Edward Betham, fellow, a munificent bene- 
factor to this college, the university, Eton college, 
and Greenford, of which he was rector, died 1783. 
Thomas Morell, D.D., fellow, rector of Buckland, a 
distinguished classical scholar and lexicographer, and 
author and editor of numerous works, died 1784. 
John Chapman, D.D., fellow, archdeacon of Sudbury, 
author of learned and able works, died 1784. John 
Young, D.D., fellow, author of two volumes of sermons, 
died 1786. Sir William Draper, K.B., fellow, the 
antagonist of Junius, died 1787. John Sleech, fellow, 
archdeacon of Cornwall, died 1787. William Hay- 
ward Roberts, D.D., fellow, provost of Eton, author 
of sacred poems of no common merit, died 1791. 
Geoffrey Ekins, D.D., fellow, dean of Carlisle, author of 
a poetical translation of part of the Argonautics of 



KING'S COLLEGE. 231 

Apollonius Rhodius, died 1791. William Barford, 
D.D., fellow, public orator, canon of Canterbury, 
and author of dissertations and orations, died 1792. 
diaries Pratt, earl Camden, fellow, lord high chan- 
cellor, died 1794. James Waller, D.D., fellow, arch- 
deacon of Essex, died 1795. William Cooke, D.D., 
provost, dean of Ely, and head master of Eton, 
died 1797. Horatio Walpole, earl of Orford, cele- 
brated for historical and antiquarian works of merit, 
and especially for his numerous able and interesting 
letters, died 1797. Thomas Okes, M.D., fellow, phy- 
sician at Exeter, author of medical dissertations, 
died 1797. Henry Noel, earl of Gainsborough, 
died 1798. Joah Bates, fellow, a distinguished 
musical composer, died 1799. Thomas Hayter, 
fellow, author of Remarks on Hume's Dialogues 
on Natural Religion, and of sermons, died 1799. 
George Steevens, the great Shaksperian critic, 
died 1800. John Norbury, D.D., fellow, vicar of 
Mapledurham, author of a greek version of Gray's 
elegy, died 1800. James Hayes, fellow, chief justice 
of Anglesey, Carnarvon, and Denbigh, died 1800. 
Robert Glynn, M.D., fellow, distinguished as a phy- 
sician and poet and for active benevolence, died 
1800. William Brereton, fellow, archdeacon of Staf- 
ford, died 1801. George Lewis Jones, fellow, bishop 
of Kildare, died 1804. Thomas James, D.D., fellow, 
head master of Rugby school, and canon of Wor- 
cester, an excellent classical and mathematical scholar, 
died 1804. Jacob Bryant, fellow, author of numerous 
works which display great research, died 1804. 
James Hare, fellow, ambassador to Warsaw, noted 



232 KING'S COLLEGE. 

for his wit and conversational powers, died 1804. 
Erasmus Middleton, rector of Turvey, a popular 
preacher, compiler of Biographia Evangelica, and 
other works, died 1805. Christopher Anstey, fellow, 
author of the New Bath Guide and other poems 
in english and latin, died 1805. Thomas Orde, 
fellow, lord Bolton, famed for his caricatures, died 
1808. Henry Ingles, D.D., fellow, head master of 
Eugby school 1794-1806. John Ekins, D.D., fellow, 
dean of Salisbury, died 1808. Sir George Baker, 
M.D., fellow, physician to George III., president of 
the college of physicians, and a remarkable scholar 
and critic, died 1809. John Hallam, D.D., fellow, 
dean of Bristol, died 1811. Thomas Dampier, fellow, 
bishop of Ely, died 1812. Jonathan Davies, D.D., 
fellow, provost of Eton, and founder of a university 
scholarship, died 1812. Sir Henry Dampier, fellow, 
justice of the king's bench, died 1816. Benjamin 
Heath, D.D., fellow, head master of Harrow school, 
died 1817. John Hayter, fellow, who superintended 
the unrolling and decyphering the greek MSS. found 
at Herculaneum, died 1818. Edward Tew, fellow, 
author of a greek version of Gray's elegy, died 
1818. John Anstey, fellow, author of a humourous 
poem entitled The Pleader's Guide, died 1819. Sir 
Vicary Gibbs, fellow, chief justice of the common 
pleas, died 1820. Edward Cooke, fellow, who held 
several public offices in Ireland and this country, 
and was author of numerous political pamphlets, died 
1820. Sir James Mansfield, fellow, chief justice of 
the common pleas, died 1821. George Heath, D.D., 
follow, canon of Windsor, and head master of Eton, 



KING'S COLLEGE. 233 

died 1822. Richard Relhan, an ardent and successful 
botanist, author of Flora Cantabrigiensis, died 1823. 
William Cooke, fellow, Regius professor of greek, 
editor of Aristoteles de re poetica, died 1824. Thomas 
Rennell, B.D., fellow, vicar of Kensington, a pious, 
learned and zealous divine, author of Remarks on 
Scepticism and other works, died 1824. Frederick 
Howard, earl of Carlisle, lord lieutenant of Ireland, 
author of poems, and a distinguished patron of the 
fine arts, died 1825. George Stevenson, LL.D., fellow, 
dean of Kilfenora, died 1825. John Plumptre, D.D., 
fellow, dean of Gloucester, author of a work on the 
evidences of Christianity, and of several translations 
of english poems into greek, died 1825. Henry 
Matthews, fellow, author of the Diary of an Invalid, 
died 1828. William Coxe, fellow, archdeacon of 
Wilts., author of many excellent historical works, 
died 1828. Thomas Lloyd, (a) fellow, rector of Lois 
Weedon, Northamptonshire, an evangelical clergy- 
man of high character and attainments, died 1828. 
John Luxmoore, fellow, bishop of S. Asaph, died 1830. 
Thomas Briggs, fellow, prebendary of S. Paul's, editor of 
Poetae Bucolici Grseci, died 1831. Francis Randolph, 
D.D., fellow, canon of Bristol, author of sermons, 
tracts against Socinianism and other publications, died 

1831. Caleb Colton, fellow, author of Lacon, died 

1832. Joseph Thackeray, M.D., fellow, a distinguished 
physician at Bedford, died 1832. William Wentworth- 
Fitzwilliam, earl Fitzwilliam, successively lord pre- 
sident of the council and lord lieutenant of Ireland, 

(a) See Memoir of his life by his brother the Rev. Richard Lloyd, M.A., 
rector of S. Dunstan in the West, London. Lond. 8vo. 1830. 



234 KING'S COLLEGE. 

died 1833. John Sargent, fellow, rector of Wool- 
alvington and Graffham, author of Lives of Henry 
Martyn and of T. T. Thomason, died 1833. Hugh 
Leycester, fellow, justice of the counties of Anglesey, 
Carnarvon, and Merioneth, died 1836. Francis Basset, 
lord de Dunstanville, a man of letters and patron 
of the arts, died 1835. Charles Simeon, fellow, vicar 
of the Holy Trinity, Cambridge, a pious and zealous 
divine, author of numerous sermons, tracts, and de- 
votional treatises, died 1836. Francis Barnes, D.D., 
fellow, master of Peterhouse, died 1838. Joseph 
Goodall, D.D., fellow, successively head master and 
provost of Eton, an elegant and exact scholar, died 
1840. Thomas Rennell, D.D., fellow, dean of Win- 
chester, an accomplished theologian and scholar, died 
1840. Henry Joseph Thomas Drury, fellow, pre- 
bendary of Wells, a famous scholar and book collector, 
died 1841. Henry Nelson Coleridge, fellow, author 
of Six Months in the West Indies, and other works, 
died 1843. John Henry Michell, fellow, rector of 
Buckland, a most accomplished scholar, died 1844. 
Robert Percy Smith, fellow, advocate general at 
Bengal, and author of latin poems of extraordinary 
merit, died 1845. (a) Charles Grey, earl Grey, E.G., 
the prime-minister who carried the Reform Bill, died 
1845. George Richards, fellow, who besides munificent 
donations to this college and to Eton, bequeathed 
10,000. to benevolent and religious institutions, 
died 1848. John Keate, D.D., fellow, head master 

(a) See Early Writings of Robert Percy Smith, with a few verses in 
later years, edited by his surviving son R[obert] V[ernon] S[mith.] 4to. 
1850 (privately printed). 



KING'S COLLEGE. 235 

of Eton, died 1852. Francis Hodgson, fellow, 
provost of Eton, and archdeacon of Derby, author 
of a translation of Juvenal and other works which 
evince sound scholarship and refined taste, died 1852. 
John Lucius Dampier, fellow, vice-warden of the 
stannaries, author of a brief but able summary of 
the law relative to collegiate foundations, died 1853. 
Christopher Bethell, fellow, bishop of Bangor, died 
1859. 

BUILDINGS. It appears that the founder intended 
that the college should consist of four courts ; viz. : 

(1) A small court between Clare hall and the schools. (a) 

(2) A large court, the north side of which was to be oc- 
cupied by the chapel. At the eastern end of the south 
side was to have been the provost's lodge. The west 
side was to have been two hundred and thirty feet 
in length, including a hall one hundred feet, and a 
library one hundred and ten feet. The east side which 
was to have been of dimensions corresponding with 
those of the west, was to have contained chambers. 
In the centre of this side was to have been a gate- 
house thirty feet by twenty-five and forty feet in 
height, communicating with Trumpington street. 
In the midst of this court was to have been a conduit. 

(3) A cloister at the west end of the chapel, two 
hundred feet by one hundred and seventy-five. In 
the centre of the west side was to have been a 
tower one hundred and twenty feet in height to the 



(a) It has been supposed that this was for the residence of the conducts, 
clerks, and scholars only, hut it was huilt for the rector and twelve scholars, 
placed in the college at its first institution. It originally contained a small 
chapel. 



236 



KING'S COLLEGE. 




KING S COLLEGE BRIDGE. 



corbel table. (a) (4) A kitchen court which was to 
have contained a kitchen, brewhouse, bakehouse, 
and other offices, the south side belonging to the 
provost, and the north side to the college. This 
was to have been to the west of the large court and 
to the south of the cloister. 

The small court was of an irregular shape, one 
hundred and twenty feet by ninety, the east side 
being formed by the west end of the schools. On 
the west side of this court was a tower gateway, 
(a portion of which remains) opening to the street. 
The outer archway is singularly elegant. There 
were other towers in this court. Some of them had 
never been finished. The hall, which was a mean 

(a) In Lysons' Cambridgeshire is a plate of this tower from an original 
drawing in the British Museum. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 237 

structure, stood in a corner of this court northward 
of the schools. 

The Provost's Lodge was an irregular pile at the 
eastern end of the chapel. 

About 1638 a great improvement was effected 
in the external appearance of the west end of the 
chapel by setting back the buildings of Clare hall. 

The college previously to 1724 consisted only of 
the small court, the chapel, and the provost's lodge. 
At the west end of the chapel was a most unsightly 
wooden bell tower, which was removed in or about 
1740. 

In 1724 was commenced a structure at a right 
angle with the western end of the chapel. The first 
stone was laid by the provost, March 25, 1724. It was 
designed by James Gribbs, and although the style 
of architecture does not harmonise with the chapel, 
it cannot but be regarded as an elegant and imposing 
structure. Mr. Gribbs published designs for com- 
pleting the whole court in a similar style. 

About the close of the last century, Mr. James 
Wyatt gave his designs for finishing the college. 

Between 1824 and 1828 the houses in Trump- 
ington street which stood in front of the college 
were taken down and other adjoining property was 
obtained. On the site were erected from the de- 
signs of William Wilkins, esq., R.A., and at a very 
great cost : (1) A stone wall pierced with windows, 
having at intervals small buttresses with pinnacles, 
and in the centre a gateway surmounted with an 
octagon dome. This faces Trumpington street. 
(2) A structure commencing at Trumpington 



238 KING'S COLLEGE. 

street and extending thence westwardly nearly to 
the river Cam. This comprehends the hall, the 
library, apartments for the fellows and scholars, 
and the provost's lodge. Mr. Wilkins's plans were 
at the time extravagantly commended. It is now 
however generally considered that a noble opportunity 
of carrying out the founder's intentions was allowed 
to be lost, and that Mr. Wilkins's designs are quite 
unworthy of his reputation. The entrance gateway 
in particular is of the most incongruous character. 
At the same time it must be acknowledged that a grand 
opening was made by the removal of the old houses 
in Trumpington street. Soon afterwards the old 
court, or as we have termed it, the small court, was 
sold by the college to the university. Although the 
buildings were not handsome, many of them were 
of a most substantial character, and might have 
been put to good use. They were however pulled 
down, and for about thirty years the very centre 
of the university has been disfigured by the un- 
sightly ruins. 

THE CHAPEL. Somewhat relating to the history 
of this beautiful and remarkable edifice has been 
given in our account of the foundation of the college. 
The following additional facts cannot we presume 
be considered otherwise than interesting: 

The first stone of the chapel was laid by the 
royal founder himself, but there appears to be some 
uncertainty as to the date. (a) 

(a) See Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, i. 188, 189. In Communications 
to Camb. Antiq. Society, 59, is a paper by Rev. John Rigg, M.A., on the 
orientation of the chapel. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 239 

On the 4th of March, 25 Hen. VI. [1446-7] the 
king granted to the provost and scholars a quarry 
of stone called Thesdale quarry, in the lordship of 
Heselwode, in the county of York, a perpetual grant 
of which he had obtained from Henry Vavasour, 
lord of that manor, with a way to carry the stone 
through his lands directly to the river Querf (now 
called the Wharfe). 

On the 25th of February, 27 Hen. VI. [1448-9] 
the king granted to this college and to Eton college 
another quarry at Huddlestone, near Shirborn in 
Elmet, in the county of York, a grant of which 
he had obtained from sir John Langton and his 
son. 

John Wulrich, master mason, and John Bell, 
mason warden of the works of this college are 
mentioned in a deed dated 17th of August, 16 
Edward IV. [1476.] 

In 4 Henry VIII. [1512] an indenture was made 
between the provost and scholars, with the advice 
and agreement of Thomas Larke, (a) surveyor of the 
king's works at this college of the one part, and John 
Wastell, master mason of the said works, and Henry 
Semerk one of the wardens of the same of the other 
part: Wastell and Semerk thereby covenanted to 
make and set up a good sure and sufficient vault for 
the great church according to a plan signed by the 
executors of king Henry VII., to find sufficient 
and able stone of the Weldon quarries and other 
materials and things ; and to finish the work within 

(a) Archdeacon successively of Sudbury and Norwich, and master of 
Trinity Hall. 



240 KING'S COLLEGE. 

three years after they began the same: the college 
to pay them 1200. (that is to say 100. for every 
severy). 

On the 4th of January, 4 Henry VIII. [1512-13,] 
an indenture was made between the provost and 
scholars, with the advice and agreement of Mr. 
Thomas Larke, surveyor of the king's works at the 
college of the one part and Thomas Wastell, master 
mason of the said works of the other part : Wastell 
covenanted to make and set up the finials of the 
buttresses of the great church there, being twenty-one 
in number, according to the plats conceived and 
made for the same, and according to the finial of 
one buttress then wrought and set up, except that 
the new finials were to be somewhat larger in 
certain places according to the mooles for the same 
conceived and made : also to finish one tower at one 
of the corners of the said church: stone of the 
Weldon quarries to be used : the work to be finished 
by the feast of the annunciation of the Blessed Lady 
then next : the college to pay for every buttress 
6. 13s. 4J. (in all 140.) and for the tower 100. 

By an indenture dated the 4th of March, 4 
Henry VIII., [1512-13] a contract was entered into 
for erecting the three other towers with Weldon stone 
according to the plan of the former to be set up and 
finished before the 24th of June next, at 100. each 
tower. 

On the 4th of August, 5 Henry VIII., [1513] an 
indenture was made between the provost and scholars 
with the advice and agreement of Thomas Larke 
of the one part, and Wastell of the other part, 



KING'S COLLEGE. 241 

whereby Wastell covenanted to make and set up the 
vaulting of two porches of the new church of the 
king's college with Yorkshire stone ; also the vaults 
of seven chapels in the body of the same church with 
Weldon stone ; according to a plat made as well for 
the same seven chapels as for the said two porches; 
also nine other chapels behind the choir of the said 
church with like Weldon stone, to be made of a more 
coarse work as appeared by a plat for the same 
made : also to make and set up the battlements of 
all the said porches and chapels with Weldon stone, 
according to another plat made for the same, re- 
maining with all the other plats in the keeping of 
the said surveyor, and signed with the hands of the 
executors of Henry VII : the stone for the porches 
to be of Hampole quarries in Yorkshire: the vaults 
and battlements to be finished before the ensuing 
feast of the Nativity of S. John the Baptist: the 
college to pay for each porch 25.; for each of the 
seven chapels 20.; for each of the nine chapels 
behind the choir 12.; and for the battlements of 
all the chapels and porches, divided into twenty 
severys, 100., or 5. for each severy. 

On the 30th of April, 18 Henry VIII., [1526] an 
indenture was made between Robert Hacomblen, D.D. 
provost, William Holgylle, clerk, master of the Savoy, 
Thomas Larke, clerk, archdeacon of Norwich of the 
one part : and Galyon Hoone of the parish of S. Mary 
Magdalene Southwark, glazier; Richard Bownde of 
the parish of S. Clement Danes, Middlesex, glazier ; 
Thomas Reve of the parish of S. Sepulchre without 
Newgate, London, glazier ; and James Nicholson of 

VOL. I. R 



242 KING'S COLLEGE. 

S. Thomas's Hospital Southwark, glazier; of the 
other part : whereby Hoone, Bownde, Reve and 
Nicholson covenanted to glaze and set up eighteen 
windows of the upper story of the great church 
within this college, whereof the window in the east 
end of the said church to be one, and the window 
in the west end of the said church to be another, and 
so seryatly the residue with good, clean, sure and 
perfect glass, and orient colours and imagery of the 
story of the old law and of the new law, after the 
form, manner, goodness, curiosity and cleanliness in 
every point of the glass windows of the king's new 
chapel at Westminster, a) and also accordingly and 
after such manner as one Barnard Flower, glazier, 
lately deceased by indenture stood bound to do : six 
windows to be finished within twelve months, and 
the other twelve within four years : the contractors 
to bind all the windows with double bands of lead 
for defence of great winds and outrageous weatherings, 
for which 2d. per foot was to be paid: for the 
windows 16c?. per foot was to be paid: the con- 
tractors to furnish Francis Williamson and Symond 
Symondes, glaziers, with good and true patterns 
otherwise called a vidimus for to form glaze and 
make by other four windows; they paying such 
sum for the same as by Holgylle and Larke should 
be thought reasonable. The contractors gave their 
own bond in 500 marks for performance of covenants. 
On the 3rd of May, 18 Henry VIII., [1526] an 
indenture was made between Dr. Hacomblen, 
Holgylle and Larke of the one part; and Francis 

(a) Viz. the chapel of Henry VII. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 243 

Williamson of the parish of S. Olave in South- 
wark, glazier, and Symond Symonds of the parish 
of S. Margaret, Westminster, of the other part : 
Williamson and Symonds covenanting to glaze and 
set up four windows of the upper story of the great 
church within this college, viz. two windows on the 
one side of the said church, and the other two win- 
dows on the other side of the same church. Two 
windows were to be finished within two years, and 
the other two within three years after that. In 
other respects the contract is similar in its terms 
to that with Hoone, Bownde, Reve and Nicholson. 
Williamson and Symonds with four sureties gave 
bond in 200. for performance of covenants. (a) 

Some of the stone which was employed in this 
structure came from Clipsham in Rutland. The 
timber used for scaffolding and for the upper roof 
appears to have been given by Henry VII. and 
his executors, the college paying only for the 
felling and the carriage. It was brought from 
Wethersfield park, Poule park, Walden park, Ashden 
Halys, Bardefield park, and Broxstey park, all in 
Essex; and from Kirtling in Cambridgeshire. The 
timber of the roof came, as is supposed, chiefly from 
Wethersfield. 

The commonly received dimensions of the chapel 
are subjoined : Exterior : length three hundred and 
sixteen feet, breadth eighty-four feet, height to top 
of battlements ninety feet, height to top of towers 

(a) It is said that part of a fine imposed upon Richard Nykke, bishop 
of Norwich, for extending his jurisdiction over the mayor of Thetford, was 
applied in defraying the cost of the windows in the college chapel. 

R2 



244 KING'S COLLEGE. 

one hundred and forty-six feet and a half. Interior : 
length two hundred and ninety feet and a half, 
breadth forth-five feet and a half, height seventy-eight 
feet. The length of the ante-chapel is one hundred 
and twenty-three feet and a half. 

It will be seen on reference to the founder's will, 
that the length and breadth of the chapel somewhat 
exceed the dimensions which he prescribed. 

At each angle is an octagonal tower surmounted 
by an ogee shaped cupola. On either side are eleven 
buttresses of four stages with lofty pinnacles. Five 
buttresses on the north side and four on the south 
are ornamented with crowns, roses, portcullises, and 
dragons sejant. The battlements are of rich open 
work. On either side between the first and second 
buttresses from the west is an elegant porch of 
nearly the height of the first stage of the buttresses. 
These porches are vaulted and flanked with niches 
for statues. Between the other buttresses are small 
chantries, viz. nine on each side. The battlements 
of the porches and chantries are of rich open work. 
There are twelve windows on either side of the chapel, 
each window having five lights divided by a transom. 
The chantries have windows of eight lights. 

At the west end is a good doorway, surmounted 
with the arms of Henry VII. and crowned roses 
boldly carved and flanked with niches for statues, 
and over it is a large window of nine lights divided 
by two transoms. At the east end is a window of 
nine lights, also divided by two transoms. The 
vestry departed into two houses beneath and two 
houses above, which the founder directed to be on 



KING'S COLLEGE. 



245 




PENDANT KEY-STONE IN THE CHAPEL. 



the north side of the choir, does not appear to have 
been erected. 

The interior has a richly vaulted roof of twelve 
divisions or severies, of the pattern called fan tracery. 
In the centre of every division is a pendant key- 
stone, faced with a rose. Each key-stone weighs 
more than a ton, and is above a yard thick. 

Three chantries on either side open into the ante- 
chapel. The other chantries which are behind the 
choir communicate with each other internally. There 
are doors from the choir into two of these chantries. 

The spaces between the windows are filled with 
niches and with roses, (0) portcullises, and fleurs-de-lis, 

(a) " In the middle of one of these roses (on the west side, towards the 
south) may be seen a small figure of the Virgin Mary : after which foreigners 
make frequent enquiries, and never fail to pay it a religious reverence; 
crossing their breasts at the sight, and addressing it with a short prayer." 
Maiden, 37. 



246 KING'S COLLEGE. 

all crowned. The arms and supporters of Henry VII. 
are carved in the lower part of every division of the 
ante-chapel. It may here be stated that throughout 
the building the stone carvings are of astonishing 
boldness, and in the first style of art. 

The screen separating the ante-chapel and choir is 
of oak, mostly of the age of Henry VIII., his initials 
and arms, and those of Anne Boleyn, with lover's 
knots and the date 1534 being thereon. The gates 
on entering the choir are of the time of Charles I., and 
bear the date 1636. On one of the panels is carved 
a representation of the Almighty casting down the 
rebel host. This has been the subject of hyperbolical 
admiration. The screen (a) supports an organ loft, 
containing a fine instrument in an appropriately 
carved case. Of the organ we shall hereafter speak 
more in detail. 

The stalls of the provost, fellows, and scholars 
are of good workmanship, partly of the reign of 
Henry VIII. and partly of a later period. They 
harmonise better with the general character of the 
structure than might have been expected. At the 
back of the stalls are carved the arms of all the 
sovereigns of England, from Henry V. to James L, 
also the arms of this college and of Eton and of 
the universities of Cambridge and Oxford. There 
is a carving of S. George and the dragon, at the 
back of the provost's stall. 

Over the door in the choir which opens into the 
eighth chantry, are the arms of Edward the con- 

(a) On the screen were formerly placed nine colours taken by sir 
William Draper at the reduction of Manilla in 1762. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 247 

fessor; those of the East Angles, and of France 
and England quarterly, being on either side. Over 
the door on the opposite side which opens into 
the eleventh chantry is the Virgin Mary in oriole, 
and on either side the heads of S. Catharine and S. 
Margaret. 

The wood carving at and around the altar was 
designed by James Essex, 1774. Except as regards 
boldness, its character resembles the ancient stone 
carving. 

The upper end of the choir was, it seems, originally 
hung with tapestry, the hooks by which it was 
suspended being still visible. 

The altar is now immediately under the east 
window, but was formerly one bay more to the 
west, having behind a space which was used as a 
vestry, and for burials. The altar piece, repre- 
senting Christ taken down from the cross by Daniel 
de Volterra, was presented by Frederick earl of 
Carlisle. It came from the Orleans gallery. 

The choir is paved with white and black marble ; 
and the ante-chapel with stone, the gift of Francis 
earl Grodolphin. 

In the choir is a very fine brass reading desk, 
surmounted with a statue of Henry VII. This desk 
was given by provost Hacomblen. (a) 

We subjoin an explanation of the subjects re- 
presented in the windows. That which we have 
numbered 1 is at the western end of the north side, 
13 is the great east window, and 25 that at the 
western end of the south side. The first line relative 

(a) Engraved in Cambridge Portfolio. 



248 



KING'S COLLEGE. 



to each window corresponds with the upper lights, 
and the second line with the lower lights : 



Joachim with the Angel. 
Birth of the Virgin. 



1 Joachim ejected. (0) 
Meeting of Joachim and 

Anna. 

2 Offering ofthegoldentable. (6> Marriage of Tobias. 
Presentation of the Virgin. Marriage of the Virgin. 



3 Temptation of Eve. 
The Annunciation. 

4 Circumcision of Isaac. 
Circumcision of Christ. 

5 Purification of Women. 
The Presentation. 

6 The Golden Calf. 
Fall of Egyptian Idols. 



Moses and the Burning Bush. 
The Nativity. 
Queen of Sheba. 
Adoration of the Kings. 
Jacob's Flight from Egypt. 
The Flight. 

Joash saved from massacre. 
Massacre of the Innocents. 



7 Naaman washing in Jordan. Jacob tempting Esau. 



The Baptism of Christ. 

8 Elisha reviving the child. 
Raising of Lazarus. 

9 Fall of Manna. 
The Last Supper. 

10 Cain killing Abel. 
The Betrayal. 

11 Jeremiah imprisoned. 
Christ before Caiphas. 

12 Job tormented. 
The Flagellation. 

13 The Nailing on the cross. 



The Temptation. 
Triumph of David. 
The Entry into Jerusalem. 
Fall of Lucifer. 
The Agony. 
Shimei insulting David. 
Christ mocked by the Soldiers. 
Noah and his sons. 
Christ before Herod. 
Coronation of Solomon. 
Christ crowned with thorns. 
The Crucifixion. The Deposition. 



The Ecce Homo. Pilate washing his hands. The Cross-bearing. 
14 Elevation of the brazen serpent [from a picture by Rubens.] 
Naomi and her Daughters. Christ be wailed. (C> 

(a) This and some of the other subjects are from the spurious Gospel of 
S. Matthew or Birth of Mary. 

(b) The offering of the golden table in the temple of the Sun occurs 
invariably in all the versions of the Speculum Humanse Salvationis. 

(c) The glass in the lower lights was originally in the upper lights, 
the lower part of this window having been left blank, as the buildings 
designed by the founder would have been erected close to it. The glass 
now in the upper lights is by Mr. Hedgland. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 249 

15 Joseph let down into the Passage of the red sea. 

well. 

The Entombment. The delivery from hell. 

16 Jonah leaving the whale. Tobias returning to his mother. 
The Kesurrection. Christ appearing to his mother. 

17 Reuben seeking Joseph. Darius seeking Daniel in the 

lion's den. 

The Maries at the sepulchre. Christ appearing to Mary Mag- 
dalene. 

18 The Angel meeting Hab- Habakkuk feeding Daniel. 

akkuk. 

The Journey to Emmaus. The Supper at Emmaus. 

19 Return of the prodigal son. Joseph meeting Jacob. 
Incredulity of Thomas. Christ appearing to the disciples. 

20 Elijah's ascent to heaven. The law given to Moses. 
The Ascension. Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

21 Peter before the high priest. The Apostles taken and scourged. 
The healed man going into Death of Ananias. 

the temple. 

22 Conversion of Saul. Saul at Damascus. 
SS. Paul and Barnabas at Paul stoned at Lystra. 

Lystra. 

23 S, Paul and the demoniac S. Paul before a governor. 

woman. 

S. Paul preaching. S. Paul before the emperor. 

24 Death of Tobit. Burial of Jacob. 
Death of the Virgin. Burial of the Virgin. 

25 Translation of Enoch Solomon and Bathsheba. 
Assumption of the Virgin. Coronation of the Virgin. 

There is, as will have been seen, good evidence 
that it was originally meant that the great west 
window should have been also filled with stained glass, 
but this intention was never carried out. 

It will be perceived that each of the side windows 
contains four pictures, two above and two below 
the transom. The lower tier forms a regular chain 
of Gospel history passing all round the chapel, com- 



250 KING'S COLLEGE. 

mencing at the north-west corner with the birth of 
the Virgin Mary, continuing eastward through the 
various scenes of our Lord's active life, then taking 
up the Acts of the Apostles and concluding with the 
legends of S. Mary's death in the south-west corner. 
The stories in the upper tier are not in chronolo- 
gical order, and are chosen out of the Old Testament 
and Apocrypha on account of their correspondence 
with those beneath, on the well known principle of 
type and antitype. There are a few exceptions to 
this arrangement. 

In the central lights of each side window are four 
messengers, each holding a scroll with a text of 
scripture explanatory of the picture adjoining. These 
messengers are of two classes, the one venerable 
figures like prophets, the other angels, with or with- 
out the nimbus. The Old Testament quotations 
generally agree with the Vulgate. Those from the 
New Testament more resemble Erasmus's version of 
1519 than any other. 

In the upper lights are initial letters and armorial 
badges and cognizances. These have reference to 
Henry VII. and Elizabeth of York, and to Henry 
VIII. and Catharine of Arragon. 

The circumstance that these fine windows were 
spared during the period of puritan supremacy has 
occasioned much observation and conjecture. The 
probability is, that their preservation was owing to 
the influence of Dr. Whichcote who then held the 
provostship, and who was distinguished by his mode- 
ration and good sense, but it is not unlikely that 
the more superstitious pictures at the west end 



KING'S COLLEGE. 251 

then sustained that serious damage which they still 
exhibit. (a) 

There is but one sepulchral inscription in the 
body of the chapel. It is a small brass on the 
wall, near the south porch, and commemorates John 
Stokys, fellow and public orator, who died 17 July, 
1559. 

In describing the chantries, we commence with 
that adjoining the north door, proceed up that side 
of the chapel, and down the opposite side, finishing 
with the chantry next to the south door. 

At the east end of the first chantry are two 
richly ornamented pediments for statues. There is 
also a flat stone commemorative of John Hawtrey, 
fellow-commoner, 1673, aet. 1.9. He was buried near 
the old vestry at the east end of the chapel. In this 
as in some of the other chantries a portion of the 
floor is elevated for an altar. 

The second chantry contains in the north window 
the arms of provost Goade enamelled. In the south 
window are the initials R. G. also enamelled. Roger 
Goade was provost of the college from 1570 to 1610. 

In the north window of the third chantry are 
the arms of Matthew Stokys and there were formerly 

(a) An accurate coloured engraving of the eastern window was executed 
by Joshua Kirby Baldrey, who resided here fpr many years and who pub- 
lished A Dissertation on the windows of King's College Chapel, Cambridge, 
Camb. 8vo., 1818. From this it appears that he was engaged on an 
engraving of the twenty-first window. Able and interesting papers re- 
lating to the windows of this chapel by the Rev. William Jay Bolton, M.A., of 
Caius college, and George Scharf, jun. esq., F.S.A., are in the Archaeological 
Journal, xii. 153-172, 356-373, xiii. 44-61. With these may be compared 
the description of the windows contained in the account of the chapel, 
published under the name of Henry Maiden, chapel clerk, Camb. 12mo. 
1769. 



252 KING'S COLLEGE. 

the arms of provost Smith. On the floor is a stone 
from which the brasses have been riven. 

In the fourth chantry are monuments for Ralph 
Flyer, M.D., senior fellow, 20 Jan. 1684-5, set. 58, 
and Thomas Crouch, <> 30 August, 1679. 

The vaulted roofs of the fifth, sixth, seventh, 
eighth and ninth chantries are of much plainer 
character than those of the other chantries. 

In the fifth chantry are monuments for Thomas 
Gearing, twenty-eight years vice-provost, 17 Oct. 
1694, set. 84, and sir Thomas Page, provost, 1681. 

In the sixth chantry is the monument of William 
George, D.D., provost and dean of Lincoln, 22 
August, 1756. In the north window are unintelligible 
fragments of ancient painted glass. 

The seventh chantry contains an ancient press 
for vestments, &c. 

The eighth chantry is called Dr. Towne's chantry. 
It contains a brass with effigy foi* William Towne, D.D., 
formerly fellow and rector of S. John Baptist, in 
Cambridge, and of Kingston. He died 11 March, 
1494-5. At the north-west angle is a fire-place 
which we suppose was for incense. A door opens 
from this chantry into the choir. 

In the ninth chantry are monuments for John 
Gerard, senior fellow, 1690, set. 53, and for John 
Smith, senior fellow, and for eleven years vice- 
Co) His arms are given but his name does not appear. The inscription is 
in these terms : 

Aperiet Deus tumulos, et educet Nos de Sepulcris. 
Qualis eram, Dies isthtcc cum Venerit Scies. 

Terrse creditus die 30mo. Augusti Annoque a nato Domino, 1679. 
See Spectator, No. 518. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 253 

provost, 23 Aug. 1706, set. 79. There is a window 
at the east end of this chantry, but within memory 
there was in the same place a door which was an 
entrance into the chapel from the provost's old lodge. 

The tenth chantry was Dr. Argentine's. This 
and the eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth and 
fifteenth chantries are now used for the conservation 
of the muniments of the college which are of great 
importance and interest. In the fifteenth chantry 
are models of the intended buildings of the college. 
They are in the Italian style. 

In the sixteenth chantry, called Dr. Brassie's 
chantry, is the sepulchral brass of Robert Brassie, D.D., 
provost, 10 Nov. 1558. There are also memorials 
for Charles Roderick, D.D., provost and dean of Ely, 
25 March, 1712, set. 62, and William Cooke, D.D., 
provost and dean of Ely, 21 Oct. 1797, set. 86. In 
the south window are fine full length figures of 
S. Peter, S. Philip, a bishop, Malachi, David, an 
unknown saint, S. Nicholas, and S. James the greater. 
These were restored from fragments of ancient glass in 
1857, and are well worthy of inspection. In the north 
window are the initials R. B., for provost Brassie. 

In the northern window of the seventeenth 
chantry, called the Hacomblen chantry, are figures of 
S. Christopher, S. Anne, the Annunciation, S. Ursula 
and the eleven thousand virgins, and S. Nicholas. 
Over the door is a heart and crown of thorns. The 
lower lights of this window and of some of the 
windows of the other chantries were formerly filled 
with flowered quarries of elegant design. In the 
southern window are the arms of provost Hacomblen, 



254 KING'S COLLEGE. 

provost Thackeray, Francis earl Godolphin and Joseph 
Davidson, fellow, all benefactors to the fabric, also 
portraits of S. Nicholas and of Henry VI., crowned 
with a sceptre in one hand and a book in the other. 
These portraits which are of ancient date are greatly 
and deservedly admired. In this chantry is the sepul- 
chral brass with effigy of provost Hacomblen, and an 
altar tomb for John Churchill, marquess of Blandford, 
23 Feb. 1702-3, set. 16. (a) There are also memorials 
for Edward Walker, bursar, 1858, set. 42 ; John 
Hungerford, esq. ; Robert Glynn, M.D., fellow, 1800; 
George Alexander Seymour, scholar, 1838, set. 21 ; 
Samuel Collins, D.D., provost, 16 Dec. 1651 ; and 
John Copleston, D.D., provost, 24 Aug. 1689, set. 71. 
This chantry was formerly coloured and gilt, and used 
to be known as the provost's vestry. There is a well 
carved stall for private prayer. The wood panelling 
is also worthy of attention. 

In the eighteenth chantry is the sepulchral brass 
of John Argentine, M.D., D.D., provost, 2 Feb. 
1507-8. (This was originally in the tenth chantry.) 
There are also memorials for John Sumner, D.D., 
provost, 12 March, 1772, set. 67; William Henry 
Sumner, his son, 1759, set. 5; William Scawen, 
fellow-commoner, 21 November, 1710, set. 19 ; 
George Thackeray, D.D., provost, 21 Oct., 1850, set. 
74; Martin Freeman, fellow, 7 April, 1630, set. 34; 
Charles Nevile, fellow, 19 April, 1662; Eldred 
Gaell, fellow, 7 ides of May, 1702, set. 33. Over 

(a) Only son of the great Duke of Marlborough, and a student of this 
college. The epitaph upon him was written by Francis Hare, ultimately 
bishop of Chichester, who had been his tutor. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 



255 




VIEW BETWEEN THE ROOFS OF KING S COLLEGE CHAPEL. 



Mr. Freeman's monument is his bust and his arms 
are in one _of the windows. This chantry was 
long known as the senior's vestry. 

Over the vaulting of the chapel is a timber roof 
of marvellous construction. 

The commemoration of the foundation is on 
December 6, S. Nicholas' day, (a) and on the 25th 
of March a sermon is preached here before the 
university. (6) 

Choral service is performed here daily except 
during the vacations, when the chapel is used only 
on Sundays and holidays. 

Mention is made of the organ in the original 

(a) Henry VI. was born on S. Nicholas' day : the college is dedicated to 
the Blessed Virgin and S. Nicholas. 

(b) " Till within these few years, after Sermon, the Music used to go up 
to the Leads of the Chapel and there Perform." Carter (1753), p. 162. 



256 KING'S COLLEGE. 

statutes of the college, and traces of it appear in the 
early accounts, but in those days the instrument would 
be a very simple one; nor was the post of organist 
considered of sufficient importance to be made a 
separate office, but was held by the best qualified 
of the six lay-clerks. 

What was probably the first considerable organ 
was built in 1606, when John Tomkins was organist, 
by one of the Dallams, a family well known in the 
history of organ-building. At this time the present 
case was erected. It has remained in the same 
situation, (<z) and with but very slight alteration to the 
present time. (6) The joiners' names were Chapman 
and Hartop, and the total cost of the organ and 
case was 394. 

At the instigation of the commissioners sent to 
Cambridge by the Long Parliament, the pipes, &c. 
of Dallam's organ are said to have been taken out 
and sold, and in 1674 and subsequent years the 
college laid out considerable sums with Thomas 
Thamar of Peterborough in filling the void thus created. 
In 1686 the celebrated Renatus Harris was employed 
to supply a new organ, and in 1688 was paid 100. 
for three new stops, in 1695 20. for a trumpet stop, 
and in 1710 60. for a diapason stop. 

About 1803 the ancient case was once again 
emptied and refilled by Avery, who incorporated 

(a) Dr. Rimbault, in his History of the Organ, (p. 62) says there is 
a tradition that the organ was originally placed on the floor towards the 
south side of the choir ; no authority however is given for the assertion, 
and such a tradition is now entirely lost. 

(6) See the print of the interior of the chapel by David Loggan, 
published about 1690. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 



257 



much of the old work with his own, and whose 
organ with continual enlargements and improvements 
now accompanies the choral service in the chapel. 
The following is a description of the stops, &c. : 

GREAT, 11 STOPS. 

7. Twelfth. 

8. Fifteenth. 

9. Sesquialtra. 
10. Mixture. 



1. Open Diapason. 

2. Open Diapason. 

3. Open Diapason.^) (1) 

4. Stopped Diapason. 

5. Principal. 

6. Nason. 



11. Trumpet. 



1. Open Diapason/ ) 

2. Dulciana. 

3. Stopped Diapason. 

4. Principal. 



CHOIR, 7 STOPS. 



5. Flute. 

6. Fifteenth. 

7. Cremona. 



(2) 



1. Open Diapason. 



2. Stopped Diapason. 

3. Principal. 



SWELL, 6 STOPS. 

4. Hautboy. 



5. Trumpet. 
6. 



PEDAL, 1 
Open Diapason. 
COMPASS. 



Great, GG to E 3 in alt. 
Choir, GG to E 3 in alt. 

Pedal to Great. 
Pedal to Choir. 



Swell, F to E 3 in alt. 
Pedal, CCC to E. 

COUPLERS. 

Great to Swell. 
Great to Choir. 



Some of the organists of the college have been 
men of eminence. John Tomkins, MUS.B. (1606 to 
1622) was afterwards organist of the chapel royal 
and of S. Paul's. He was buried in old S. Paul's 
where was an epitaph, wherein he is termed " Orga- 
nista sui temporis celeberrimus." It is further stated, 

(a) These stops have been introduced subsequently to Avery, replacing 
1. Cornet, 2. Vox Humana, 3. Cornet. 

(b) This stop was added by Hill in 1839. 

VOL. I. S 



258 KING'S COLLEGE. 

that he "ad coelestem chorum migravit Septembris 
27, 1638." Giles Tomkins his brother was organist 
in 1625, and was afterwards organist of Salisbury 
cathedral. He was a composer of repute. Henry 
Loosemore, MUS.B., (1627 to 1671) was also a com- 
poser. Thomas Tudway, MUS.D., (1671 to 1728) was 
professor of music and organist to the university and 
to Pembroke hall. He had been a scholar of Dr. 
Blow, and was the fellow disciple and friend of Henry 
Purcell. Many of his compositions are extant. John 
Eandall, MUS.D., (1743 to 1799) was also professor 
of music. He was a scholar of Dr. Maurice Greene, 
and composed several services and anthems, and set 
to music Gray's Installation Ode. John Pratt (1799 
to 1855) was also organist to the university and 
Peterhouse. He had been a pupil of Dr. Randall, 
and composed several services and anthems, but is 
more especially known by his successful adaptation 
of the works of foreign composers to the use of the 
English church. (a) To these we must add Christopher 
Tye, MUS.D., who was a lay clerk of this college in 
1537. His church services, anthems, and motets evince 
great ability. He is also known by other works. He 
was preceptor in music to Edward VI., and organist 
of the chapel royal of queen Elizabeth ; ultimately he 
obtained the rich rectory of Doddington in the isle of 
Ely, which he held at his death in 1572-3. (6) 

The five bells which were intended to be hung 
in the great tower at the west of the cloister 

(a) In addition to those already mentioned, Matthew Barton, was 
organist 1622 to 1625; Marshall in 1626, and Robert Fuller 1728 to 1743. 
(I) See Athense Cantabrigienses, i. 309, 559. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 259 

were it is said presented to the founder by pope 
Calixtus. (a) 

They were for some time deposited in the 
temporary bell tower before mentioned. When that 
was taken down they were placed on the floor of 
the chapel. They were ultimately sold, three of 
them being cracked. It is said that they were the 
largest bells in England. 

On the first was inscribed. 

In multis annis resonet Campana Johannis. 

The arms of France and England quarterly were 
also thereon, and J. D., (for John Dogget in whose 
provostship it was recast.) 

The second had no inscription. 

On the third was 

Ave Maria gracia plena. 

On the fourth 

Nomen tuum Sanctum per atria cantabo, 
Laudes tuas Doniine, Laudibus celebrabo. 

The fifth which was reputed to weigh 47 cwt., 
had the arms of France and England quarterly and 
the impressions of coins. On one was a cross, glory, 
and on another a person standing by a crucifix. 
There was also this inscription : 

Trinitate sacra fiat hec Campana beata. 

Comment upon the varied beauties of the structure 
would be superfluous. We cannot however resist 

(a) " It is a common tradition, that the bells of King's college chapel, in 
the university of Cambridge, were taken by Henry V. from some church in 
France after the battle of Agincourt." Note in Hawkins' History of Music, 
vol. iv. p. 154. 

S2 



260 KING'S COLLEGE. 

giving two of Wordsworth's fine sonnets upon the 
interior : 

Tax not the royal saint with vain expense, 

With ill-matched aims the Architect who planned 

Albeit labouring for a scanty band 

Of white robed scholars only this immense 

And glorious Work of fine intelligence ! 

Give all thou canst; high Heaven rejects the lore 

Of nicely-calculated less or more ; 

So deemed the man who fashioned for the sense 

These lofty pillars, spread that branching roof 

Self-poised, and scooped into ten thousand cells, 

Where light and shade repose, where music dwells 

Lingering and wandering on as loth to die; 

Like thoughts whose very sweetness yieldeth proof 

That they were born for immortality. 

What awful perspective ! while from our sight 
With gradual stealth the lateral windows hide 
Their Portraitures, their stone-work glimmers, dyed 
In the soft chequerings of a sleepy light. 
Martyr, or King, or sainted Eremite, 
Whoe'er ye be, that thus, yourselves unseen, 
Imbue your prison-bars with solemn sheen, 
Shine on, until ye fade with coming Night ! 
But, from the arms of silence list ! O list ! 
The music bursteth into second life; 
The notes luxuriate, every stone is kissed 
By sound, or ghost of sound, in mazy strife ; 
Heart-thrilling strains, that cast, before the eye 
Of the devout, a veil of ecstasy ! 

In a third sonnet, speaking upon this edifice, he 

says: 

They dreamt not of a perishable home 
Who thus could build. 

THE HALL. This building which occupies a large 
portion of the southern side of the principal court 



KING'S COLLEGE. 



261 




THE HALL, KING 8 COLLEGE. 



was designed about 1825 by Mr. Wilkins. The exterior 
exhibits some peculiarities which are far from pleasing. 
There are doorways at either end, and in the centre 
is a large bay window. The low pitched slated roof 
has a mean appearance, and the two lanterns which 
were evidently intended to be highly ornamental 
certainly cannot be so considered. The interior has 
a roof of elaborate construction, copied from that 
of Crosby hall in London, but constructed of stucco 
and coloured in imitation of stone. There are 
galleries at either end of the building, an innova- 
tion from established usage which detracts from the 
general appearance of the structure. The want 
of light at the ends must also be considered as a 



262 KING'S COLLEGE. 

serious defect. The ends are of a tint which does 
not harmonise with other parts of the interior. The 
north west and south walls are to a good height 
lined with wainscoting well carved in the linen 
pattern. Many of the windows are filled with stained 
glass executed at various periods by J. Hedgland. 
In describing these windows we follow the order 
observed with regard to those of the chapel, that 
is, begin at the west end on the north side, finishing 
at the same end on the south side. 

1. Tablets commemorative of the martyrs who have been 
members of the society. (a) 

2. Arms of Robert Walpole, earl of Orford, K.G. ; Stephen 
Poyntz ; Horatio lord Walpole, of Woolterton ; 

Thomas Orde Poulet lord Bolton ; sir Stratford Canning ; (6) 
and Frederick Howard, earl of Carlisle, K.G. 

3. Arms of John Luxmoore, bishop of S. Asaph; John 
Bird Sumner, bishop of Chester ; (OJ Christopher Bethel, bishop 
of Bangor ; 

Joseph Goodall, D.D., provost of Eton ; George Thackeray, 
D.D., and William Cooke, D.D., provosts of this college. 

4. Arms of Thomas Rennell, D.D., dean of Winchester; 
Thomas James, D.D., head master of Rugby; Daniel Gaches, 
fellow ; 

John Manistre; Charles Simeon, fellows; and John Keate, 
D.D., head master of Eton. 

5. This which is the oriel window contains a portrait of 
Henry VI. (from the picture at All Souls' college, Oxford) 
his arms (from the window at Ockwells, Berks.) and the arms 
of King's and Eton colleges, and of Francis Basset lord 
de Dunstanville, at whose charge the window was painted, 
1830, 

(a) By a strange mistake there are two tablets for John Hullier. In 
one he is properly named, in the other he is called John Fuller, 
(5) Now lord Stratford de Redcliffe. 
(c) Now archbishop of Canterbury. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 263 

6. Arms of sir George Baker, M.D. ; Joseph Thackeray, 
M.D. ; Kobert Glynn, M.D., fellows ; 

Jacob Bryant ; William Battie, M.D. ; and Joseph Davidson, 
M.A., fellows. 

7. Arms of Thomas Scot, alias Rotheram, archbishop of 
York; Robert Woodlark, provost; Richard Cox, bishop 
of Ely; 

John Pearson, bishop of Chester; George Stanhope, dean 
of Canterbury; and Francis Hare, bishop of Chichester. 

8. Arms of sir Henry Dampier, justice of the king's bench ; 
Thomas Dampier, bishop of Ely; sir John Patteson, justice 
of the king's bench ; 

Sir James Mansfield, chief justice of the common pleas; 
Charles Pratt, earl Camden, lord high chancellor; and sir 
Vicary Gibbs, chief justice of the common pleas. 

9. Tablets commemorative of Richard Croke; William 
Lisle; William Oughtred ; Phineas Fletcher; Thomas Hyde; 
Thomas Morell ; and Christopher Anstey. 

13. Arms of Rev. sir George William Craufurd, bart. 

14. Arms of sir William Draper, K.B. 

The screen at the west end is of clunch, hand- 
somely carved in a style closely corresponding with 
the interior of the chapel. 

COMBINATION ROOMS. The outer or smaller of 
the two combination rooms is that most frequently 
used. It contains portraits of king Henry VI. the 
founder ; (a) Thomas Scot, alias Rotheram, archbishop 
of York ; Richard Cox, bishop of Ely ; and Dr. John 
Bird Sumner the present archbishop of Canterbury. 
There is also a good picture representing Eton 
college in the reign of queen Anne. This was 
presented in 1847 by the late Francis lord Godolphin, 
father of the present duke of Leeds. In the inner 

(a) This is on panel and ancient : the portraits of Rotheram and Cox 
are modern copies. 



264 KING'S COLLEGE. 

combination-room is a portrait of the founder, also 
portraits of sir Robert Walpole,- K.G., (afterwards 
earl of Orford) ; John Pearson, (?) bishop of Chester ; 
Stephen Weston, bishop of Exeter; Edward Wad- 
dington, bishop of Chichester; William Coxe, arch- 
deacon of Wilts ; (a] and sir Henry Dampier, justice of 
the king's bench. 

PEOVOST'S LODGE. This we consider the most 
successful of Mr. Wilkins's buildings. It is situate 
immediately opposite Clare hall, and contains several 
good pictures, amongst which is a curious portrait 
of Jane Shore which has been several times engraved. 

LIBRAEY. This building was also designed by 
Mr. Wilkins. It is westward of the Hall and adjoins 
the Provost's Lodge. The exterior is handsome 
although plain. The interior which has a flat pan- 
elled roof appears to want height and character. 
The total number of books is about 12,000. At the 
west end is deposited the library bequeathed to the 
college by Jacob Bryant, esq., consisting of many 
fine and rare printed books. The bookcases at the 
east end contain the collections of George Thackeray, 
D.D., provost, and the oriental MSS. given by Edward 
Ephraim Pote. Amongst the curiosities in this library 
we may enumerate part of a latin psalter of prodigious 
size taken at the siege of Cadiz, and given to the 
college by William Faldoe, sometime fellow and 
afterwards registrar of the diocese of London, and 
a large and finely illuminated MS. Concordance of 

(a) Bishop Weston's portrait is by Hudson (1731), master to sir 
Joshua Reynolds; bishop Waddington's by Winstanley (1730); arch- 
deacon Coxe's by sir William Beechey. 




. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 265 

the Vulgate Bible of the date of the fifteenth century. 
A few of the printed books were the gift of the 
illustrious statesman sir Francis Walsingham. 

In the small vestibule of the library are many 
curious engravings relating to the college and its 
eminent men. 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS. The number of 
fellows and scholars is seventy. The scholars are 
supplied by a regular succession from Eton college. 
About the end of July or beginning of August a 
general examination of the scholars on the founda- 
tion at Eton, with respect to their proficiency in 
classics and mathematics, takes place before the 
provost of each college, the vice-provost and head- 
master of Eton, and two posers or examiners nomi- 
nated by King's college. After such examination 
the scholars of Eton are placed in the order of their 
future succession to King's, and on a vacancy in the 
latter they are admitted upon that foundation as 
scholars. At the expiration of three years from 
the day of admission they are chosen fellows, 
unless there be grave objections to their character 
and conduct. 

The scholars of Eton are eligible to this college 
at fifteen years of age and become superannuated on 
the completion of their nineteenth year. 

When queen Elizabeth visited the university in 
August 1564, the college consisted of the provost, 
seventy scholars (of whom one was vice-provost and 
B.D., fourteen were M.A., and fourteen were B.A.) 
nine conducts (of whom four were B.A.) nine pen- 
sioners or commoners (of whom one was lord Henry 



266 KING'S COLLEGE. 

Howard brother to the duke of Norfolk, one was 
his servant, and one was servant to Mr. Masters a 
fellow,) sixteen choristers and thirteen servants. In 
all one hundred and eighteen. 

According to Dr. Caius, this college in 1573 
consisted of the provost, seventy fellows and scholars, 
nine conducts, sixteen choristers, twenty ministers 
and servants, thirteen pensioners, and thirteen sizars. 
Total one hundred and forty-two. 

In 1621, the college consisted of the provost, 
seventy fellows and scholars, three chaplains or 
conducts, a master of the choristers, six clerks, six- 
teen choristers, six poor scholars, thirteen servitors 
to the senior fellows, and a few others. In all one 
hundred and forty. 

In August 1641, ninety-eight members of this 
college contributed 19. 125. 6d. to a poll-tax. 

In 1672, the members of the college are stated 
to be a provost, seventy fellows and scholars, three 
chaplains or conducts, one master of the choristers, 
six singing clerks, sixteen choristers, and sixteen 
college officers and servants, the whole number 
being one hundred and thirteen. 

Carter (whose History of the University was 
published in 1753,) enumerates the members of the 
college as a provost, seventy fellows and scholars, 
two conducts, six poor scholars, an organist, six 
singing-men, and sixteen choristers, all upon the 
foundation. In all one hundred and two. 

SEAL. The common seal of the college is appa- 
rently coeval with the founder, and is an elaborate 
and interesting work of art. Under richly canopied 



KING'S COLLEGE, 267 

niches are represented S. Nicholas, the Blessed 
Virgin surrounded with attendant angels, the founder 
crowned, and the arms of France, and of France and 
England quarterly, the escocheons being supported 
by angels. The arms of the college are on a 
shield under the figure of the Virgin Mary. (a) The 
legend is : Sigillum commune prepositi et scolarium 
collegii regalis beate Marie et sancti Nicholai de 
Cantebrigia. (6) 

PATRONAGE. The benefices in the patronage of 
this society are numerous, and many of them pecu- 
liarly eligible from their situation or their value. 
They are as follows : Kingston and Milton rectories 
in Cambridgeshire ; Tiverton and Sampford Courtenay 
rectories in Devonshire ; Stour Provost rectory in Dor- 
setshire ; Dunton Wallet rectory in Essex ; Monkston 
and Chalton rectories, and Fordingbridge and Ring- 
wood vicarages in Hampshire ; Buckland and Wai- 
kerne rectories in Hertfordshire; Prescot and Sutton 
vicarages in Lancashire ; Hemingby rectory and 
Willoughton vicarage in Lincolnshire; Greenford 
rectory in Middlesex ; Coltishall, Horstead, Gressen- 
hall, Hempstead, Lesingham, Toft Monks, and Wood- 
ton rectories in Norfolk; Weedon Lois vicarage in 
Northamptonshire ; Hepworth and Wortham rectories, 
Finborough parva vicarage, and the curacies of 
Kersey, Lindsey, Great Bricet, and Wattisham in 

(a) This part of the seal was altered about 1500. Previously to this 
alteration the shield instead of three roses bore the mitre and crosier 
of S. Nicholas between two lilies slipped. 

(ft) The common seal of Eton college which is of a plainer character, 
and was made in the reign of Edward IV., is engraved in Pilgrimages of 
Walsingham and Canterbury, by John Gough Nichols, F.S.A. 



268 KING'S COLLEGE. 

Suffolk; Kew and Petersham, Kingston on Thames, 
and Richmond vicarages, and the perpetual curacies 
of Thames Ditton and East Molesey in Surrey; 
Ewhurst rectory in Sussex ; Wotton Waven vicarage 
in Warwickshire ; and Broadchalke vicarage in Wilt- 
shire. 

According to the statutes of Eton college the 
provost of that college is to be elected from the 
fellows thereof, or of this college, or from those who 
have left a fellowship at either of those colleges from 
honest and lawful causes. Since 1732 there has 
been but one provost of Eton (Dr. Edward Barnard) 
who had not been previously a fellow of King's 
college. 

The fellowships at Eton college were reduced 
from ten to seven in the reign of Edward IV. 

By the statutes a fellow of Eton is required to 
be a fellow of King's college or a conduct of Eton, 
or a person who has relinquished one of those posts 
from honest and lawful causes. (a) 

By a decree made during his metropolitical visi- 
tation by archbishop Laud, the llth of March, 1636-7, 
five at least of the seven fellows of Eton are to be 
chosen from the fellows of King's, or from those 
who have relinquished their fellowships there from 
honest and lawful causes. 

The Archbishop with respect to the claim of the 
fellows of King's to be perferred to the benefices in 

(a) It has been said that John Belyfield was the first fellow of King's 
who was elected to a fellowship at Eton. He was elected 21 June, 
1536, but there appears to have been one earlier instance. William 
Smythe, admitted at King's 1499, was elected fellow of Eton, 24 September, 
1521. 



KING'S COLLEGE. 269 

the gift of Eton college remarked: "In giving their 
benefices or any other shares of profit in their be- 
stowing, I see great equity all along the statutes of 
presenting King's college men next to themselves ; 
but whether the statutes be so punctual as to com- 
mand this ; or do only leave it as a - thing little 
doubted by the Founder, considering what tie he 
hath made in all things between the colleges, I 
am as yet in some doubt; but sure it will be very 
fit, either to command it, or very seriously to 
advise it to the college of Eton; and I cannot see 
any good cause, and loth I am to conjecture any 
bad, why these two colleges so nearly joined by 
the Founder's intentions and statutes should make 
themselves such strangers one to another as they 
doe." (a) 

The provost and scholars of this college having 
in order to try the validity of the claim of the 
fellows of Eton to hold benefices with their fellow- 
ships appealed to the bishop of Lincoln as visitor of 
both societies; he, on the 5th of August, 1815, with 
the advice of his assessors sir William Grant, master 
of the rolls, and sir William Scott, LL.D., (afterwards 
lord Stowell,) pronounced against the appeal, and 
declared that the fellows of Eton college were en- 
abled to hold one benefice by virtue of a dispensing 
statute of queen Elizabeth. (6) His lordship further 
enjoined all future fellows of Eton not to exceed the 
indulgence granted by the dispensing statute, by 

(a) Some of the documents connected with archbishop Laud's visitation 
of Eton college will be found in Wilkins's Concilia, IV. 495, 496, 531, 532. 

(b) Dated 11 June, 1566. 



270 KING'S COLLEGE. 

attempting to hold more than one benefice, whether 
taken before or after their election, in conjunction 
with their fellowship. (a) 

(a) See Report of the proceedings on this appeal by Philip Williams, esq., 
Barrister-at-law, Lond. 8vo. 1816. 




QUEENS' COLLEGE FROM THE KING'S MILL (1839). 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

MULATING her royal con- 
sort's munificent encourage- 
ment of literature, Margaret 
of Anjou queen of Henry 
VI. in one of those brief 
intervals of repose which 
the troublous times afforded 
became the patroness of 
this foundation. Elizabeth 
Woodville the queen of Ed- 
ward IV. carried on the good work, and is esteemed 
a co-foundress. The college which has a venerable 
appearance, is situated in a retired position on the 
banks of the Cam near the western entrance of the 
town. 




272 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

THE FIKST FOUNDRESS. Margaret of Anjou, the 
youngest daughter of Kene duke of Anjou and 
titular king of Jerusalem, Sicily, Arragon and Naples, 
by his first wife Isabella heiress of Lorraine, was 
born at the castle of Pont-a-Mousson in Lorraine, on 
23rd of March, 1429-30. She was baptized in the 
cathedral of Toul by the bishop of that diocese, her 
sponsors being her uncle Louis III. king of Naples, 
and her maternal grandmother Margaret of Bavaria, 
duchess of Lorraine. 

Her education was carefully attended to, and she 
was renowned for her accomplishments, wit, and 
beauty. In November, 1444, she was married at 
S. Martin's church Nanci, to Henry VI. king of 
England by his proxy. She landed at Porchester, 
9th of April, 1445, and on the 22nd of the same 
month was married to the king in person at South- 
wick (0) in Hampshire. On the 30th of May following, 
she was crowned at Westminster by John Stafford 
archbishop of Canterbury. 

But a little time elapsed before it became known 
that she had no dowry, and that by the marriage 
treaty the king had engaged to yield Anjou and 
Maine to her father. These circumstances occasioned 
general dissatisfaction. 

In a few years the executive power of the crown 
was principally left to her direction. She was guided 
in the conduct of affairs by the duke of Suffolk, 
who as the negotiator of her marriage was very ob- 
noxious. Upon Suffolk's untimely death the duke of 
Somerset became her confidential adviser. The 

(a) Miss Strickland says at Titchfield abbey. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 273 

fidelity with which she supported him against anta- 
gonists gave great offence to a powerful section of 
the nobility, and her unpopularity was enhanced 
by the losses in France and Normandy, which were 
attributed to her. 

On the 13th of October, 1453, she gave birth at the 
palace of Westminster to her only child, Edward 
prince of Wales, who has been termed by one of our 
old historians, " the child of sorrow and infelicity." 

When the fierce contentions between the house 
of York and the adherents of the house of Lancaster 
led to an appeal to arms, Margaret retired with her 
son to Greenwich, where she received the news of 
the overthrow of the Lancastrians at S. Alban's, 
(23rd of May, 1455,) of the death of Somerset and 
of the capture of king Henry. The parliament which 
assembled at Westminster on the 4th of July follow- 
ing, declared Henry incapable of attending to public 
business, commissioned Richard duke of York to 
govern the realm in his name, and declared that the 
government as it had been managed by Margaret, 
Somerset, and their friends, had been a great oppres- 
sion and injustice to the people. York, however, 
resigned to the queen the custody of the king's 
person, and enjoined her to withdraw with him and 
the infant prince to Hertford castle, which she ac- 
cordingly did. She soon contrived however to return 
with the king and prince to Greenwich, where she 
gathered around her a band of ardent and courageous 
young noblemen and gentlemen whose fathers had 
been slain at S. Alban's, and who panted to avenge 
their parents' blood. 



274 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

By a bold movement which appears to have ori- 
ginated with Margaret, Henry in February, 1455-6, 
resumed the regal authority, and York, Salisbury, 
and Warwick retired into the country. 

After an insincere reconciliation between the king's 
party and their opponents the civil war recommenced, 
and on the 23rd of September, 1459, the Lancas- 
trians headed by lord Audley were defeated at 
Bloreheath. Nearly 3000 men of Cheshire and 
Shropshire perished with lord Audley their leader. 
Margaret, who had witnessed the conflict from the 
tower of Muccleston church, fled to Eccleshall castle, 
leaving Henry on a sick bed at Coleshill. 

The sight of this battle roused within her the cour- 
age and enterprise of a military leader, and inspired 
her with the determination to assert the rights of her 
husband and son in the field. In the first campaign 
which she directed, Henry marched to Ludlow. 
York and his second son the earl of Rutland fled 
to Ireland. Salisbury and Warwick, with Edward 
earl of March, the heir of the house of York, retired 
to Devonshire whence they took ship for Calais. The 
town and castle of Ludlow were sacked, and the 
duchess of York and her two youngest sons were 
taken prisoners. A parliament was convened at 
Coventry, and York and his adherents were attainted. 

The success of the royal cause was but of brief 
duration. Warwick and March entered London in 
triumph on the 2nd of July, 1460, and on the 9th of 
the same month defeated the Lancastrian army at 
Northampton, owing their victory mainly to the trea- 
chery of lord Grey de Ruthyn. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 275 

The king was captured and conveyed to London. 
Margaret fled with the prince to Harlech castle in 
North Wales. The king was forced to recognise 
York as his successor, and to issue a peremptory 
mandate for the return of his consort and son to the 
metropolis. Margaret and the prince proceeded to 
Scotland where she obtained a loan of money and the 
promise of troops. 

She promptly crossed the border and strengthened 
by forces raised in Northumberland, Cumberland, 
Lancashire, and Westmorland, presented herself at 
the gates of York and then advanced to Wakefield. 
A battle ensued. The duke of York was slain in the 
fight and his army overthrown. This engagement 
took place on the 31st of December, 1460, and on 
the following day she caused Salisbury who had been 
taken prisoner to be beheaded at Pontefract. 

By the death of his father, Edward earl of March 
succeeded to the dukedom of York. On the 2nd of 
February, 1460-1, he defeated the Lancastrians under 
Jasper Tudor, earl of Pembroke, at Mortimer's Cross, 
near Ludlow. On the 17th of the same month 
Margaret overthrew the Yorkists at S. Alban's. She 
regained the possession of the king's person, but sullied 
her victory by the execution of lord Bonville and sir 
Thomas Kyriel. The northern soldiers grew unruly 
and pillaged the country : the Londoners, alarmed at 
this, denied entrance to the queen and her forces. 
Edward on the 20th entered the city in triumph, and 
on the 4th of March, 1460-1, was with universal 
acclamation proclaimed king by the title of Edward 
IV. The fierce and bloody battle of Towton occurred 

T 2 



276 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

on the 29th of the same month. Edward triumphed. 
No quarter was given, and it is said that nearly 
36,000 persons perished. 

Margaret with her consort and son fled by New- 
castle and Alnwick to Scotland, whence she and the 
prince ultimately proceeded to France. The king, 
the queen, and the prince of Wales were attainted 
by parliament, and all England acknowledged the 
authority of Edward IV. 

Having obtained money and troops in France, 
she in October 1461 landed at or near Tynemouth, 
but her forces, acting under a panic, fled to their ships. 
The greater part were lost at sea, or cut to pieces 
at Holy Island. Margaret and her son accompanied 
by Pierce Breze, seneschal of Normandy, went to 
Berwick. The prince was left there, and she and 
Breze went to Scotland where they were supplied 
with fresh forces. Henry who had been hidden at 
Harlech castle was again brought forth, and the im- 
portant fortresses of Bamborough, Alnwick, and Dun- 
stanburgh were taken and garrisoned with Scotch 
and Frenchmen. After a short time however they 
were all three retaken. 

On the 15th of May, 1463, occurred the battle of 
Hexham, wherein the Lancastrian forces were again 
overthrown with great slaughter. Margaret and the 
prince after a series of romantic adventures and hair- 
breadth escapes contrived to reach Scotland : thence 
they came to Northumberland and embarked for 
France. After visiting Burgundy she settled at the 
castle of Kuerre near the town of S. Michiel, which 
was given her by her father with 2000 livres of rent 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 277 

out of the duchy of Barr. In the meantime king 
Henry was captured in Lancashire, brought to Lon- 
don and incarcerated in the Tower. 

In the summer of 1470, Margaret formed an 
alliance with Warwick the king-maker. He was 
justly obnoxious to her on many accounts, and she 
regarded him as the originator of false and malicious 
slanders greatly affecting her reputation. It was only 
on his publicly retracting all he had said against 
her and asking her forgiveness, that she could be 
induced by the entreaty of her friends to enter into 
a compact, by which he undertook to recover England 
for king Henry. 

In October following Henry was delivered from 
captivity by Warwick, who however was defeated 
and slain at the battle of Barnet, 13th of April, 1471. 

The day previously to this inauspicious engage- 
ment, Margaret with her son landed at Weymouth. 
She assembled a great army and was about to form 
a junction with the forces of Jasper Tudor in Wales, 
when she was attacked and overthrown by Edward at 
Tewkesbury, on the 4th of May, 1471. Her son was 
slain after the battle and she was taken prisoner. 

On the 21st of May her husband was murdered 
in the Tower. {a) Margaret was also confined there. 
It is gratifying to record that the rigour of her in- 
carceration was mitigated through the compassionate 
influence of queen Elizabeth Woodville, who had 
formerly been in her household. The captive queen 
was first removed to Windsor and soon afterwards 

(a) By a mistake at p. 173, 1472 is mentioned as the year of king 
Henry's death instead of 1471. 



278 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

to Wallingford. In 1475 she was set at liberty on 
Louis XI. king of France guaranteeing the payment 
of 50,000 crowns for her ransom. To raise this sum 
her father had been obliged to cede Provence to 
Louis for half its value. 

She retired to her father's castle at Reculee about 
a league from Angers on the river Mayence : seldom 
leaving this retreat with the exception of one or 
two visits to the court of Louis XI. Her father 
died in 1480, and bequeathed her 1,000 crowns in 
gold, and if she remained in a state of widowhood, 
an annuity of 2,000 livres and the castle of Queniez 
for her abode. On the 19th of November in the 
same year, she conveyed to Louis any reversionary 
rights which the death of her elder sister and her 
children might give her to the duchies of Lorraine, 
Anjou, Maine, Provence, and Barr, for a pension 
of 6,000 livres. 

She closed her troublous pilgrimage at the chateau 
of Damprierre, 25th of August, 1481, and was buried 
in the cathedral of Angers, in the magnificent tomb 
of her father, but without any epitaph or inscription 
peculiar to her. Her portrait is or was painted on 
glass in a window of the cathedral. Until the first 
French revolution, the chapter of S. Maurice annually 
on the feast of All Saints, after vespers of the dead, 
made a semicircular procession about the tomb, 
singing a sub-venite for the queen of England. 

Her arms were quarterly of six : 1. Barry of 
eight A. and Gr. for Hungary ; 2. Az. semee de lis 
0. a label of three points Gr. for Naples; 3. A. a 
cross potent between four crosslets potent O. for 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 



279 



Jerusalem ; 4. Az. semee de lis 0. a bordure G. for 
Anjou ; 5. Az. semee of cross-crosslets fitche two 
barbels addorsed O. for Barr; 6. O. on a bend G. 
three eaglets A. for Lorraine. These arms within 
a bordure V. are those usually (a) borne by this 
college. 




THE SECOND FOUNDEESS. Elizabeth Woodville, 
eldest daughter of sir Richard "Woodville, (ultimately 
earl Rivers) by his wife Jaquetta, duchess dowager 
of Bedford, was born at Grafton in Northamptonshire 
about 1431. In or about 1452 she became the wife 
of John Gray, who eventually succeeded to the 
title of lord Ferrers of Groby. After her marriage 
she became one of the four ladies of the bed-chamber 
of queen Margaret of Anjou. Lord Ferrers com- 
manded the cavalry of queen Margaret at the second 
battle of S. Alban's, but died of his wounds the 
28th of February, 1460-1. His children, the eldest of 



(a) Another coat used occasionally by the college is said to have 
been granted by Richard III., viz. S. an episcopal staff in bend A. 
ensigned with a cross patee surmounted with a crosier in base sinister 
O. over all a boar's head couped in fess of the last. 



280 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

whom was not more than four years old, were 
deprived of their inheritance, and Elizabeth retired 
to Grafton. 

On the 1st of May, 1464, she was privately married 
to king Edward IV. at Grafton. The marriage was 
publicly declared in the abbey church at Reading 
on Michaelmas day in the same year. The acknow- 
ledgment of the marriage was followed by a series 
of brilliant fetes and tournaments, and she was 
crowned at Westminster on Whitsunday, 1465. In 
the early part of that year she appropriated a part 
of her income to the completion of this college. 

The influence of her relatives over the king was 
the principal cause of alienating Warwick and others. 
When Edward IV. fled to Flanders in 1470, she 
took refuge in the sanctuary at Westminster, where 
she was delivered of a son, afterwards the unfortu- 
nate king Edward V. 

Edward the Fourth's restoration to the royal 
power soon ensued, and even before the decisive 
battle of Barnet she left sanctuary. 

On the death of king Edward IV., which occurred 
on the 9th of April, 1483, she became again involved in 
trouble, and once more fled to sanctuary in the resi- 
dence of the abbat of Westminster. Several of her 
children accompanied her. She was unfortunately in- 
duced to surrender her son, the duke of York, to his 
uncle the protector Gloucester, and he was murdered 
with his brother, king Edward V. 

As a preludeto Gloucester's assumption of the crown, 
he attempted to prove her marriage to Edward IV. in- 
valid, and her children by that monarch illegitimate. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 281 

The death of Edward V. and of the duke of 
York had been preceded by the murder at Ponte- 
fract of her son sir Richard Gray, and of her 
accomplished brother Anthony Woodville earl Rivers. 

In March 1484 she and her daughters were forced 
to leave sanctuary and to surrender themselves into 
the hands of the usurper. 

She obtained her liberty soon afterwards, Richard 
III. being killed at BosWorth, and Henry earl of 
Richmond who became king by the title of Henry VII. 
espousing her eldest daughter Elizabeth. 

One of Henry the Seventh's first acts was to invest 
the mother of his queen with the privileges and state 
befiting her rank as the widow of an english sovereign. 
The scandalous enactments by which she had in the 
preceding reign been deprived of her dower were 
burnt, certain palaces were assigned her, and Henry 
gave her an annual pension of 102. from his re- 
venues. She occasionally appeared in state cere- 
monials, (a) but ultimately retired to the monastery of 
Bermondsey where she closed her life on the Friday 
before Whitsunday, 1492. In pursuance of the desire 
expressed in a will which she made on the 10th of 
April the same year, she was buried by the side 
of Edward IV. at Windsor, " without pompous in- 
terring or costly expences done thereabout." At the 
foot of his monument in S. George's chapel, Windsor, 
is a flat stone inscribed, 

Ixt'ng l=tjfont& HH. an& fjis ClXuccn li?abetfj S&fobtlle. 

(a) Henry VII. negociated a marriage between James III. of Scotland 
and his mother-in-law. It is said that the violent death of James alone 
prevented her wearing the crown matrimonial of Scotland. 



284 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

part, and abutted at the east head upon the king's 
way, called Trumpington street, and at the west head 
upon the king's way leading towards the Friars Car- 
melite of Cambridge, and contained in length from the 
east head unto the west head 270 J feet, and in breadth 
at the east head 75 feet, and at the west head 72 feet 
of the king's standard, which ground, to that end and 
effect, he lately had of the gift and grant of Richard 
Andrewe, burgess of the town of Cambridge, by his 
certain charter dated the 8th day of November then 
last past. (a) He constituted Andrew Doket, presi- 
dent, and John Law, Alexander Forkelowe, Thomas 
Haywode, and John Careway, clerks, fellows; gave 
power to the fellows freely to elect a president on any 
vacancy in that office, and to the president and 
fellows to fill up vacant fellowships ; incorporated 
the society as the president and fellows of the college 
of S. Bernard in Cambridge, empowered them to have 
a common seal, granted them a certain tenement in 
the parish of S. Botolph, abutting on the garden of 
Corpus Christi college, in free alms, empowered 
John Somerseth and the five others above-named to 
change and reform the statutes, granted licence to 
the president and fellows to hold lands in mortmain 
to the value of 100. per annum, and freed them 
from corrodies. 

Henry VI. granted another charter, dated the 
21st August, in the 25th year of his reign [1447], 
to the like effect as the foregoing, with the following 
variations: 1st, The parties thereby empowered to 

(a) The site here mentioned or a portion of it is apparently part of 
S. Catharine's college. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 



285 



make statutes were Master John Somerseth, chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, Richard Cawedray, Peter 
Hirford, John Sparhauk, Hugh Damlet, and Thomas 
Boleyn, clerks. 2nd, The college was to be erected 
in certain ground and soil situate in the parish of 
S. Botolph in Cambridge, lying between the habi- 
tation of the Friars Carmelite of the town of Cam- 
bridge on the north part, the king's street called 
Smalbriggestrete on the south part, the river there 
on the west part, and the lane called Millestrete 
on the east part, late of John Morys of Trumpington, 
esq., which soil and ground had been then lately 
granted to ttie king, to that end and effect, by the 
gift and grant of the president and fellows, by the 
name of one messuage with the houses and garden 
and four tenements, with the garden to the same 
tenements adjoining, as was riilly contained in the 
writing of the same president and fellows of the 
date of the 1st August then last past. (a) 

NDREW Doket the first pre- 
sident, and to whose active 
exertions the society was 
indebted for its existence, 
was rector of S. Botolph's 
in Cambridge, and principal 
of S. Bernard's hostel. He 
was also warden of the col- 
lege of Cotherstoke in the 
county of Northampton, and 




(a) The site mentioned in this charter, and on which the first court 
of the college now stands, was acquired by the society in July 1447. 
They conveyed it to the king, and at the same time petitioned that a 
new charter might be granted for the erection of the college on this site. 



286 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

in right of the office held the rectory of that parish. 
It is said that he was a Franciscan friar, but it seems 
to us that the authority for the statement may well 
be questioned. 

Soon after the grant of the second charter, queen 
Margaret presented the following petition to her 
royal consort : 

Margaret. KQ 

To the King my souverain Lord. 

Besecheth mekely Margarete Quene of Englond your humble 
wif Fforasmuche as your moost noble grace hath newely 
ordeined and stablisshed a Collage of Seint Bernard in the 
Universite of Cambrigge with multitude of grete and faire 
privilages perpetuelly appartenyng unto the same as in your 
lettres patentes therupon made more plainly hit appereth 
In the whiche Universite is no Collage founded by eny Quene 
of Englond hidertoward, Plese hit therfore unto youre high- 
nesse to yeve and graunte unto youre seide humble wif the 
fondation and denomination of the seide Collage to be called 
and named the Queues Collage of Sainte Margarete and Saint 
Bernard or ellis of Sainte Margarete Virgine and Martir and 
Saint Bernard Confessour, and therupon for ful evidence 
therof to have licence and pouoir to ley the furst stone in 
her owne persone or ellis by other depute of her assignement, 
So that beside the mooste noble and glorieus Collage Koial of 
our Lady and Saint Nicholas founded by your highnesse may 
be founded and stablisshed the seid so called Quenea Collage 
to conservation of our feith and augmentation of pure clergie 
namely of the imparesse of alle sciences and facultees theo- 
logic to the ende there accustomed of plain lecture and ex- 
position botraced with docteurs sentences autentique parformed 
daily twyes by two docteurs notable and wel avised upon the 
Bible afore noone and maistre of the sentences after noone to 
the publique audience of alle men frely bothe seculiers and 
religieus to the magnificence of denomination of suche a Queues 
Collage and to laud and houneure of sexe femenine Like as 
two noble and devoute Coutesses of Pembroke and Clare 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 287 

founded two Collages in the same Universite, called Pembroke 
Halle and Clare Halle the wiche are of grete reputation for 
good and worshipful clerk is, that by grete multitude have be 
bredde and brought forth in theym And of youre more ample 
grace to graunte that all privilegis immunitees profiles and 
comodites conteyned in the letters patentes above reherced 
may stonde in theire strength and pouoir after forme and 
effect of the conteine in theym And she shal ever preye 
God for you. 

Accordingly Henry VI. by a third charter dated 
the 30th of March, in the 26th year of his reign 
[1448], after reciting his before-mentioned charter 
of the 21st of August, in the 25th year of his reign, 
and that such charter, with all and singular in the 
same contained, the president and fellows (with his 
royal assent in that behalf obtained) had restored to 
his chancery to be cancelled, quashed, revoked, and 
annulled, humbly beseeching him to accept the same 
so cancelled, quashed, and annulled, and to resume 
into his hands as well the ground and soil therein 
mentioned for the site of the college, as also other 
ground or soil mentioned for the site of the college 
by the charter of the 3rd of December, in the 25th 
year of his reign, and the tenement with its appur- 
tenances in the parish of S. Botolph, abutting on 
the garden of Corpus Christi college; and those 
grounds or soil and tenements in the mean time to 
grant to his dearly beloved consort, and to grant 
his royal licence to her to make and establish another 
and like college in honor of the glorious virgin S. 
Margaret and S. Bernard in the aforesaid ground 
or soil, which then lately was of John Morys, of 
Trumpington, esq. : he accordingly cancelled, re- 



288 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

yoked, and annulled the recited charter of the 21st 
of August, in the 25th year of his reign, resumed 
into his hands the grounds, soil, and tenement afore- 
said, and to the intent and effect that his consort 
the like college in the same ground or soil, then 
late of John Morys, esq., aforesaid, should erect, 
found, and establish, gave and granted the same to 
his consort, her heirs and assigns, and granted his 
licence to her to found thereon a college of a pre- 
sident and four fellows (more or less), according to 
statutes to be made by William, bishop of Coventry 
and Lichfield, John Somerseth, Richard Cawedray, 
Peter Hirford, Hugh Damlet, Thomas Boleyn, and 
William Millyngton, clerks. He appointed Andrew 
Doket, president, and John Lawe, Alexander Forke- 
lowe, Thomas Haywode, and John Careway, fellows, 
and granted that the college when so founded should 
be called the Queen's college of S. Margaret and 
S. Bernard in the university of Cambridge, and that 
the president and fellows should be a body corporate, 
have a common seal, and the ground, soil, and 
tenement aforesaid, and also hold lands in mortmain 
to the value of 200. per annum. 

Queen Margaret, in pursuance of the foregoing 
charter, founded this college for a president and 
four fellows (more or less) by an instrument bearing 
date the 15th of April, 26 Hen. VI. [1448]. 

In 1449 the first court was roofed in, and in the 
same year king Henry VI. gave the college 200. 
towards the cost of the buildings. 

Corpus Christi college, on the 3rd of June, 1459, 
[37 Hen. VI.] conveyed to Queens' college a tene- 




H S 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 



289 



ment with a parcel of land or garden in the parish 
of S. Botolph, lying next the soil of Queens' college, 
purchased of John Morice, esq. on the west part, and 
the tenement late of William Good, but purchased 
by Queens' college, on the east part, the south head 
abutting on Smallbrigestrete, and the north on the 
soil of Queens' college. The dimensions are spe- 
cified in this conveyance, wherein the master and 
fellows of Corpus Christi college reserve to them- 
selves the materials of the tenement so as to leave 
the ground bare. There was another grant from 
Corpus Christi college, of concurrent date, of the 
same premises (the dimensions not being stated) 
to Richard Andrewe, John Hessewell, John Belton, 
and Robert Morton, burgesses of Cambridge, Thomas 
Duffyld and Edmund Conyngesburgh, clerks. They 
appear to have been trustees for Queens' college. 

Queen Elizabeth Woodville is said to have set 
aside a portion of her income for the endowment of 
the college. 

ETTERS from king Edward 
the fourth, his queen and 
prince Edward their eldest 
son, on behalf of this col- 
lege, were sent to the 
mayor, bailiffs, and com- 
monalty of the town of 
Cambridge in 1474. On 
contemplation thereof, that 
body by a deed dated the 




6th of October in the same year in consideration 
of forty marks, granted to Andrew Doket the pre- 
VOL. i. u 



290 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

sident, and the fellows or scholars for ever, a parcel 
of the common land or soil of the town, between 
the common river running down from the King's 
mill and Bishop's mill on the east, and the river 
running down from Newnham mill on the west, 
and from divers bounds called Stakiss placed on 
the north part of the street leading from the town 
of Cambridge to Newnham, between the two bridges 
called the Smale Brigges distant from the said street 
on the east part twenty-eight feet, and towards the 
west sixty-three feet. The president and fellows 
undertook to lengthen the Smalebrigge next the 
college twelve feet, and to widen the river on the 
east of the said soil to the breadth of fifty-one 
feet, and had liberty to throw a bridge over the 
river on the east part of the soil, so that the arch 
of such bridge stretched as far as the arch of the 
bridge of King's college. 

In 1475, queen Elizabeth Woodville gave the 
college a code of statutes, reserving to herself and 
the president and five of the senior fellows power 
to alter the same during her life. 

King Richard III. founded exhibitions in this 
college for four priests, and Anne his queen endowed 
the college with great rents. For this and other 
benefactions to the university, the senate on the 
16th of March, 1483-4, decreed an annual mass of 
Salus Populi for the happy state of his majesty and 
his dearest consort, and after his death exequies for 
the dead and a mass of requiem for his soul and the 
souls of his progenitors. (a} 

(a) Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, i. 228, 229. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 291 

When king Henry the seventh visited Cambridge 
on the 22nd of April, 1506, he lodged in this college 
with the president, John Fisher bishop of Rochester 
and chancellor of the university. Thence his majesty 
and the knights of the garter rode to King's college 
chapel. M 

In 1529, the college statutes were confirmed by 
pope Clement VII. 

On the 27th of November, 1541, William Leghe, 
esq., and Thomas Mildmay, officers of the court of 
augmentations, sold to William May, LL.D., president 
of this college for 20. to be paid to the king's use 
at Michaelmas then next, all the stone, slate, tile, 
timber, and glass of the late house of White Friars 
within the university of Cambridge. (b} On the 1st 
of April, 1542, the king by a lease under the seal 
of the court of augmentations, demised to Dr. May 

(a) Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, i. 281. 

(6) In 1536-7, George Legate, the prior of the house of Carmelites, 
commonly called the White Friars, and his convent granted to Simon 
Haynes, president of this college, and the fellows of the same, a wall 
between their house and the college, with licence for the president and 
fellows to open lights from the gallery of their college over the premises 
of the prior and convent. On the 8th of August, 1538, Legate and his 
convent surrendered their house and ground called the White Friars with 
the appurtenances to the president and fellows of this college, engaging 
when required to depart from the said house and ground, and give place 
unto the grantees, so that their fact and deed should be nothing prejudicial 
but allowed and approved of by the king, in whose power and pleasure 
(being the supreme head of the church of England,) they confessed and 
acknowledged that it was to allow or disallow of that their fact and deed. 
On the 17th of August, the king empowered George Day, provost of Kings, 
and William May, president of Queens, to repair to the house of White 
Friars to take surrender of the same and to take possession for his use, 
until further knowledge of his pleasure, taking a true and perfect inventory 
of the said house. On the 28th of August, Clement Hubberd, alias Thorpe, 
president of the said house and the convent, surrended their house and posses- 
sions into the king's hands. 

U2C- 



292 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

the site of the said house, and all gardens, land, 
and soil within the site, circuit, and precinct of the 
same house (except a parcel of land granted to King's 
college), for twenty years at the rent of 13s. 4J. per 
annum. On the 12th of September, 1544, the king 
granted the said site to John Eyre, esq., of Bury 
S. Edmunds, who on the 8th of November following 
granted the same to Dr. May, and he, on the 30th 
of the same month, conveyed the premises to the 
president and fellows of this college. 

From the survey of the college made in February, 
1545-6, by Dr. Matthew Parker, Dr. John Redman, 
and Dr. William May, it appears that the master 
had a stipend of 3. 6s. Sd. and for commons 3. 18s.; 
each of fourteen priests fellows had for stipend, 
commons, and livery 6. 13s. 4df. ; four fellows not 
priests, had ISd. each per week for commons ; six 
poor scholars or bible-clerks, and the master's scholar 
had each I2d. per week for commons; the butler 
had 52s. a-year for commons; the head cook had 
33s. 4:d. for stipend and livery, and 52s. for com- 
mons ; the under-cook had 20s. for stipend and 
livery, and 52s. for commons; the master's servant 
had for wages or commons 52s. ; 6. was allowed 
for hay, straw, and horsemeat for three horses for 
the master ; the divinity lecturer had 40s. for twelve 
sermons to the people annually ; the philosophy 
and rhetoric lecturer had also 40s. per annum. 
The wages of the dean of the chapel were 6s. 8d. ; 
and the cost of bread, wine, wax, repair of vestments, 
and other necessaries for the chapel communibus 
annis were 40s. The fee of the steward was 20s. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 293 

per annum ; and that of the auditor 265. 8d. ; the 
bursar's fee and for collecting rents in Cambridge was 
26s. 8d. The cost of exequies celebrated annually 
for all the college benefactors was 74s. Hugh Trotter's 
priest had 6. 13s. 4c?. for commons and livery, and 
13s. d. for exequies. Each of two fellows on the 
foundation of lady Ingledesthorp had 6. 13s. 4J. for 
commons and livery, and 3s. between them for exe- 
quies; 26s. 8d. a-year was paid for certain annual 
sermons to the people ordained by Mr. Lasbye ; and 
19. 17s. lid. was paid for exequies of particular 
benefactors, and for distribution to the poor on their 
anniversaries. A fellow who read a greek lecture 
to the youth within the college by the king's injunc- 
tion had 40s. a-year. The ordinary expences of the 
college communibus annis, are thus stated: sizings 
3. ; purchase of surplices, utensils, and stores 4. ; 
pleas and expences of account and courts 6. 13s. 4c?. ; 
repairs as well of the mansions of the college as of 
other possessions of the same 35. The extraordi- 
nary expences communibus annis were 13. 6s. Sd. 

The college estates were situate in the town of 
Cambridge, Eversden, Harlton, Coton, Haslingfield, 
Bourn, Caldecot, Chesterton, Babraham, Sawston, Com- 
berton, Swaffham, Reach, Burwell, Fulbourn, West 
Wickham, Pampisford, Cokfarnham, and Dullingham 
in the county of Cambridge ; Abbotsley in Hunting- 
donshire ; Little Addington in Northamptonshire ; 
Furneux Pelham in Hertfordshire ; Capel and Haver- 
hill in Suffolk ; Helions Bumpsted, Steeple Bumpsted, 
Stunner and Stanbourne in Essex ; Bermondsey 
street in Surrey; and S. Nicholas court in Kent. 



294 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

The total revenues clear of reprises, amounted to 
272. 13s. 4:d. per annum, and the annual expences 
exceeded the revenues by 10s. llf d. 

The statutes of Elizabeth Woodville were re- 
formed in 1549 by the commissioners appointed by 
Edward VI. for the visitation of the university. 
They were restored in all their integrity on the ac- 
cession of queen Mary, but in 1559 or 1560, were 
again revised by Dr. Parker, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, William Bill, D.D., Walter Haddon, LL.D., 
William May, LL.D., president of this college, and 
Thomas Wendy, M.D., as commissioners of the 
crown. (a) We subjoin a facsimile of their signatures, 







(a) The other commissioners were sir William Cecil, chancellor of the 
university, sir Anthony Cooke, Robert Home, afterwards bishop of Win- 
chester, and James Pilkington, afterwards bishop of Durham. There is a 
short decree respecting this college signed by archbishop Parker, Dr. Bill, 
Dr. Haddon, Dr. May, Robert Home, and James Pilkington. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 295 

It is somewhat remarkable that the commissioners 
retained in the fellows' oath the clause obliging them 
to pray for their founders and benefactors. 

As a curious illustration of the illegal means 
occasionally resorted to in former times in order 
to evade the salutary enactment forbidding the sale 
of college lands, we may here state the circum- 
stances connected with the alienation of the college 
estate at Babraham. On the 7th of February, 
1599-1600, the college leased this estate to sir Horatio 
Pallavicini, for three lives at a reserved rent. By 
a deed dated on the 9th of the same month, the 
president and fellows, covenanted that in considera- 
tion of 200. (a) paid by him to them he should 
enjoy the estate in fee simple ; that acquittances 
should be given by the college for the rent as it 
became due without its being received; that at any 
time within a month after requisition they would 
grant new leases ; and that all the writings relating 
to the estate should be given up to him. The last 
lease granted in pursuance of this covenant was in 
1636, to Thomas Minott, of Bishops Stortford at a 
peppercorn rent. 

The earl of Manchester in his visitation of the 
university under the authority of the parliament in 
1643-4, removed Dr. Edward Martin the president, 
and all the fellows and scholars of this college. The 
intruding presidents Herbert Palmer and Thomas 



(a) In this deed it is stated that the president and fellows intended to 
purchase another estate with the 200. It was however in 1617 applied 
towards defraying the expense of building twelve sets of rooms in the 
Walnut-tree court. 



296 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

Horton, were however men of eminence and worth, 
and the college continued to flourish under their 
government. Dr. Martin was restored the 3rd of 
August, 1660, by a warrant from the earl of Man- 
chester, in which he stated that he was informed that 
Dr. Martin had been " wrongfully put out of his 
mastership," but cooly omitted to state the not 
immaterial circumstance that he had himself been 
the instrument of the wrongful act. 

On the 5th of May, 1662, the society met to 
elect a president in the room of Dr. Martin deceased. 
A majority of the fellows voted for Simon Patrick, B.D., 
afterwards bishop of Ely. A mandate from the king 
was sent in favour of Anthony Sparrow, D.D., after- 
wards bishop of Norwich, who had certain votes. The 
senior fellow declared Dr. Sparrow elected, and the 
king issued a commission to the vice-chancellor, the 
two professors of divinity, and the provost of King's, 
to suspend those fellows who had voted for Mr. Patrick. 
This was accordingly done on the 12th of May, when 
the vice-chancellor, by the king's command, confirmed 
Dr. Sparrow's election. Mr. Patrick sued out a 
mandamus from the court of King's bench. A return 
was made which was excepted to. The court was 
divided in opinion. Ultimately Mr. Patrick gave 
up his pretensions to the presidentship and by con- 
sent the return to the mandamus was ordered to 
be vacated. 

In March 1821, lord Eldon, lord chancellor, acting 
on behalf of the king as visitor, gave judgment on 
two petitions against the election of Henry Godfrey, 
B.D., as president of the college, The decision was in 




59 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 297 

liis favour. (o) By a subsequent alteration of the college 
statutes the principal point involved in this once 
famous case has become of no practical importance. 

On the 22nd of June, 1828, lord Lyndhurst, lord 
chancellor, gave judgment on a petition to the king 
as visitor, from certain of the fellows raising the 
question whether the concurrent voice of the pre- 
sident is necessary in college elections. His lordship 
held that it was. (6) It is observable that Mr. King 
who argued the case of the petitioners, was in 1832 
unanimously elected president of the college under 
a special licence from the crown, which became 
necessary as he was not in holy orders. 

BENEFACTORS. Amongst the early benefactors 
of whose gifts no particulars are recorded are Anne 
duchess of Gloucester; George, duke of Clarence; 
Edward, earl of .Salisbury (son of Richard, duke of 
Gloucester) ; Cicely, duchess of York ; Matilda, coun- 
tess of Oxford; William Alnewick, bishop of Lin- 
coln ; Edward Story, bishop of Chichester ; Henry 
Beaufort, cardinal and bishop of Winchester; John 
Langton, bishop of S. Davids ; William Booth, bishop 
of Lichfield; John Somerseth, (c) chancellor of the 
exchequer, and Agnes, his wife; John, lord Bardolf; 
sir Richard Roos, knight ; sir Philip Spenser, knight, 
and Elizabeth, his wife ; sir John Crosby, knight ; 
sir William Asenhill, knight; sir Edmund Ingoldes- 
thorp, knight ; sir Hugh Wyche, knight, lord mayor 

(a) See the Case of the President of Queens' college, Cambridge : by 
Charles Bowdler, esq., Lond. 8vo. 1821. 

(6) Russell's Reports, v. 64. 

(c) A great goblet silver gilt given by him is mentioned in a Catalogue 
of Plate dated 1472. 



298 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

of London; William Wilde, treasurer of S. Paul's; 
William Ardelaye, abbat of S. John's, Colchester; 
John Aschwell, and Joan, his wife ; Geoffrey Boleyn, 
and Anne, his wife ; Thomas Bolyen, master of Gron- 
villehall; Dionysius Boleyn; Richard Cawdrey, master 
of King's hall ; Thomas Clarke, fellow ; Hugh Damlet, 
master of Pembroke hall ; John Depynge, abbat of S. 
Osyth ; John Dey, fellow ; Reginald Ely ; sir William 
Estefelde, knight; Thomas Jacob, mayor of Cam- 
bridge, and Agnes, his wife ; Thomas Kirby, chaplain ; 
John Lawe, one of the first fellows ; and John Tapton, 
dean of S. Asaph, and master of S. Catharine's hall. 

Thomas Barrie, citizen of London, purchased, 
1446, the land on which the college is built and 
afterwards gave the same by will. In 1448, Mar- 
maduke Lumley, bishop of Lincoln and chancellor 
of the university, gave 220. to the fabric, and 
a very beautiful MS. bible in 3 vols. In 1458, 
Richard Withermarsh, of the abbey of S. John, 
Colchester, gave 40 marks for bread, wine, and 
wax-lights for the chapel. In 1459, Richard An- 
drewe, alias Spicer, burgess of Cambridge, gave 
tenements in this town and in Haslingfield and Mad- 
ingley, for the foundation of a scholarship. William 
Lasseby of Colchester chaplain, gave 1. 65 8d. a 
year, for four sermons by a fellow of the college. In 
or about 1470, Alicia, widow of sir Peter Wyche, 
lord mayor of London, and of William Holte of 
Lewes, gent., founded a fellowship. In the same 
year William Sydaie, (a) M.D., of Cambridge, founded a 
fellowship ; as did John Marke, citizen of London. 

(a) Catharine his wife seems also to have been a benefactor. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 299 

About the same time Margaret, widow of sir Henry 
Wentworth and John lord Roos of Hamlake, founded 
fellowships, and gave service books and plate. (a) 
In 1473, lady Joan Burgh, relict of sir John Burgh, 
who had previously given a silver chalice, founded a 
fellowship and a scholarship. In 1474, John Raven, 
clerk, founded a scholarship. In 1477, Richard, 
duke of Gloucester, gave the rectory of Foulmire in 
Cambridgeshire, the great tithes to be appropriated 
to the use of the president. He also gave an estate 
for founding four fellowships. Afterwards, when king 
of England, he, at the request of his queen, gave estates 
in Northamptonshire, Lincolnshire, Suffolk, Bucking- 
hamshire, and Huntingdonshire, for purposes to be 
limited by statutes which he intended to give. These 
grants were resumed by Henry VII. In 1478, John 
Colynson, (6) archdeacon of Northampton, prebendary 
of Lincoln and vicar of Over, founded a fellowship. 
In 1479, John Greene founded a fellowship. In 
1483, Thomas Duffield, D.D., fellow, gave 23J marks 
for wax lights, and a mark per annum for the dean. 
Andrew Doket, D.D., the first president, in his 
lifetime gave lands in Stapleford, and by his will 
in 1484, gave S. Bernard's hostel, charging the 
same with 3 marks per annum for the service of the 
chapel, also a tenement near S. Botolph's and 
a garden before the college gate. About 1490, 
Thomas Riplingham, D.D., fellow, gave plate. In 

(a) She was buried in the college chapel in 1478. By her will she desired 
to be buried in the chapel on the north side of the choir under her 
window of S. Margaret and S. Bernard. 

(6) He died 1481 and was buried at Over in the chancel where is his 
stall with his arms. 



300 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

1491, lady Joan Ingoldesthorp, (a) relict of sir Edmund 
Ingoldesthorp of Borogreen in this county, founded 
a fellowship and procured the college the nomination 
to the rectory of S. Andrew's in Canterbury. In 
1494, John Drewell, LL.D., (6) treasurer of S. Paul's, 
founded two fellowships and a scholarship and gave 
plate. In 1495, John Barby, gent., gave a bene- 
faction for the foundation of a fellowship and a 
lectureship in the holy scriptures. 

In 1503, Hugh Trotter, D.D., treasurer of the 
church of York, founded a fellowship. In 1505, 
John Otware, clerk, founded a fellowship. In 1535, 
Thomas Thimbleby, LL.D., gave 2 marks per annum 
for fuel in the common hall. In 1563, John Stoyks, 
D.D., president, founded four scholarships. In 1572, 
John Chetham of Great Livermere in Suffolk, gave 
the rectory of Little Eversden in this county. In 
1573, sir Thomas Smith, secretary of state and 
sometime fellow, gave a rent charge for the foundation 
of two scholarships, lectureships in arithmetic and 
geometry, and an annual treat on the 2nd of December. 
In 1577, he left by will all his latin and greek books, 
and his great globe made by himself. In 1578, Henry 
Wilshawe, B.D., rector of Storrington in Sussex, and 
sometime fellow, founded two scholarships. About 
1580, John Jocelyn, sometime fellow, founded a 
hebrew lectureship. In 1589, William Chaderton, 
bishop of Lincoln, president, gave Montanus's Bible 
in 8 vols. folio. In 1593, sir Henry Williams, alias 

(a) She died 1494 and was buried in the Blackfriars, London. She was 
aunt and coheiress of Edward Tiptoft, earl of Worcester, and cousin of 
lady Koos. 

(6) He died 1494 and was buried at S. Botolph's in this town. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 301 

Cromwell of Hinchinbrookc, knight, gave to the town 
of Huntingdon 40. the produce of goods forfeited 
to him as lord of the manor of Warboys, upon the 
conviction of certain persons charged with having 
caused the death of lady Susan his wife, by witch- 
craft, on condition that 405. per annum be paid to a 
fellow of this college, being B.D., or D.D., for an annual 
sermon against witchcraft in one of the churches of 
Huntingdon. 

In 1607, Humphrey Davies, gent., founded a fellow- 
ship and six scholarships, and John Stoddard, citizen 
and grocer of London, founded a scholarship. In 
1612, Roger Manners, earl of Rutland, sometime 
a student of this college, left 20. to the library 
in addition to 20 marks he had before given for 
buying books. In 1613, Henry Hastings, earl of 
Huntingdon, who had been a student of this college, 
gave one hundred and two volumes to the library. 
In 1614, Humphrey Tindal, D.D., dean of Ely and 
president, left fifty-eight volumes to the library. 
In 1618, George Mountain, sometime fellow, bishop 
of London and afterwards archbishop of York, founded 
two scholarships. In 1625, Edward Davenant, fellow, 
gave forty- two volumes to the library. In 1626, 
John Davenant, president and bishop of Salisbury, 
gave a benefaction, with which one hundred and 
thirty volumes were purchased for the library. He 
subsequently gave a rent-charge for increasing the 
library and founding two scholarships; also the rec- 
tories of Cheverel Magna, and Newton Toney in 
Wiltshire. In 1646, Herbert Palmer, B.D., president, 
gave thirty volumes to the library. In 1652, John 



302 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

Smith, M.A., fellow, left about six hundred volumes 
to the library. In 1661, Bryan Smith, D.D., gave 
5. per annum for the use of the chapel, and Henry 
Coke, esq,, of Thorington in Suffolk, (son of sir 
Edward Coke) gave the cedar for wainscoting the 
east end of the chapel. In 1662, Edward Martin, 
D.D., president and dean of Ely, gave about thirty 
volumes to the library. In 1665, William Roberts, 
bishop of Bangor, sometime fellow, founded a scholar- 
ship. About the same time, Thomas Thompson, 
clerk, sometime student, gave fifteen Persian and 
Turkish MSS. to the library, and Anthony Sparrow, 
D.D., president, afterwards bishop of Norwich, gave 
100. for wainscoting and adorning the combination- 
room. In 1670, John Jocelyn augmented the hebrew 
lectureship founded by his great uncle of the same 
name. In 1671, Edward Kemp, B.D., fellow, gave 
300. for the endowment of the chapel. In 1674, 
Thomas Clark, M.A., rector of Maningford Abbots, 
Wiltshire, and sometime fellow, gave an estate for 
the endowment of four scholarships, and for the 
augmentation of the library, and Matthew Andrews, 
fellow, left all his medical books to the library. 
In 1676, Robert Mapletoffc, D.D., dean of Ely, 
master of Pembroke hall and sometime fellow of 
this college, gave land to found two scholarships 
and to augment the stipend of the censor who 
moderates at the problems and of the catechist ; and 
Sarah Bardsey, widow of Edward Bardsey, D.D., 
sometime fellow, gave the rectory of Hickling in 
Nottinghamshire. In 1680, Richard Bryan, B.D., 
vice-president, gave 50. In 1690, David Edwards, 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 303 

gent., founded a fellowship, and Thomas Edwards, 
LL.D., a scholarship. In 1691, Thomas Alston of 
Assington in Suffolk, a pensioner of the college, 
founded a scholarship. 

In 1713, Griffith Lloyd, esq., founded two scholar- 
ships. In 1717, Henry James, D.D., president, gave 
money, with which was afterwards purchased the 
rectory of Grimston in Norfolk. He also gave 50. 
and all his books to the library, and 40. to pay 
for the Materia Medica in the lodge, devised an 
estate at Haddenham for various purposes and 
founded four scholarships. About 1725, Ferdinando 
Smythies, B.D., vice-president, left 1500. bank stock 
to found scholarships and for other purposes. In 
1726, Charles Ashton, D.D., master of Jesus college 
and sometime fellow of this college, gave 20 guineas 
to the library. John Hayes, B.D., rector of Cheverel 
Magna and sometime vice-president, who died 1731, 
left a legacy which, with other benefactions, was 
invested in the purchase of advowsons. In 1736, 
Mary Buck, widow, (a) gave the rectory of Sandon 
in Essex, and John Sayer, B.D., sometime fellow, 
gave 100. to be expended in books or other neces- 
saries for poor scholars. In 1747, William Sedg- 
wick, B.D., president, left all his books, consisting 
of about thirteen hundred volumes as a heir-loom 
to the lodge, and an estate for founding two scholar- 
ships and increasing the stipends of the president 
and fellows. Kalph Perkins, LL.D., canon of Ely 
and sometime fellow, who died 1751, gave valuable 

(a) She had previously married Kalph Davenant, son of Edward Dave- 
nant, sometime fellow. 



304 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

books to the library and bequeathed 50. In 
1774, Henry Morris, B.D., rector of Hickling and 
sometime vice-president, left about two hundred 
volumes to the library. In 1777, David Hughes, B.D., 
vice-president, left above two thousand volumes to 
the library and also gave a benefaction, with which 
annual prizes have been established. In 1789, Eobert 
Plumptre, D.D., president and canon of Norwich, left 
Dr. Heberden's MS. Lectures on Poisons and his own 
MS. collections for a history of this college, together 
with several pictures as a heir-loom to the lodge. 

In 1820, Isaac Milner, D.D., dean of Carlisle and 
president, left to the library above three thousand 
volumes, comprising a fine collection of books on 
the reformation and modern mathematical treatises. 
In 1840, the reverend John Sandys, M.A., sometime 
fellow, founded a scholarship. In 1842, the reverend 
Thomas Penny White, M.A., sometime fellow, founded 
a prize of 30. per annum. 

EMINENT MEN. Hugh Oldham, (a) bishop of Exeter, 
died 1519. Roger Collingwood, (0) fellow, author of 
Arithmetica experimentalis, M.S., flourished 1520. 
John Fawne, (a) D.D., fellow, Margaret professor of 
divinity, flourished 1525. Henry Bullock, (a) D.D., 
fellow, a good linguist, orator, and general scholar, 
died 1526. Thomas Forman, (a) president, one of 
the early advocates of the reformation, died 1528. 
Thomas Stackhouse, (a) fellow, master of Michaelhouse, 
died 1533. John Fisher, (a) president, cardinal, bishop 
of Rochester, beheaded 1535. Desiderius Erasmus, (a) 
D.D., famed for his profound learning, eloquence, 

(a) See Cooper's Athenee Cantabrigienses, vol. 1. 




I KWAV A.^ TAKEN IN TX)7 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 305 

and wit, and his able writings, died 1536. William 
Framyngham, (a) fellow, who excelled in various 
arts, especially music and rhetoric, and wrote 
several works which have perished, died 1537. 
John Lambert, (a) fellow, martyred at London 1538. 
Richard Whytford/ a) (who called himself the wretch 
of Sion) author of numerous devotional and other 
works, flourished 1541. John Crayford, w D.D., 
fellow, master of Clare hall, Cambridge, and of 
University college, Oxford, and archdeacon of Berks., 
died 1547. Gerard Carleton, (a) fellow, dean of Peter- 
borough, died 1549. Simon Heynes, (a) D.D., president, 
dean of Exeter, and ambassador to Spain, died 1552. 
John Taylor, (a) fellow, bishop of Lincoln, died 1554. 
William Franklyn, (a) president, dean of Windsor, 
and ambassador to Scotland, died 1555-6. John 
Ponet, (a) fellow, bishop of Winchester, died 1556. 
Henry Fitzalan lord Maltravers, (a) ambassador to 
Flanders, a young nobleman of extraordinary pro- 
mise, died 1556. Richard Wilkes, (a) fellow, master 
of Christ's college, died 1556. William Glynn,<> 
president, bishop of Bangor, died 1558. William 
Peyto, (a) fellow, cardinal, died about 1558. William 
May, (a) president, dean of S. Paul's, and arch- 
bishop elect of York, died 1560. Alexander Alane, (0) 
(who assumed the name of Alesius) an earnest 
advocate of the reformation, professor of divinity 
at Frankfort and Leipsic, and author of numerous 
learned works, died 1565-6. Edward Gascoygne, (a) 
LL.D., fellow, master of Jesus college, and chancellor 
of the dioceses of Ely and Norwich, flourished 1566. 
John Bernard, (a) fellow, author of Oratio de vera 
VOL. i. x 



306 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

animi tranquillitate, died about 1567. John Stokys, (a) 
D.D., president, archdeacon of York, died 1568. 
Thomas Davies, (a) bishop of S. Asaph, died 1573. 
Richard Eden, author of various geographical works, 
died about 1576. Sir Thomas Smith, (a] LL.D., fellow, 
secretary of state, and celebrated for scholarship, 
died 1577. Humphrey Toy, a noted London printer, 
died 1577. Thomas Yale, (a) LL.D., fellow, dean of 
the arches, and master in chancery, died 1577. 
Richard Longworth, (ffl) fellow-, master of S. John's 
college, and dean of Chester, died 1579. Nicholas 
Robinson, (o) fellow, bishop of Bangor, died 1584-5. 
Andrew Perne, D.D., fellow, dean of Ely, and master 
of Peterhouse, died 1589. George Gardiner, D.D., 
fellow, dean of Norwich, died 1589. Thomas Lorkin, 
M.D., fellow, regius professor of physic, died 1591. 
Henry Smith, lecturer of S. Clement Danes, London, 
author of admired sermons, treatises, and poems, 
and from his remarkable eloquence called the silver- 
tongued, died 1591. John Harvey, author of several 
medical and astrological publications, died 1592. 
John Maplet, author of The Green Forest, died 1592. 
Edmund Scambler, bishop of Norwich, died 1594. 
John Aylmer, bishop of London, died 1594. Sir 
Thomas Heneage, chancellor of the duchy of Lan- 
caster, a distinguished and experienced statesman, 
died 1594. Henry Hastings, earl of Huntingdon, for 
many years lord president of the north, died 1595. 
Poynings Heron, one of the commanders in the army 
raised to repel the Spanish invasion, died 1595. 
Thomas Digges, an excellent mathematician and 

(a) See Cooper's Athense Cantabrigienses, vol. 1. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 307 

engineer, died 1595. Robert Bowes, ambassador 
to Scotland, died 1597. Edmund Rockery, fellow, 
canon of Rochester, a noted puritan, died about 1597. 
John May, fellow, bishop of Carlisle, died 1597-8. 

John Jocelyn, fellow, secretary to archbishop 
Parker, whom he greatly assisted in his De An- 
tiquitate Britannicse Ecclesise, died 1603. John 
Whitgift, archbishop of Canterbury, died 1603-4. 
Edward de Vere, earl of Oxford, K.G., whose poems 
were much extolled by his contemporaries, died 
1604. Thomas Brightman, fellow, author of com- 
mentaries on Canticles and the Apocalypse, died 
1607. Sir Christopher Yelverton, speaker of the 
house of commons, and justice of the king's bench, 
died 1607. Thomas Newton, a latin poet of much 
celebrity, died 1607. Robert Soame, D.D., fellow, 
master of Peterhouse, and author of treatises in de- 
fence of the church of England, died 1608. William 
Chaderton, president, bishop of Lincoln, died 1608. 
John Lumley lord Lumley, high steward of the univer- 
sity of Oxford, and a distinguished patron of literature, 
died 1609. Thomas Blague, D.D., dean of Rochester, 
died 1611. Roger Manners, fifth earl of Rutland, 
ambassador to Denmark, a famous traveller and 
good soldier, died 1612. William Covell, D.D., fellow, 
author of works in defence of the church of Eng- 
land, flourished 1613. Humphrey Tindal, D.D., pre- 
sident, dean of Ely, died 1614. Arthur Agard, an 
excellent antiquary, who made important collections 
illustrative of the constitution and history of this 
kingdom, died 1615. William Hutchinson, archdeacon 
of Cornwall, died 1616. George Withers, D.D., fellow, 



308 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

archdeacon of Colchester, died 1616. John Jegon, 
fellow, bishop of Norwich, died 1617-8. Thomas 
Jegon, D.D., master of Corpus Christi college, died 
1617-8. Nicholas Latham, a munificent founder 
of schools and hospitals in Northamptonshire, died 

1620. Robert Townson, fellow, bishop of Salisbury, 
died 1621. William Cotton, bishop of Exeter, died 

1621. George Meriton, D.D., fellow, dean of York, 
died 1624. Richard Milbourne, fellow, bishop of 
Carlisle, died 1624. Theophilus Aylmer, D.D., arch- 
deacon of London, died 1625. David Yale, LL.D., 
fellow, master in chancery, and a distinguished civilian, 
died 1625. Nicholas Felton, bishop of Ely, died 
1626. Sir Edward Villiers, ambassador to Bohemia 
and president of Munster, died 1626. Henry 
Beaumont, D.D., dean of Windsor, died 1627. Thomas 
Middleton, a celebrated dramatist, died 1627. George 
Mountain, fellow, archbishop of York, died 1628. 
John Preston, D.D., fellow, master of Emmanuel college, 
the most celebrated of the puritans, author of pious 
and learned works, died 1628. Roger Parker, D.D., 
dean of Lincoln, died 1629. John Weever, author 
of Ancient Funeral Monuments, died 1632. George 
Porter, LL.D., fellow, regius professor of civil law, 
died 1635. Edward Lapworth, M.D., Sedleian pro- 
fessor at Oxford, and a distinguished physician at 
Bath, died 1636. Stephen Nettles, fellow, author of 
an answer to the Jewish part of Selden on Tithes, 
flourished 1637. Thomas Fairfax, lord Fairfax, vice- 
president of the north and a distinguished military 
commander in France and Flanders, died 1640. 
John Davenant, president, bishop of Salisbury, died 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 309 

1641. William Robinson, D.D., fellow, archdeacon 
of Nottingham and canon of Westminster, died 

1642. Spencer Compton, earl of Northampton, slain 
in fighting for king Charles I. at Hopton heath 
1642-3. Peter Hausted, D.D., a good poet and 
preacher and a loyal adherent to Charles I., died 
during the siege of Banbury castle 1645. Oliver 
Saint John, first earl of Bolingbroke, died 1646. 
Francis Fane, first earl of Westmorland, died 1646. 
Daniel Wigmore, archdeacon of Ely, died 1646. 
Herbert Palmer, president, a learned and pious divine 
author of Memorials of Godliness and Christianity, 
sermons and other works, died 1647. John Towers, 
fellow, bishop of Peterborough, died 1648. Arthur 
Capel, lord Capel, who displayed signal valour on 
behalf of Charles I., and was decapitated for 
his loyalty, 1648-9. John Smith, fellow, author of 
Select Discourses in Divinity, (a) died 1652. Robert 
Cottesford, D.D., fellow, prebendary of S. Paul's, 
rector of Hadleigh and Monks Ely in Suffolk, and a 
great sufferer for his loyalty to Charles I., died about 
1652. Nicholas Culpepper, physician and astrologer, 
author of a Herbal and other works, died 1653-4. 
Sir Hamon L'Estrange, antiquary and naturalist, 
died 1654. Sydrach Simpson, master of Pembroke 
hall, died 1655. Sir Henry Slingsby, beheaded for 
his loyalty 1658. (6) Laurence Bretton, D.D., fellow, 
the learned pious and charitable rector of Hitcham 

(a) Published 1660 with an account of the life and death of the author 
and the sermon at his funeral by Simon Patrick, afterwards bishop of Ely. 
A new edition by Henry Griffin Williams, B.D., professor of arabic, Camb. 
8vo. 1859. 

(6) See his Diary edited by Rev. Daniel Parsons, Lond. 8vo. 1836. 



310 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

in Suffolk, which benefice he lost on account of his 
loyalty, died 1659. Samuel Jacombe, fellow, minister 
of S. Mary, Woolnoth, London, a preacher of cele- 
brity, died 1659. Thomas Cawton, preacher succes- 
sively in London and at Rotterdam, an incomparable 
linguist and alike distinguished for piety and loyalty, 
died 1659. Thomas Fuller, D.D., author of the 
Church History of Britain, the Worthies of England, 
and numerous other able publications, died 1661. 
Edward Martin, D.D., president, dean of Ely, a 
great sufferer for his loyalty, died 1662. James 
Windett, M.D., a first-rate latin poet, died 1664. John 
Goodwin, fellow, a noted republican but zealous 
Arminian, author of numerous controversial and 
other works, died 1665. William Roberts, fellow, 
bishop of Bangor, died 1665. William Johnson, D.D., 
archdeacon of Huntingdon, author of Deus Nobiscum, 
died 1666. Samuel Winter, D.D., provost of Trinity 
college Dublin, much famed for sanctity of life, 
died 1666. Henry Hastings, lord Hastings of 
Loughborough, a brave commander in the army 
of Charles I., died 1666. Sir Robert Stapleton, LL.D., 
author of dramas, translations and other works, died 
1669. Thomas Mocket, author of several works on 
practical divinity, died about 1670. Joseph Truman, 
author of the Discourse of Natural and Moral 
Impotency and of other works, died 1671. John 
Sherman, D.D., archdeacon and prebendary of Salis- 
bury, author of Historia Collegii Jesu Cantabrigise, 
died 1671. William Sherwin, author of various 
works on millenary tenets, flourished 1672. Thomas 
Horton, D.D., president, divinity professor at Grresham 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 311 

college, vicar of Great S. Helens, London, author of 
a large number of sermons and an exposition upon 
some of the Psalms, died 1673. Oliver Saint John, 
chief-justice of the common pleas and chancellor of 
the university, died 1673. Oliver Bowles, fellow, 
an exemplary divine, rector of Button, Bedfordshire, 
author of Tractatus de Pastore Evangelico, died at 
a great age 1674. Sir Orlando Bridgman, lord keeper 
of the great seal, died 1674. William Whitaker, 
fellow, minister of S. Mary Magdalen Bermondsey, 
a famous preacher of exemplary life, died about 1674. 
William Wells, D.D., president, archdeacon of Col- 
chester, died 1675. Richard Neville, a colonel in the 
army of Charles I., died 1676. Samuel Fairclough, a 
puritan minister of much ability and high character, 
died 1677. Sir John King, (a) solicitor general to James 
duke of York, and an able advocate in the court of 
chancery, died 1677. Robert Mapletoft, D.D., master of 
Pembroke hall and dean of Ely, died 1677. Charles 
Smith, fellow, archdeacon of Colchester, died 1678. 
Sir Moundeford Bramston, LL.D., master in chancery 
and chancellor of the diocese of Winchester, died 1679. 
Edward Davenant, D.D., fellow, archdeacon of Berks, 
and treasurer and prebendary of Salisbury, died 1679. 
Nathanael Ingelo, fellow, author of several works, and 
highly skilled in music, died 1683. Francis Bramston, 
fellow, baron of the exchequer, died 1683. Anthony 
Sparrow, president, bishop of Norwich, died 1685. 
John Pearson, bishop of Chester, died 1686. Roger 
Coke, author of a Detection of the Court and State 

(a) A Memoir of sir John King by his father (John Kin^, M.D.) was 
published with illustrative notes, Lond. 12mo. 1855. 



312 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

of England and other works, died about 1686. Sir 
Charles Cotterell, author of translations from the 
Spanish and French, died about 1687. Heneage 
Finch, earl of Winchelsea, ambassador to Turkey, 
died 1689. Walter Needham, M.D., fellow, phy- 
sician to Charterhouse and a great anatomist, died 
1691. Kichard Meggot, D.D., dean of Winchester 
and author of sermons, died 1692. Benjamin 
Rogers, MUS.D., successively organist of Eton col- 
lege and Magdalen college Oxford, an excellent 
musical composer, living 1693. Zachariah Cradock, 
D.D., fellow, provost of Eton, prebendary of Chi- 
chester and preacher at Gray's Inn, highly esteemed 
for his learning, eloquence and piety, died 1695. 
John Patrick, D.D., preacher at Charterhouse, author 
of a Century of Psalms and of controversial works, 
died 1695. John Fielding, fellow, archdeacon of Dor- 
set, died 1697. Charles Hopkins, author of dramas, 
poems and translations, died 1699. Edmund Bohun, (a) 
chief-justice of South Carolina and author editor 
and translator of many works, died 1699. 

Samuel Croborow, D.D., fellow, archdeacon of 
Nottingham and prebendary of York and South- 
well, a nonjuror, died about 1700. John Wallis, D.D., 
fellow, Savillian professor of geometry at Oxford, 
an admirable mathematician and voluminous author, 
died 1703. John Pomfret, rector of Maiden, Bed- 
fordshire, author of the Choice, a poem which once 
enjoyed extensive popularity, died 1703. John Law- 
son, M.D., president of the college of physicians, died 

(a) His Diary and Autobiography with an introductory memoir, notes 
and illustrations by S. Wilton Rix, privately printed at Beccles, 4to. 1853. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 313 

1705. Sir Thomas Jenner, justice of the common 
pleas, died 1706-7. Simon Patrick, (a) fellow, bishop of 
Ely, died 1707. Joseph Kelsey, fellow, archdeacon 
of Wilts, died 1710. Henry James, D.D., president, 
and regius professor of divinity, died 1715-16. Charles 
Daubuz, author of a perpetual Commentary on the 
Kevelation of S. John, died 1717. Laurence Fogg, 
D.D., dean of Chester, died 1717-8. Sir Philip Mea- 
dows, fellow, latin secretary to Oliver Cromwell, and 
ambassador to Portugal, Denmark and Sweden, died 
1718. Simon Ockley, professor of arabic, a great 
oriental scholar, author of the History of the Sara- 
cens and other valuable works, died 1720. Poley 
Clopton, M.D., fellow, a distinguished physician at 
Bury S. Edmunds and founder of an asylum in that 
town, died 1730. John Davies, D.D., president, 
a great critic, editor of Cicero and other classical 
authors, died 1731-2. Thomas Fuller, M.D., phy- 
sician at Seven Oaks, author of various professional 
and other works, died 1734. William Bramston, 
LL.D., fellow, commissary of the university, died 1734. 
William Bramston, D.D., fellow, canon of Worcester, 
author of sermons, died 1735. John Warren, D.D., 
fellow, prebendary of Exeter, author of two volumes 
of sermons, died 1736. Thomas Brooke, LL.D., dean 
of Chester, died 1737. Joseph Wasse, fellow, rector 
of Aynhoe in Northamptonshire, a learned classical 
scholar, editor of Sallust and Thucydides and a contri- 
butor to Bibliotheca Literaria, died 1738. Nicholas 

(a) An edition of the works of this pious and eminent prelate in 9 vols. 
8vo. was published at Oxford, 1859. In this edition is comprehended 
his autobiography which had not before been published in so complete 
a form. 



314 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

Kendal, archdeacon of Totnes, died 1739-40. Sir John 
Comyns, chief baron of the exchequer, author of a 
laborious and useful Digest of the Laws of Eng- 
land, and of Law Reports, died 1740. Benjamin 
Langwith, D.D., fellow, prebendary of Chichester and 
rector of Petworth, an excellent antiquary and natural 
philosopher, died 1743-4. Thomas Brett, LL.D., one 
of the most celebrated of the nonjurors, and author 
of a large number of controversial works, died 1743-4. 
Thomas Pellett, M.D., president of the college of 
physicians, died 1744. Nicholas Penny, D.D., fellow, 
dean of Lichfield, died 1744-5. Henry Plumptre, M.D., 
fellow, president of the college of physicians, died 
1746. Charles Ashton, D.D., fellow, master of Jesus 
college, one of the most learned critics of his age, 
died 1752. Peter Allix, D.D., dean of Ely, died 1758. 
Isaac Maddox, bishop of Worcester, died 1759. 
Thomas Rymer, D.D., fellow, author of a General 
Representation of Revealed Religion, died 1761. 
Thomas Jones, chaplain of S. Saviours Southwark, 
a pious and able preacher, author of a volume of 
sermons, died 1762. John Hadley, M.D., fellow, 
professor of chemistry and physician to S. Thomas' 
hospital and Charterhouse, died 1764. William 
Geekie, D.D., fellow, archdeacon of Gloucester, died 
1767. Richard Newcome, fellow, bishop of S. Asaph, 
died 1769. John Ryder, fellow, archbishop of Tuam, 
died 1775. Benjamin Newcome, D.D., dean of 
Rochester, died 1775. Charles Plumptre, D.D., 
fellow, archdeacon of Ely, died 1779. Daniel Wray, 
an admirable scholar and critic, one of the authors 
of Athenian Letters, died 1783. Sir George 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 315 

Saville, (a) M.P. for Yorkshire, famed for public spirit 
and liberality of sentiment, died 1784. Henry 
Taylor, fellow, rector of Crawley and vicar of Ports- 
mouth, one of the writers against Gibbon, died 
1785. Abel Ward, fellow, archdeacon of Chester, 
died 1785. Robert Plumptre, D.D., president, 
casuistical professor, author of collections relative 
to the history of this college, died 1788. John 
Mitchell, fellow, Woodwardian professor, author of 
a treatise on artificial magnets and of papers on 
astronomy and other scientific subjects, died 1793. 
Russell Plumptre, M.D., fellow, regius professor of 
physic, died 1793. Henry Venn, fellow, author of 
The Complete Duty of Man, and of numerous sermons 
and essays, died 1796. Peter Newcome, fellow, 
author of the History of S. Alban's Abbey, died 1797. 
William Brown, fellow, archdeacon of Northampton, 
died 1797. 

Owen Manning, fellow, author (jointly with 
Edward Lye) of Dictionarium Saxonico et Gothico- 
Latinum, and (with Bray) of the History of Surrey, 
died 1801. Thomas Fyshe Palmer, fellow, a great 
sufferer for his advocacy of parliamentary reform, 
died 1802. Stebbing Shaw, fellow, author of the 
History of Staffordshire, died 1802. Joseph Dacre 
Carlyle, fellow, professor of arabic and author 
of numerous publications connected with oriental 
literature, died 1803. John Cole Galloway, vicar 
of Hinckley, author of sermons and an Exposition 
on the Church Catechism, died 1804. Robert 
Acklom Ingram, fellow, rector of Seagrave, author 

(a) See his epitaph by Burke in Pettigrew's Collection, 367. 



316 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

of various publications connected with social science, 
died 1809. Claudius Buchannan, D.D., author of 
Christian Researches in Asia, and for ever memor- 
able for his unceasing efforts to propagate Christianity 
in the east, died 1815. Christopher Wyvill, rector 
of Black Notley, author of numerous works in 
favour of parlimentary reform and religious freedom, 
died 1820. Isaac Milner, (a) D.D., president, dean of 
Carlisle, successively Jacksonian and Lucasian pro- 
fessor, author of a continuation of his brother's Church 
History, scientific papers, sermons, essays and con- 
troversial pamphlets, died 1820, John Hatsell, 
clerk of the house of commons, author of valuable 
publications relative to parliamentary proceedings, 
died 1820. Thomas Harrison, fellow, commissary 
of the university, died 1824. Thomas Truebody 
Thomason, (0) fellow, chaplain at Calcutta, translator 
of the Old Testament into Hindostanee, died 1829. 
James Plumptre, rector of Great Gransden, author 
of dramas, sermons and other works, died 1832. 
Philip Yorke, earl of Hardwicke, K.G., lord lieutenant 
of Ireland and high steward of the university, died 
1834. Sir Henry Russell, fellow, chief-justice of 
Bengal, died 1836. Sir Samuel Egerton Brydges, 
a voluminous author whose works illustrative of 
english bibliography are especially valuable, died 
1837. Thomas Creevey, for many years a distin- 
guished member of the house of commons and succes- 
sively secretary of the board of controul and treasurer 

(a) Life by his niece Mary Milner, Lond. 8vo. 1842. This comprises 
a portion of his correspondence and other writings not before published. 
(a) Life by Rev. J. Sargent, M.A., Lond. 8vo. 1833. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 317 

of the ordnance, died 1838. John George Breay, 
minister of Christ's church Birmingham, and preben- 
dary of Lichfield, a zealous and admired preacher, 
died 1839. William Strong, D.D., archdeacon of 
Northampton, died 1842. Martin Joseph Naylor, D.D., 
fellow, master of Wakefield school and rector of 
Crofton, author of Discourses on the Evidences of 
Christianity, sermons, addresses, and numerous con- 
tributions to periodical literature, died 1843. William 
Mandell, B.C., fellow, a pious divine, and author 
of a volume of sermons, died 1843. Charles Callis 
Western, many years M.P. for Essex, ultimately created 
lord Western of Eivenhall, died 1844. George 
Henry Law, fellow, bishop of Bath and Wells, died 
1845. John Brown, vicar of S. Mary's, Leicester, an 
evangelical, eloquent and persuasive preacher, died 
1845. Thomas Mortimer, a popular London preacher, 
author of sermons and other religious publications, died 
1850. John George Children, in high repute for his 
scientific attainments and especially for his knowledge 
of chemistry, died 1852. Theyre Townsend Smith, Hul- 
sean lecturer, assistant preacher at the Temple and 
vicar of Wymondham, Norfolk, author of excellent ser- 
mons, died 1852. Samuel Lee, D.D., successively pro- 
fessor of arabic and regius professor of hebrew, an ex- 
traordinary linguist, author editor and translator of 
many valuable works, died 1852. Joseph Holmes, D.D., 
fellow, head master of Leeds grammar school, author 
of a volume of sermons vindicating the union of 
church and state, died 1853. William Scoresby, D.D., 
one of the earliest explorers of the Arctic regions, 
author of an account of his adventures, discourses 



318 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 




PART OF THE CLOISTER COURT. 



to seamen, works on magnetism, meteorology, natural 
history, and other scientific subjects, died 1857. 
George Cornelius Gorham, fellow, author of the His- 
tory of S. Neots and of other publications illustrative 
of english antiquities and ecclesiastical history, famous 
also for a remarkable controversy with the bishop 
of Exeter, died 1857. Richard Newcome, arch- 
deacon of Merioneth, died 1857. Joshua King, LL.D., 
president, Lucasian professor, an excellent mathe- 
matician, died 1857. John Toplis, fellow, author 
of a translation of La Place's treatise upon analytical 
mechanics with explanatory notes and additions, 
died 1857. 

BUILDINGS : The front towards the ancient Milne 
street is two hundred and forty-five feet in length. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 319 




THE CLOISTERS SHOWING ERASMUS'S TOWER AT (A).* 



In a more open situation it would have an imposing 
effect. 

The principal entrance is under a good and lofty 
tower of brick. The stone groining of the gateway 
contains bosses representing S. Margaret and S. 
Bernard. 

The college consists of four courts. 

The principal court measures ninety-six by eighty- 
four feet, having the hall and butteries on the west side, 
the library and chapel on the north, and the tower 
entrance gateway on the east. On the north side 
near the chapel is a tower erected 1849, with a clock 
made in 1733, also a large handsome sun-dial which 
is said to have been made by sir Isaac Newton. Over 
the door leading to the hall are the arms of the 
college. The ancient carving of this door is very good. 

The cloister court extends from the hall to the 

* The name of Erasmus was long remembered in the traditions of the 
place. Roger Ascham tells us, on the authority of a bookseller of Cam- 
bridge named Garret, that when Erasmus was fatigued with study, " for 



320 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

banks of the river, and is surrounded on the north, 
south, and west sides by cloisters, each about eighty 
feet long. The eastern side of this court is the hall 
having ornamented brick chimnies. 

Erasmus's court lies to the south of the cloister 
court. The western side erected about ninety years 
since was intended to form the southern wing of a 
new river front, the design for which may be seen 
in Cantabrigia Depicta, 1763. 

The Walnut-tree court is to the west of the prin- 
cipal court, and communicates with it by a passage 
between the chapel and the library. The buildings 
on the east side of this court were erected in 1617, 
under Dr. Davenant. The south side of this court is 
the back of the principal court. There are no 
buildings on the north, and the west side is formed 
by part of the president's lodge and the wall of 
his garden. 

THE CHAPEL. William Gray, bishop of Ely, by 
an instrument given at the hospital of S. James, 
near Westminster, the 12th of December, 1454, 
gave licence during his pleasure to all and singular 
priests studying in this college and in the hostel of 

lacke of better exercise, he would take his horse and ryde about the Market 
hill, and come again." In his own letters he frequently speaks of his horses 
and his rides. A walk on the western side of the river is known as 
Erasmus's Walk. The room in this college in which he is said to have 
studied, at the top of the south-west tower in the principal court, has 
been also long known as Erasmus's study. Fuller adds, " here his labour 
in mounting so many stairs (done perchance on purpose to exercise his 
body and prevent corpulency) was recompensed with a pleasant prospect 
round about him." A view of what was considered as Erasmus's study in 
1726 is given in Knight's Life of Erasmus, answering to the part of the 
college represented in the cut on the preceding page. 







IJ 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 321 

S. Bernard pertaining thereto, to celebrate divine 
offices in chapels and fit and honest oratories situate 
within the aforesaid college and hostel, provided 
that no prejudice should thereby be engendered to 
the parish churches. 

The present chapel on the north side of the 
principal court was built in the reign of Henry VI. 
It is fifty-four feet long and twenty-one broad. (a) 

It was modernized in 1773. Within the last few 
years the old coved blue and gilt wooden roof 
which had been long hidden by one of plaister, 
has been again exposed to view. 

The eastern window is filled with stained glass 
representing our Saviour, the four evangelists, S. John 
the Baptist and other saints, by Barnet of York. 

On either side is also a stained glass window 
by Barnet, containing figures of prophets and saints. 
That on the south side was the gift of the Rev. 

* 

Thomas Beevor, B.D., senior fellow, 1847. The other 
side windows are at present plain, but will soon, 
we understand, be also filled with stained glass. 

The eagle lettern of wood was given as a me- 
morial of the Reverend Alfred Paul Joddrel Mills, M.A., 
fellow, who died 1850. 

In the small antechapel is a brass of a priest, the 
head and the inscription having been removed. There 



(a) William Dowsing the iconoclast thus chronicles the doings- of him- 
self and his colleagues in the chapel and hall of this college, 26 De- 
cember, 1643: "We beat down about 100 Superstitious Pictures besides 
Cherubims and Ingravings, where none of the Fellows would put on their 
Hatts in all the time they were in the Chapell and we digged up the steps 
for 3 hours and brake down 10 or 12 Apostles and Saints within the 
Hall." 

VOL. I. Y 



322 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

are also on the floor and walls memorials for Martin 
Dunstan, servant of Mr. Doket ; (a) John Stokys, D.D., 
president 1568, (brass) ; (i) Robert Whalley, fellow, 
1591, (brass) (6) ; Edward Kemp, B.D., fellow, 1671, 
set. 64; Laurence Catelyn, B.D., fellow, 1680, set. 41 J; 
Richard Bryan, B.D., vice-president, 1680, aet. 74; 
Robert Power, M.A., fellow, 1690, aet. 23 ; Samuel 
Edwards, M.A., fellow, born 1700, died 1730; John 
Davies, D.D., president, born 1679, died 1731-2 ; 
Isaac Carew, M.A., fellow, 1742, set. 26 ; John May, 
M.A., fellow, 1749, set. 32 ; John Darell, fellow-com- 
moner, 1771, set. 23; David Hughes, B.D., vice- 
president, 1771, set. 76 ; and Thomas Sowerby, M.A., 
fellow, 1807, set. 33. 

There were monuments in this chapel for Henry 
James, D.D., president, 1716-7, set. 75 ; and William 
Sedgwick, B.D., president, 1760. At present they 
are in the library, but they will we believe be re- 
erected in the chapel, when certain contemplated 
improvements are carried into effect. 

Amongst those buried in the chapel without any 
memorial, we may mention Dr. Milner, president 
1820; Dr. King, president 1857; and rev. Richard 
Watson, fellow, 1857. 

THE HALL was modernised in the last century. 
The roof of the date of 1448, which had long been 
concealed by another of plaister, has been recently 
restored. It is an excellent specimen of the period 
at which it was constructed. The side windows 

(a) The inscription which appears to be in characters of about the close 
of the seventeenth century, is probably a copy from an ancient brass. 

(b) These brasses were originally near the altar. 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 323 

have been also restored, and are now being filled 
with stained glass by Hardman. 

At the north-east end is a fine oriel window of 
stained glass, representing the arms of the founders, 
benefactors, and presidents. This is by Hardman, 
and has been substituted for a similar, but in- 
ferior, window by Charles Muss, enamel painter to 
George IV. 

At the north end are portraits of Queen Elizabeth 
Woodville, Erasmus, and sir Thomas Smith. They 
are good copies of older pictures, and were given 
in or about 1766, by the three sons of Harry fourth 
earl of Stamford. 

On the western wall is a full length portrait 
(by sir William Beechey) of Joshua King, LL.D., 
president. 

For many of the recent improvements in the 
hall, the society is indebted to the munificence of 
Robert Moon, esq., M.A., barrister-at-law, formerly 
fellow of this college. 

THE COMBINATION ROOM contains the portrait of 
Isaac Milner, D.D., president and dean of Carlisle 
(by Harlowe), busts of sir Isaac Newton and William 
Pitt, and several prints, amongst which are the 
portraits of sir Henry Russell, fellow, chief-justice 
of Bengal, and Joshua King, LL.D., president. In 
the windows are coats of arms, including those of 
the Rev. Joseph Jee, B.D., fellow, Thomas Harrison, 
esq., M.A., fellow and commissary of the university, 
and Dr. Milner. 

THE LIBRARY occupies both the lower and upper 
stories of that portion of the northern side of the 



324 



QUEENS' COLLEGE, 




THE HALL AND CHAPEL. 



principal court which is situate between the -chapel 
and the hall. 

The college had a library from its first foundation. 
We have already mentioned the early donation of 
a MS. bible by Marmaduke Lumley, bishop of Lincoln 
and chancellor of the university. The college has 
had to deplore its loss for ages. 

The college possesses a complete catalogue of the 
library as it existed in 1462, arranged according 
to the presses in which the books then stood. In 
the same MS. is an account of the missals, breviaries, 
and service books used in the chapel at that period. 

There are a few persic and turkish MSS. The 
other MSS. are neither numerous nor important. We 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 325 

may however mention a Salisbury missal on vellum 
of the largest folio, which is supposed to have been 
one of those given to the college by lady Margaret 
Roos, one of the principal benefactors. 

An admirable catalogue of the books in this library 
by the Rev. Thomas Hartwell Home, B.D., was printed 
for the society in 2 vols. 8vo. in 1827. Since that 
period considerable additions have been made to 
the collection, and the total number of volumes now 
in the library is about thirty-five thousand. 

The library contains a remarkable and large col- 
lection of tracts upon every subject, theological, moral, 
or political, which has been agitated for nearly four 
centuries. Those relating to theology claim the pre- 
eminence ; and next in order may be mentioned the 
departments of mathematics and of history; though 
the remaining classes are by no means defective in 
the number and variety of the articles which they 
contain. 

On the northern side of the upper library are 
five windows of ancient stained glass. Each window 
contains two medallions of monastics. It is probable 
that these windows came from the adjoining Carmelite 
friary. 

THE PRESIDENT'S LODGE forms the northern side 
of the cloister court. It is an ancient, large, and 
convenient structure. Some of the windows are of 
a picturesque character. In the audit-room is an old 
picture, on board, of queen Elizabeth Woodville, and 
portraits of Daniel Wray (by Dance) ; admiral Caleb 
Barnes, 1675; George Monck, duke of Albemarle ; 
sir George Saville, bart. ; Erasmus (by Holbein) ; 



326 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

bishop Fisher; bishop Davenant; bishop Sparrow; 
bishop Patrick ; Dr. Davies, president ; Dr. James, 
president; Mr. Sedgwick, president; Dr. Plumptre, 
president; Thomas Walker, LL.D., fellow; Benjamin 
Langwith, D.D., fellow; John Petit, M.D., president 
of the college of physicians; J. T. Hewit, LL.D.; 
sir Henry Bridgman, bart. ; John Hayes, D.D., fellow; 
Ralph Perkins, D.D., fellow; Henry earl of Hunt- 
ingdon; Henry Plumptre, M.D., fellow; Charles 
Plumptre, D.D., fellow; Hugh Peters; and queen 
Anne of Denmark. There is also an unknown 
portrait by Reynolds, and an old altar-piece from the 
chapel. It is on three panels, and represents the 
betrayal, the resurrection, and our Saviour's ap- 
pearance to the apostles after his resurrection. The 
paintings are much in the style of Martin Schoen. 
This altar-piece which is in the highest possible 
preservation is an invaluable curiosity. 

THE BRIDGE which connects the college with a 
terrace on the opposite side of the river was rebuilt 
1746. It is of one arch, and is a curious piece of 
carpentry supported by stone abutments. The 
terrace is a delightful spot, shaded by lofty over- 
hanging elms,. 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS. There are nine- 
teen fellowships on the foundation, also a bye-fellow- 
ship. The scholarships which have been consolidated 
are fifteen, namely, two of /5Q. a-year, two of 40. 
a-year, and eleven of 15. a-year. 

On queen Elizabeth's visit to the university in 
August 1564, the society consisted of the president 
or master, fifteen fellows, (of whom two were B.D., 



QUEENS' COLLEGE. 327 

six M.A., and seven B.A.) six pensioners in fellow's 
commons (of whom one was B.D., and two were 
M.A.), twenty-three scholars and bible-clerks (of whom 
four were B.A.), fourteen pensioners in scholar's com- 
mons, and six sizars or poor scholars, in all, sixty-five. 

In 1573 there were, according to Dr. Caius, the 
master, nineteen fellows, eight bible-clerks, seventeen 
scholars, and seventy-seven pensioners, making a total 
of one hundred and twenty-two. 

In 1621 the society consisted of a president, nine- 
teen fellows, twenty-three scholars, eight bible-clerks, 
and three lecturers, these together with the students, 
&c., making a total of two hundred and thirty. 

Fuller states that at the time he wrote his History 
of Cambridge, there were maintained in this college 
a president, nineteen fellows, twenty-three scholars, 
eight bible-clerks, three lecturers of hebrew, arith- 
metic, and geometry, besides officers and servants 
of the foundation, with other students, amounting 
to one hundred and ninety. 

In August 1641, one hundred and twenty-four 
members of this college contributed 4. 10s. 6d. to 
a poll-tax. 

In 1672 the society consisted of a president, 
nineteen fellows, twenty-seven scholars, twelve bible- 
clerks, and three lecturers of hebrew, arithmetic, 
and geometry, besides other officers of the foundation, 
and students, the whole number being about one 
hundred and twenty. 

In 1753 there were, according to Carter, a master, 
twenty fellows, forty-five scholars, and eight exhi- 
bitioners, total usually about sixty. 






328 QUEENS' COLLEGE. 

PATRONAGE. The college patronage comprises the 
rectory of Bow Brickhill in Buckinghamshire; the 
rectory of Little Eversden, the vicarage of Oakington, 
and the rectory of S. Botolph's, Cambridge, in Cam- 
bridgeshire; the rectory of Sandon in Essex; the 
rectory of Seagrave in Leicestershire; the rectories 
of Grimston, Rockland, and South Walsham in Norfolk ; 
the rectory of Hickling in Nottinghamshire; and 
the rectory of Newton Toney in Wiltshire. The 
rectory of Grrimston is in the gift of the president, 
who must nominate one of the eight senior divines. 




EAST FRONT OF 8. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 



S. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 

THIS college, long known as S. Catharine's hall, is 
situate on the western side of Trumpington street, 
opposite Corpus Christi college, having also a front 
towards the ancient Milnestreet, nearly opposite 
Queens' college. 

THE FOUNDER. Robert Woodlark was born at 
Wakerley in Northamptonshire, and was no doubt 
educated in this university, but the records do not 
enable us to specify when, or of what house he 
was admitted, or when he graduated. It is said 
that he was at one period one of the esquire bedels 
of the university. 



330 s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 

He is named as one of the fellows of King's college 
in the first charter of foundation. On the 17th of 
May, 1452, he became provost of that college, and 
on the 12th of December in the same year, was 
appointed clerk of the works there. He took the 
degree of D.D., but at what period we are not in- 
formed. On the 21st of October, 1453, he, with 
the bishop of Carlisle chancellor of the university, 
the mayor of the town, and others, were appointed 
to preserve the peace according to the statutes. 
On the 22nd of March, 1453-4, he was collated 
by Bourchier bishop of Ely, to the mastership of 
the free chapel of Whittlesford bridge, in the county 
of Cambridge. On the 27th of February, 1457-8, he 
was instituted to the rectory of Kingston, in the same 
county, on the presentation of Thomas Rotheram 
and Walter Field, to whom we presume the right 
of presentation had been granted by King's college, 
with the view to the provost's admission thereto. 
This benefice he resigned in or about May following. 
In 1459 he became chancellor of the university, and 
in 1460 resigned the mastership of Whittlesford 
bridge chapel. In 1462 he served the office of chan- 
cellor of the university for the second time. . In 1467 
the senate passed a special grace by which he was 
permitted to be absent from congregations unless 
called by name. 

On the 6th of September, 1471, he was instituted 
to the rectory of Coton in the county of Cambridge, 
On the presentation of Thomas Clyff and John 
Brokeshawe, patrons for that turn. They were no 
doubt his grantees, for we find him afterwards pre- 



s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 331 

senting to this rectory as the lawful patron thereof 
on his resignation of the benefice in 1474. 

On the 18th of March, 1474-5, he was instituted 
to the rectory of Fulbourn S. Vigors in Cambridge- 
shire, on the presentation of Henry Bourchier earl 
of Essex. In 1475 he obtained a charter for the 
foundation of this college. In October, 1479, he 
resigned the provostship of King's college. It i& 
believed that he was forced to quit that office by king 
Edward IV. because he refused, at that monarch's 
request, to grant Ewern which was the property 
of King's college to the church of Windsor. 

The time of his death and the place of his 
sepulchre are alike unknown. In a deed dated in 
the 2nd Henry VII. he is referred to as then dead. 
It would appear that he had survived his faculties. 

He had a sister named Isabel, the wife of John 
Canterbury, who was clerk of the works at King's 
college. She was a benefactress to this college. 

THE FOUNDATION. King Edward IV., by letters 
patent tested (by Edward his eldest son, prince of 
Wales, keeper of England) the 16th of August, in the 
15th year of his reign [1475] after reciting that 
master Robert Wodelarke, D.D., a certain mansion, 
with the appurtenances, in his (the king's) town 
of Cambridge, in a certain street called Millestrete^ 
within his (the king's) university of Cambridge, to. 
the honour of God and blessed Mary the Virgin, 
and of the glorious Virgin Martyr S. Katharine, of 
and for one master and three fellows or more within 
that mansion, within that university aforesaid, in all 
time coming dwelling and to dwell, studying in 



332 s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 

philosophy and holy divinity, had founded, erected, 
constituted and ordained; and that messuage, with 
the appurtenances, he proposed should be called or 
named the hall of S. Katharine the Virgin, and a 
certain master in the same hall, and three fellows, 
there had placed; and in the same hall had himself 
constituted and ordained a master of the same hall 
and of those fellows : accepted, approved, ratified, 
and confirmed the foundation, erection, construction, 
constitution, and ordinance aforesaid, and granted 
that the said hall of S. Katharine the Virgin should 
be one perpetual college and one perpetual society 
and association in deed and in name, of and for 
one master and three fellows or more, within the 
university aforesaid, incorporated, united, confirmed, 
and established, for ever to endure. Also that the 
same college should be called the hall of S. Katharine 
the Virgin, within the university of Cambridge ; that 
the master and fellows should have perpetual suc- 
cession and legal capacity to have, hold, perceive, 
enjoy, and acquire lands; that the said Robert 
Wodelarke and his executors should have power to 
make statutes ; that the master and fellows should 
have a common seal, and might sue and be sued; 
and that they might hold lands (not held imme- 
diately of the crown in chief) in mortmain to the 
value of 40 marks per annum. 

Robert Wodelark, clerk, D.D., by an instrument 
under his seal, with the king's licence, and from the 
singular devotion which he had to S. Katharine the 
Virgin and Martyr, constructed and founded a certain 
college or hall to the honour of God and blessed Mary 



s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 333 

the Virgin and S. Katharine, and gave, granted, and 
confirmed to master Richard Roche, clerk, D.D., master 
of the same college or hall, and to the fellows of the 
same, two tenements, with all their appurtenances, as 
they were situated together and lay in the parishes of 
S. Edward and S. Botolph, of the town of Cambridge, 
which he lately had jointly with Thomas Dekyn, 
then deceased, and John Brokeshawe, then surviving, 
of the gift and grant of John Botwright, clerk, John 
Ansty, sen., of Stowquye, in the county of Cam- 
bridge, and Richard Brocher, clerk, as by their 
charter to him made fully appear ed. (a) Moreover, 
of the king's licence aforesaid he gave, granted, and 
confirmed to the aforesaid Richard Roche, clerk, 
master of the aforesaid college or hall of S. Katharine, 
and to the fellows of the same, a tenement, with 
the garden adjoining, situate in the town of Cam- 
bridge, in the street there called Millestrete; which 
tenement, with the garden, he lately purchased of 
the Reverend Father and Lord in Christ, the lord 
Edward, by the grace of God bishop of Carlisle, 
master or keeper of the house or college of S. Michael, 
Cambridge, and the scholars of the same house, by 
indenture to him demised at farm: and afterwards 
the same master or keeper and scholars remised, 
released, and altogether for them and their successors 
for ever, quit claimed to him, his heirs, and assigns 

(a) This charter is dated the 10th of September, 28 Henry VI. [1449]. 
On the 9th of November, 15 Edward IV., [1475] Peter Welde and John 
Wardale, clerks, and Thomas Clyff and John Brokeshawe released to 
Dr. Wodelarke, his heirs, and assigns, all right in two tenements situate 
together in the parishes of S. Edward and S. Botolph, in the town of 
Cambridge, which lately were of John Botwright, clerk, John Ansty, sen., 
of Stowequy, in the county of Cambridge, and Richard Brocher, clerk. 



334 s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE, 

in possession, the same tenement, with the garden 
adjoining, with their appurtenances then being, and 
all right, reserving to them an annual farm of 8s., 
with power of distress. (a) And further, of the king's 
like licence he gave, granted, and confirmed to the 
aforesaid master Richard Roche, master of the same 
college or hall of S. Katharine, all his estate and term 
to come in one tenement with two base chambers,, 
and with a garden to the same tenement adjoining, 
situate in the Millestrete aforesaid, in the parish 
of S. Botolph, to him, by master Robert Blakamore r 
perpetual chaplain of S. Mary and S. Nicholas, 
founded in the church of S. Clement of Cambridge, 
of the consent of sir John Damlett, vicar there, and 
the parishioners of the same church, by indenture 
demised to farm for the term in the same indenture 
specified, rendering therefore yearly 8s^ }: 

The college was solemnly opened on S. Catharine's 
day, November 25th, 1473, and the first two fellows 
entered into commons on the day following. The 
founder gave a code of statutes for the government 
of the society. 

On the 25th of May, 1476, the royal licence 
was granted for the appropriation to the master 
and fellows of this college of the rectory of Coton 
in the county of Cambridge. 

In the valuation made about 1535, to regulate the 
payment of first-fruits and tenths, the annual revenues 
of the college were returned at only 39. 2s. T^d. 

(a) The grant from the master and scholars of Michaelhouse is dated 
the 3rd of September, 11 Edward;IV. [1471]. 

(6) This lease was dated the feast of S. Michael, 1472. 



s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 335 

From the survey made in February, 1545-6, by 
Matthew Parker, D.D., John Redman, D.D., and 
William Mey, LL.D., the king's commissioners, it 
appears that the master had an annual stipend f 
100*.; that there were three fellows on Dr. Wodelark's 
foundations, two of whom had 4. each for stipend!, 
but the other had no stipend on account of defect 
of revenues. There were five other fellows on the- 
foundations of John Chester, Robert Simpson, Richard 
Nelson, Catharine Miles, and William Basset, each of 
whom had a stipend of 4. A bible-clerk on Nelson/s 
foundation had a stipend of 34s. 4e?. The wages- 
of the cook were 52s. Sd., and of the laundress 8s.. 
Various sums were annually expended in exequies.. 
The cost of a refection and for money distributed 
to the poor on the feast of S. Catharine was 13s. 4d.. 
The college estates were situated in the town of Cam- 
bridge, and in Coton, Barton, Grantchester, Harlton, 
Over, Wilbraham, and Fulbourn, in the county of 
Cambridge ; at Biggleswade in Bedfordshire ; Paxton 
in Huntingdonshire ; and Layer Breton and Ridge- 
well in Essex. The clear annual value of the college 
possessions was but 55. 18s. 6e?., and the expences 
exceeded the revenues by 76s. per annum. 

In the reign of Edward VI. the statutes were 
revised, and the number of fellowships fixed at six. 

About 1650 it was proposed to augment certain 
of the headships in Cambridge. It appears that the 
annual value of the mastership of this college was 
then only 22. 13s. 4e?., and an increase of 90. 
per annum was proposed. 

On the 26th of April, 1714, queen Anne, by 



336 s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 

letters patent, made the master of this college a 
sole corporation by the style or title of master or 
warden of S. Katharine's college or hall in the uni- 
versity of Cambridge, and she annexed to the master- 
ship for its better support and maintenance that 
canonry or prebend in the church of Norwich, which 
should first happen to be void, and in the gift of 
the crown. This grant was ratified by an act of 
parliament passed the same year. It took effect in 
1716, on the death of Richard Broadrep, M.A., to 
whose canonry Dr. Thomas Sherlock, master of this 
college, eventually succeeded. His claim was in the 
first instance opposed by the dean and chapter of 
Norwich, on the ground that he held preferment 
which by the statutes of that church rendered him 
ineligible to a canonry there. It was held however 
by the court of king's bench that the act of par- 
liament overruled the local statutes of the cathedral. 

BENEFACTORS. William Coote in 1475 bequeathed 
40. to the founder towards completing the chapel 
and library; William Basset, rector of Pennington 
in Lancashire, in 1480 gave lands in Stoke by Clare 
for the foundation of a fellowship ; Catharine, widow 
of Hugh Pemberton, alderman of London, in 1504 
gave 200 marks for a sermon and certain religious 
offices ; William Taylard, esq., of Doddington in the 
county of Huntingdon, in 1505 gave 100.; Robert 
Simpson, clerk, and others, in 1506 founded a fellow- 
ship; Richard Nelson, clerk, in 1506 founded a 
fellowship and a bible-clerkship, and gave books to 
the library ; Catharine, widow of William Miles, of 
the town of Cambridge, in 1508 founded a fellowship ; 



s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 337 

Elizabeth, widow of sir Thomas Barnadiston, of Ked- 
ington in Suffolk, in 1513 founded a scholarship, 
and made provision for wine and oil for the chapel, 
and for a sermon and other religious services ; John 
Chester, of London, draper, in 1515 founded a fellow- 
ship; Hugh Garnet, fellow, in 1525 gave lands in 
Coton and in Huntingdonshire ; Robert Shorton, D.D., 
dean of Stoke by Clare, and master successively of 
S. John's college and Pembroke hall, gave twenty 
marks to purchase lands; Mrs. Rosamund Payne, 
of Dorsetshire, in 1610 left an annual stipend of 
five marks for each of two scholars. Sir John Clay- 
pole, of North Barrow in Nottinghamshire, in 1613 
founded two scholarships ; John Grostlin, M.D., master 
of Caius college, and Regius professor of physic, 
gave the Bull Inn, in Cambridge, with divers lands 
and tenements thereto belonging, towards the main- 
tenance of six poor scholars and for other uses ; 
Julian, wife of Alexander Stafford, of Harlow in 
Essex, in 1627 gave a benefaction for four poor 
scholars, students in divinity ; lady Anne Cocket, 
in 1630 gave 4. a-year to a scholar ; Thomas Hobbs, 
esq., of Braintree in Essex, left in 1631 cottages 
and lands, the rents of which are applicable to 
scholars of this college; Catharine, widow of sir 
Thomas Barnadiston, of Kedington in Suffolk, in 1632 
gave 400. to purchase land for founding scholar- 
ships ; Richard Sibbs, D.D., master, gave 4. per 
annum to the master's sizar; William Spur st owe, 
(father of the master of that name) in 1644 gave 
by will 100. for the use of poor scholars ; Robert 
Skirne, esq., of Fokerby in Yorkshire, in 1661 be- 
VOL. i. z 



338 s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE, 

queathed lands for the foundation of eight scholarships ; 
Thomas Buck, one of the esquire bedels, and printer 
to the university, who died 1670, gave books to 
the library; John Cartwright, esq., of Aynhoe in 
Northamptonshire, gave 12. a-year to found a scholar- 
ship or scholarships; Matthew Scrivener, clerk, of 
Bruisyard in Suffolk, and vicar of Haslingfield in 
Cambridgeshire, who died about 1687, gave 20 marks 
yearly; the rev. Samuel Frankland, master of the 
grammar school at Coventry, in 1691 left by will 
property for the maintenance of a fellow and a scholar ; 
the rev. Moses Holway, of Michaelstow in Cornwall, 
in 1695 founded the Conduct fellowship and two 
scholarships; John Bryan, D.D., and Mr. Thomas 
Neale, of Bramfield in Suffolk, gave many valuable 
books to the library ; Mary Ramsden, of Norton in 
the county of York, widow, in 1743 devised estates 
then worth 674. per annum for the erection of 
additional buildings, the foundation of six fellowships 
and ten scholarships, and for the benefit of the common 
stock of the college, she directed the fellows and 
scholars to be called the Skirne fellows and scholars, 
in remembrance of her relative Robert Skirne, esq., 
whose benefaction has been already noticed ; Thomas 
Sherlock, bishop of London, sometime master, aug- 
mented the stipend of the master's sizar, founded 
and endowed the office of librarian, gave his own 
valuable library, and left estates for the purchase 
of books ; the rev. Charles William Burrell, fellow, 
left a considerable sum of money for augmenting 
the ecclesiastical patronage of the college. In 1850 
a divinity prize was instituted from a fund raised 



s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 339 

by the pupils of the rev. George Elwes Corrie, D.D., 
late fellow of this college, and now master of Jesus 
college. 

Other benefactors were Isabel Canterbury, the 
founder's sister ; John Leche, vicar of Walden, who 
died 1521; Thomas Green, master; Alicia Lupset, 
of London ; sir John Marney, of Layer Marney in 
Essex; Edmund Hound, D.D., master; John Duke, 
of Trunch in Norfolk ; Stephen Pheasant, of London, 
sometime fellow-commoner; hon. and rev. Henry 
Moore, D.D.; John Eachard, D.D., master ; sir William 
Dawes, archbishop of York, master; John Adden- 
brooke, M.D.; John Leng, bishop of Norwich ; lady 
Moyer; Thomas Crosse, D.D., master; Humphrey 
Hanmer, esq., fellow ; Edward Hubbard, D.D., master ; 
and Joseph Procter, D.D., master. 

EMINENT MEN. John Tapton, master, dean of 
S. Asaph, died 1492. Robert Swinbourne, (a) fellow, 
master of Pembroke hall, died 1540. Edmund 
Natares, (a) D.D., fellow, master of Clare hall, died 
1549. William Capon, (o) D.D., fellow, dean of Ipswich 
college, archdeacon of Anglesey, and master of Jesus 
college, died 1550. John Bradford, (a) martyred 1555. 
Edwin Sandys, master, archbishop of York, died 
1588. John Maplet, fellow, author of The Green 
Forest, died 1592. John May, master, bishop of 
Carlisle, died 1597. 

John Overall, master, bishop of Norwich, died 
1619. John Hills, D.D., master, archdeacon of Lin- 
coln, died 1626. William Foster, fellow, bishop 
of Sodor and Man, died 1633-4. Richard Sibbs, D.D., 

(a) These are noticed in Athense Cantabrigienses, vol. 1. 

Z2 



340 s, CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 

master, author of commentaries and esteemed works 
on practical divinity, died 1635. Timothy Eevet, 
D.D., archdeacon of Bath, died 1638. Paul Best, 
fellow, sentenced to death for denying the doctrine 
of the Trinity, 1647. Richard Denton, a popular 
preacher in New England, flourished 1652. William 
Strong, fellow, preacher at Westminster Abbey, and 
author of sermons and theological treatises, died 1654. 
Ralph Robinson, preacher at S. Mary Woolnoth, 
London, a man of exemplary piety, died 1655. 
Thomas Bancroft, the epigrammatist, flourished 1658. 
Ralph Brownrigg, master, bishop of Exeter, died 
1659. John Arrowsmith, D.D., fellow, master suc- 
cessively of S. John's and Trinity colleges, Regius 
professor of divinity, and author of various theo- 
logical works, died 1659. William Spurstowe, D.D., 
master, an excellent preacher and able controver- 
sialist, died 1655-6. Edward Bowles, a famous 
preacher at York, and author of several publica- 
tions, died 1662. James Shirley, the dramatist, 
died 1666. George Rust, bishop of Dromore, died 
1670. Thomas Bartlet, minister of S. Thomas's, 
Exeter, author of an Explication of the Assembly's 
Catechism, and other works, died about 1672. 
Thomas Vyner, D.D., dean of Gloucester, died 1673. 
Sir Edward Lane, LL.D., advocate-general in Ireland, 
died 1674. Jonathan Goddard, M.D., Gresham pro- 
fessor of physic, and warden of Merton college, 
Oxford; died 1674-5. John Lightfoot, D.D., master, 
famed for his profound rabbinical learning, died 1675. 
John Bond, LL.D., fellow, master of Trinity hall, 
Gresham professor of law, and author of sermons 



s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 341 

arid theological treatises, died 1676. John Wilson, 
author of The Scriptures Genuine Interpreter as- 
serted 1678. Thomas Goodwin, D.D., president of 
Magdalen college, Oxford, one of the assembly of 
divines, and author of numerous theological works, 
died 1679-80. John Ellis, fellow, author of Vindiciae 
Catholicae and S. Austin imitated, died 1681. John 
Knowles, fellow, a famous preacher in New England 
and at Colchester and Bristol, died 1685. Benjamin 
Calamy, D.D., fellow, prebendary of S. Paul's, vicar 
of S. Lawrence, Jewry, and author of numerous ex- 
cellent sermons, died 1685-6. Matthew Scrivener, 
author of Apologia pro S. Ecclesiae Patribus, a course 
of divinity and other works, died about 1687. 
Thomas Flatman, poet and painter, died 1688. 
William Green, fellow, preacher at Fenstanton, and 
author of two discourses on the corruption of nature 
and salvation by grace, and a needful preparation 
for the Lord's supper, died about 1690. Henry 
Hickman, minister of the english congregation at 
Leyden, author of various controversial works, died 
1692. Thomas Warren, the ejected rector of Hough- 
ton in Hampshire, an able controversialist, died 
1694-5. Robert King, MUS.B., 1696, composer of 
many airs and songs. John Eachard, D.D., master, 
author of an enquiry into the grounds and occasion 
of the contempt of the clergy and religion, died 
1697. Sir Thomas Rokeby, fellow, justice of the 
common pleas, died 1699. James Bonnell, account- 
ant-general in Ireland, a man of exemplary piety, 
died 1699. 

John Ray, the great naturalist, died 1 704-5 . William 



342 s. CATHAKINE'S COLLEGE. 

Worts, a munificent benefactor to the university and 
town of Cambridge, died 1709. Adam Buddie, fellow, 
a distinguished botanist, died about 1711. James 
Calamy, fellow, prebendary of Exeter, a man of great 
learning, died 1714. William Elstob, a learned saxon 
scholar, died 1714-5. Offspring Blackall, fellow, bishop 
of Exeter, died 1716. John Addenbrooke, M.D., fellow, 
founder of Addenbrooke' s hospital in Cambridge, 
died 1719. John Braddock, fellow, master of East- 
bridge hospital, Canterbury, a writer on the socinian 
controversy, died 1719. John Jeffery, D.D., fellow, 
archdeacon of Norwich, author and editor of various 
theological works, died 1720. Sir 'William Dawes, 
master, archbishop of York, died 1724. William 
Wotton, D.D., canon of Sarum, famed for prodigious 
learning and astonishing memory, and author of 
numerous works, died 1726-7. John Leng, fellow, 
bishop of Norwich, died 1727. Gideon Harvey, M.D., 
author of many medical works, died about 1730. 
Samuel Bradford, bishop of Rochester, died 1731. 
Richard Crosse, LL.D., fellow, archdeacon of Salop, 
died 1732. John King, D.D., rector of Chelsea, 
author of sermons and controversial and other pub- 
lications, died 1732. John Strype, the great eccle- 
siastical historian and antiquary, died 1737. Francis 
Hutchinson, bishop of Down and Connor, died 1739. 
Sir Philip Sydenham, a man of much curious learning 
and a great book collector, died 1739. Gilbert 
Burnet, vicar of Coggeshall, author of numerous 
sermons, &c., died 1746. John Hoadly, archbishop 
of Armagh, died 1746. Benjamin Hoadly, fellow, 
bishop of Winchester, died 1761. Thomas Sherlock, 



s. CATHAEINE'S COLLEGE. 343 

master, bishop of London, died 1761. Henry 
Stebbing, D.D., fellow, chancellor of the diocese of 
Sarum, and author of numerous sermons and con- 
troversial works, died 1763. John Thomas, bishop 
of Salisbury, died 1766. Eyton Butts, fellow, dean 
of Cloyne, died 1770. Henry Burrough, LL.D., fellow, 
canon of Peterborough, author of Lectures on the church 
catechism, &c., died 1773. John Addenbrooke, 
D.D., fellow, dean of Lichfield, died 1776. Joseph 
Sims, prebendary of S. Paul's, rector of S. John's, 
Westminster, and author of a volume of sermons, 
died 1776. Henry Hubbard, fellow, registrary of 
the university, died 1778. Kenrick Prescot, D.D., 
master, author of several ingenious publications, died 
1779. Edward Capell, the famous Shaksperian critic, 
died 1781. Richard Gardiner, a commander in the 
first siege of Guadaloupe, and author of historical 
and political tracts, poems, and epigrams, died 1781. 
Sir John Cullum, fellow, an able antiquary, author 
of the History of Hawsted, died 1785. Francis 
Blackburne, fellow, archdeacon of Cleveland, an acute 
and ardent controversialist and a voluminous author, 
died 1787. Henry Stebbing, D.D., fellow, preacher at 
Gray's Inn, author of sermons and controversial publi- 
cations, died 1787. Christopher Wilson, fellow, bishop 
of Bristol, died 1792. Joseph Milner, author of the 
History of the Church of Christ, died 1797. 

Joseph Hucks, fellow, author of a Pedestrian tour 
through North Wales, and a volume of poems, (lied 
1800. John Fountayne, D.D., fellow, dean of York, 
died 1802. William Whitworth, archdeacon of Sarum, 
died 1804. Nevil Maskelyne, D.D., astronomer royal, 



344 s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 

died 1811. Henry William Bunbury, the famous 
caricaturist, died 1811. James Scott, D.D., rector of 
Simonbourn, an admired preacher, author of sermons, 
poems, and political publications, died 1814. John 
Hey, D.D., fellow, first Norrisian professor of divinity, 
author - of lectures in divinity, sermons, and other 
publications, died 1815. Henry Kuhff, fellow, author 
of a Treatise on Finite Differences, died 1842. 
Thomas Starkie, fellow, Downing professor of law, 
and author of numerous esteemed legal publications, 
died 1849. George William Chard, MUS.D., organist 
of the cathedral and college at Winchester, died 
1849. William Stephen Grilly, D.D., canon of Durham, 
author of Waldensian Researches, and other works, 
died 1855. Charles Hardwick, fellow, archdeacon 
of Ely, Christian advocate, and author of theological 
and other works of merit, died 1859. John Camidge, 
MUS.D., organist of York minster, a celebrated com- 
poser of church music, died 1859. 

BUILDINGS.^ The college consists of two courts. 
The principal court of three sides is open towards 
Trumpington street. 

None of the buildings are coeval with the founda- 
tion. The older buildings which are described as 
having been mean, in course of time became much 
dilapidated. The front of the college was in the 
ancient Milnestreet, and the only access to Trump- 
ington street was by a very narrow alley between 
the houses. 

The rebuilding of the college was commenced 
about 1680. The great promoter of the design was 
Matthew Scrivener, a clergyman of great learning, 



s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 345 

who was a munificent benefactor. It was originally 
intended to have had a fourth side to the principal 
court towards Trumpington street. This was to 
have contained the library, with a gateway in the 
centre, having ionic columns supporting a curved 
pediment broken by a cupola. (a) 

This design has never been fully carried out. The 
eastern end of the south side of the principal court 
was not erected until subsequently to 1755, when 
the society purchased certain houses which stood 
between the college and Trumpington street. (6) These 
houses with others which had previously belonged 
to the society, partly stood on the site of the ad- 
ditional college buildings, and partly on the space 
on which has been planted the grove in front of 
the college. 

What is now the grass-plot in the centre of the 
principal court was formerly, as it seems, a flower 
garden. Edmund Carter in his History of the Uni- 
versity, published in 1753, says, 

THE FLOWER GARDEN (where stood the old Chapel, and the 
Bones which were there dug up were buried in the present Chapel) 
is a small but pretty spot, and kept very neat, and on a Pedestal 
in the Center, stood a Statue of Charity, with a Child at her 
Breast, and two more by her Side ; but was a few Years ago 
taken away, tho' I think it was an Ornament to the Garden : 

(a) A view of the college as it would have appeared had this design been 
carried out, is given by Loggan. We presume that it was intended that 
the front of the fourth side of the principal court should eventually face 
Trumpington street. Yet according to the ground plan of the college, as 
appearing in Loggan's map of the university and town, this front would 
have been behind the houses in the street. 

(6) In 29 George II. an act passed to enable the college to purchase 
lands and erect buildings for Mrs. Ramsden's fellows and scholars. 



346 



s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 




THE CHAPKL. 



but I submit to the superior Judgement of that learned Society, 
who doubtless thought otherwise. 

Behind the hall is a small court, containing only 
eight sets of apartments. It is known as Bull court, 
and was built in 1625. 

THE CHAPEL. William Gray, bishop of Ely, by 
an instrument under his seal, dated at his house of 
Holborne, the 15th of January, 1475-6, directed to 
master Robert Wodelarke, D.D., founder of the hall 
or college of S. Katharine, then newly constructed 
in Cambridge, by his pontifical authority granted 
licence to the said Dr. Wodelarke, that he and the 



s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 347 

other fellows of the same hall or college, and 
others willing and able, might cause to be cele- 
brated masses and other divine offices in the chapel 
constructed within the hall or college aforesaid, 
nevertheless without prejudice to the right of any 
other. 

William Pykenham, LL.D., archdeacon of Suffolk, 
and vicar-general and keeper of the spiritualities of the 
city and diocese of Ely, sede vacante, sufficiently and 
lawfully deputed by Thomas, by divine mercy, 
cardinal priest, by the title of S. Ciriac in the Baths 
of the holy church of Rome, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, primate of all England and legate of the 
apostolic see, by his letters under the seal of the 
official of the consistory of Ely, dated in the 
conventual church of Barnwell, the 26th of Sep- 
tember, 1478, and directed to Robert Wodelarke, 
D.D., after reciting his foundation of the college or 
hall of S. Katharine the virgin, in the street called 
Millestrete, of the town of Cambridge, in the said 
diocese of Ely, granted to him and the master and 
fellows, priests, and other chaplains whatsoever, of 
the same college or hall, all and singular then present 
and to come, special licence to celebrate masses, 
matins, and other divine offices, in the chapel situate 
in the same college or hall lately by him constructed, 
with note or without note; so nevertheless that no 
prejudice should be engendered to the church of 
the parish of the same college or hall. 

The old chapel was situate in the centre of the 
principal court. William Dowsing, the fanatical 
iconoclast, thus records his doings there : 



348 s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 

At Katherine Hall, 1643, Decemb. 28. 

We pulled down St. George and the Dragon, and the Popish 
Katherine and Saint to which the Colledge was dedicated, Dr. 
Brunbrick the Bp. w manifested more reverence due to the place 
called Church than any other place, the Communion Plate not 
to be used for no other purpose in any Church, and he said 
It was an Error to break down John Baptist, there and these 
words " Orate pro Anim& qui fecit hane Fenestram," " Praye 
for the Soule of him who made this Windowe." 

A new chape], seventy-five feet in length, thirty 
in breadth, and thirty-six in height, was erected at 
the east end of the northern side of the main court 
in 1703 and 1704. Part of the building was damaged 
by the great storm of 25th November, 1703. The 
erection of this chapel had been determined upon 
during the mastership of Dr. John Eachard, who 
died in 1696. 

This chapel was consecrated by Simon Patrick, 
bishop of Ely, 1st September, 1704, when an appro- 
priate sermon was preached by John Leng, B.D., 
one of the fellows, and afterwards bishop of Norwich. 

The interior has a particularly neat appearance. 
The woodwork is in good taste, and portions are 
admirably carved. The pavement is of black and 
white marble, and the ceiling is panelled. 

In the ante-chapel is a large and handsome monu- 
ment, commemorative of Frances, wife of sir William 
Dawes, bart., D.D., master, (afterwards archbishop 
of York) and daughter of sir Thomas Darcy, bart. 
She died 22 December, 1705, set. 29. There are 
also tablets in memory of John Eachard, D.D., master, 

() Bishop Brownrigge. 



s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 349 

7 July, 1697, set. 61 ; Henry Moore, student, eldest 
son of the hon. and rev. Henry Moore, D.D., and 
Catharine, lady Rooke, (a) 23 July, 1729, set. 18; and 
the rev. George William Coopland, M.A., sometime 
fellow, chaplain to the hon. East India Company, 
born at York, 22 May, 1827, and killed by the Sepoys 
in the mutiny at Gwalior, 15 June, 1857. On the 
floor is a slab with an inscription to the memory 
of John Addenbrooke, M.D., sometime fellow, 1719, 
set. 39. 

On the floor of the north side of the chapel 
near the altar are small slabs in commemoration of 
Kenrick Prescot, D.D., master, 3 August, 1779, 
set. 77; and Susanna Eyre, 21 February, 1782, 
set. 11. 

Amongst those buried in the chapel without any 
memorial, are sir William Dawes, archbishop of York ; 
rev. Charles William Burrell, fellow, 1842; Joseph 
Procter, D.D., master, 1845 ; and John Rose Pine, 
fellow, 1847. 

THE HALL, which is a handsome room, forty-two 
feet long, by twenty-four in breadth, contains amongst 
other portraits those of Dr. Woodlark, the founder; 
bishop Hoadly; Mrs. Ramsden; Dr. Lightfoot, 
master; bishop Sherlock; Mrs. Robinson, (Mrs. 
Ramsden's mother); archbishop Sandys; Robert 
Skirne, esq.; and Dr. Corrie, late tutor of this 

(a) The hon. and rev. Henry Moore, D.D., third son of Henry, third earl 
of Drogheda, by Mary, daughter of sir John Cole, bart, baptised llth 
February, 1681-2, was chaplain to queen Anne, held the rectories of 
Malpas and Wilmslow in Cheshire, and died 1770. His wife Catharine was 
only daughter of sir Thomas Knatchbull, and third wife and widow of sir 
George Rooke, the famous vice-admiral. 



350 s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. 

college, and now master of Jesus college. Over the 
fire-place is a large picture of S. Catharine. 

THE COMBINATION ROOM which is on the first 
floor to the west of the hall, contains many portraits. 
Amongst them are those of John Gostlin, M.D., 
master of Caius college ; archdeacon Blackburne : Mrs. 
Eamsden; Joseph Procter, D.D., master; and king 
Charles II. when a boy. There is also a small 
picture of S. Catharine, presented by sir Charles 
Bunbury, who brought it from Venice. 

THE LIBRARY. The founder gave to the library 
a good collection of books, which were chained in 
seven stalls. A catalogue of these books and of those 
given by him to the chapel, communicated to the 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society by the rev. George 
Elwes Corrie, B.D., then B.D. and fellow and tutor of 
this college, and now D.D. and master of Jesus college, 
was published Camb. 4to. 1840. 

We have before noticed the design of erecting 
a library in the front of the college, towards Trump- 
ington street. 

The present library is over the hall, and com- 
bination room. It is a spacious and well arranged 
apartment, and contains a good collection of books, 
to which additions are constantly being made. A 
catalogue was printed Camb. 4to. 1771. In this 
room is a plan by Mr. Essex, shewing the state of 
the college with the houses in Trumpington street 
in 1745. 

THE MASTER'S LODGE at the western end of the 
south side of the principal court is a large and hand- 
some structure, containing several good paintings. 



s. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE. t351 

FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS. There are six 
foundation fellowships, eight bye-fellowships, and 
thirty-one scholarships, exclusively of the offices of 
librarian and chapel clerk. 

When queen Elizabeth visited the university in 
August, 1564, the society consisted of the master, 
thirteen fellows and fellow-commoners, and seven 
scholars; in all twenty-one. 

Dr. Caius states that in 1573 there were a 
master, six fellows, a bible-clerk, three inferior 
ministers, and twenty-one pensioners, making a total 
of thirty-two. 

In 1621 there were the master, six fellows, and 
eight scholars, these together with students, &c., 
making the total fifty-six. 

Fuller, alluding to the year 1635, or there- 
abouts, states that there were the master and six 
fellows, who, with all the students, made above a 
hundred. 

In August, 1641, one hundred and two members 
of this college contributed 5. Ss. Qd. to a poll- 
tax. 

In 1672 there were a master, six fellows, eighteen 
scholars, and nine exhibitioners, besides officers and 
servants of the foundation, with other students, being 
in all one hundred and fifty. 

Mr. Carter in his History of the University, 
published 1753, states the number of members to 
have been, the master, six fellows, one fellow-chaplain, 
one bye-fellow, and thirty-five scholars and exhi- 
bitioners; in all usually about forty. 



352 s. CATHAEINE'S COLLEGE. 

PATRONAGE. The patronage of S. Catharine's col- 
lege is small, consisting only of four benefices, the 
rectory of Coton in Cambridgeshire; the vicarage 
of Kidgwell in Essex ; and the rectories of Giming- 
ham and Trunch in Norfolk. 




GATEWAY TO THE CLOISTER COURT, 



JESUS COLLEGE. 

THIS college occupies the site, and is endowed 
with the possessions of the ancient nunnery of S. 
Rhadegund. We proceed therefore to give a brief 
account of this, the only house of the kind in 
Cambridge. (a] 

(a) In compiling our account of the nunnery and college, we have been 
indebted to Historia Collegii Jesu Cantabrigiensis, a J. Shermanno, olim 
Prses. ejusdem Collegii. ed. J. O. Halliwell, Lond. 8vo. 1840. 

VOL I. A A 



354 JESUS COLLEGE. 

THE NUNNERY OF S. RHADEGUND. There is good 
reason for supposing that a nunnery was established 
in Cambridge in or about the year 1133. 

At an early period, William Monk, or le Moyne, 
goldsmith, gave to the nuns two yards of land, six 
acres of meadow and four cottages at Shelford/ ffl) 
and Constance, daughter of Louis VI. king of France 
and widow of Eustace, son of king Stephen, gave 
them all the right of fishery appertaining to the 
borough of Cambridge. These grants were con- 
firmed by king Stephen, who also granted to the 
nuns a fair at Cambridge on the vigil of the assump- 
tion of the blessed Mary the Virgin, and on , the 
following day. 

Malcolm IV., king of Scotland, {5) granted to 
the nuns of Cambridge ten acres of land near 



(a) This gift was confirmed by Nigellus, bishop of Ely, by a charter 
without date. 

Nicholas le Moyne, apparently a son of William, gave the nuns fifty-five 
acres of land, an acre and a half of meadow, and an acre for barns, 
hovels, &c., and promised them other five acres (for which they petitioned) 
as soon as he could get them. This grant was confirmed by his son 
Nicholas. 

It seems that for some reason or other, sir John le Moyne, grandson 
of the first Nicholas disputed his ancestors grants. A suit at law was 
commenced, the nuns were successful in 31 Hen. III. and sir John le Moyne 
conveyed to them fifty acres of land in Shelford. 

It would also seem from a deed 29 Edw. I., that the right to place two 
nuns in the convent was connected with the tenure of the lands at Shelford. 
A portion of the college estate at Shelford is still known as the Nun's land. 

(6) Malcolm IV. who from his continence was called the maiden, was 
15 years of age, when, on the 24th May, 1153, he succeeded to the throne 
of Scotland by the death of his grandfather, David I. At this period 
Scotland was desolated with famine. Somerled, thane of Argyle, laid claim 
to the crown, at the head of a large army. He was defeated in three 
battles, and fled to Ireland. Donald, son of Macbeth, who took up arms 
at the same time was also overthrown. 



JESUS COLLEGE. 355 

Grenecroft, (a) to found their church there, subject 
to a rent of two shillings. This grant was confirmed 
by Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, (who died 
in 1160), and again by his successor Thomas Becket. 
By a second charter king Malcolm confirmed his 
grant, giving the land to God and the church of 
S. Mary the Virgin and S. Rhadegund (6) and the 



In 1156 Henry II. called on Malcolm for the restitution to England 
of Northumberland and Cumberland, which he accordingly ceded on being 
put into possession of the earldoms of Huntingdon and Cambridge. Sub- 
sequently Malcolm accompanied Henry on an expedition against France, 
and distinguished himself by his bravery at the siege of Toulouse. His 
serving against France gave much offence to the Scotch. The nobles 
took up arms and besieged Malcolm in Perth. He convoked a meeting 
of the states at that place, wherein he alleged that his concession to 
Henry had been extorted from him by force, and that he had served in 
the war against France contrary to his inclination. 

He afterwards quelled several formidable rebellions. The states urged 
him to marry, but he declined to do so. He died in 1165, and was 
succeeded by his brother William. 

King Malcolm IV. founded and endowed several religious houses, par- 
ticularly the abbey of S. Rule, in the city of S. Andrews, and that of 
Cupar in Angus. Though devoted to religion he was by no means an 
enthusiast for the papal power. 

(a) The common lands now known as Jesus, Midsummer, and Butt greens. 

(b) Saint Rhadegund was daughter of Bertaire, a pagan king of part 
of Thuririgia in Germany, who was assassinated by his brother Hermenfred. 
Theodoric, king of Austrasia or Metz, and his brother Clotaire I., then 
king of Soissons, fell upon Hermenfred, vanquished him, and carried off 
a great booty. Amongst the prisoners, Rhadegund, then about twelve 
years old, fell to the lot of Clotaire, who gave her an education suitable 
to her birth, and caused her to be instructed in the Christian religion. 
She soon evinced great piety, and spent much time in prayer and ascetic 
practices. When she grew up, Clotaire made her his wife, but she left 
him in consequence of his having procured the assassination of her brother, 
and retired to Sais, and afterwards to Poitiers. At the latter place she 
built a great nunnery, under the rule of S. Cesarius at Aries, and placed 
at the head of it one Agnes a holy virgin. Not long afterwards, her 
husband repenting of having allowed her to enter into religion, meditated 
carrying her back to his court, but was turned from his purpose by 
the representations of S. Germanus of Paris. 

AA2 



356 JESUS COLLEGE. 

nuns there serving God. He also released the rent 
of two shillings, and all other secular services. From 
this period they were known as the nuns of S. 
Rhadegund, and king Malcolm was esteemed the 
founder of the house. 

Nigellus, bishop of Ely, (1133-1169) gave the 
nuns four acres of land adjacent to that comprised 
in king Malcolm's donation. The bishop's grant 
was confirmed by the prior and chapter of Ely. 

William Sturmi de Cantabrigia gave the advowson 
of the church of All Saints' in the Jewry in Cam- 
bridge, and the grant was confirmed by the prior 
and convent of Ely. Geoffry Ridel, bishop of Ely, 
appropriated this church to the nuns in 1180. 

Eustace, bishop of Ely, (1197-1215) gave the nuns 
five acres between their monastery and Grenecroft. 
This grant was confirmed by John de Fontibus, 
bishop of Ely, (1220-1225) and Eoger de Brigham, 
prior, and the chapter of that church. 

In 2 Hen. III. John de Reymerston, by fine 
conveyed to Letitia, prioress of S. Rhadegund's, the 
advowson of the church of Reymerston in Norfolk. 

Clotaire, who by the death without surviving issue of all his brothers, 
had become sole king of France, died in the year 571. S. Rhadegund 
passed her life peaceably in her monastery, the inmates of which numbered 
two hundred, including several daughters of senators, and some of royal 
blood. Her death took place in the year 587, on the 13th of August, 
on which day the church honours her memory. S. Gregory, archbishop 
of Tours, performed the funeral office at her interment. 

Butler's Lives of the Saints, Aug. 13. 

There was an abbey of S. Rhadegund at Bradsole, near Dover. It 
was of the order of premonstratensian canons. The churches of Whitwell 
in Hampshire, Grayingham in Lincolnshire, and Scruton in Yorkshire, 
are dedicated to S. Rhadegund, and the church of Postling in Kent is 
dedicated to SS. Mary and Rhadegund. 



JESUS COLLEGE, 357 

The advowson of the church of S. Clement in 
Cambridge was given to the nuns about 1222 by 
Hugh, son of Absolom, in pursuance of the advice 
of Eustace, late bishop of Ely. This gift was con- 
firmed to the nuns both by John de Fontibus and 
Geoflry de Burgh, successively bishops of Ely, and 
by the prior and convent of that church. 

Henry III. by letters patent dated 17th April 
in the 35th year of his reign, [1251] granted to 
the prioress and nuns licence to enclose their croft 
between their church and the ditch of Cambridge 
on the west part. 

About 1277 the bell tower fell and did great 
damage to the church. The bishops of Lincoln and 
Norwich thereupon granted briefs, authorising the 
nuns to collect money in those dioceses towards the 
repair of their church. 

It appears by an inquisition taken in 1278, that 
the rents and revenues of the prioress and nuns in 
the town of Cambridge exceeded 10. per annum. 

The following donations are specified: Reginald 
de Argentine, 2J acres; Richard, son of Laurence 
de Littlebury, (in exchange) 2J acres; Philip, son 
of Adam de Gretton, 3 acres 1 rood; Hervey, son 
of Eustace, 15 acres; Hugh, son of Absolom, 6 
acres; Philip de Hoketon, 1 acre; Margaret Fixien, 
2| acres; Margaret, widow of Ralph Person, 10 
acres; Jordan, son of Ralph de Brecet, 4 acres; 
Stephen, son of Alneve, 5 acres 3 roods; Matilda, 
widow of Simon Bagge, 1 acre ; John, son of William, 
1 J acre ; Warin Grim, 2J acres ; John Grim, 1 acre ; 
Walter de Nuncius, a messuage in the parish of 



358 JESUS COLLEGE. 

S. Rhadegund; Robert Crocheman, and Cassandra 
his wife, four messuages and a waste place in the 
parish of S. Andrew, the prioress and nuns, finding 
a chaplain in the church of S. Andrew to celebrate 
for the souls of the said Robert and Cassandra, and 
of all the faithful deceased; William Sweteye, a 
messuage in the parish of S. Andrew ; Nicholas 
Sarand, two messuages opposite S. Rhadegund, but 
these had been alienated by the prioress and nuns. 

From the same document it appears that the 
prioress and nuns had also lands in the parishes of 
Great Shelford and Little Abington and at Oxcroft. 
Nine acres of the land in Great Shelford had been 
given by sir John le Moyne, knight, for the per- 
petual sustenance of one nun. 

Stephen de Escallariis gave, with his daughter Sibil, 
lands and tenements in West Wratting ; Ingleisa, 
daughter of Simon de Bonis, and wife of Peter le 
Bof, also gave lands in West Wratting ; Maud, wife 
of Richard Besherne, gave lands in the fields of 
Abington; Petronella de Coates gave lands in the 
fields of Bartlow ; Adam, chaplain of Litlington, gave 
all his lands in that parish, and in Bassingbourn 
and Morden ; William Bateman gave tenements 
and rents in Cambridge; John Marshall and John 
Porthois, burgesses of Cambridge, gave lands and 
pastures in the fields of Cambridge and Barnwell. 
All these grants were confirmed by a charter of 
Edward II. 

John de Trippelowe, rector of Hardwicke in Cam- 
bridgeshire, and of Reymerston in Norfolk, gave 
eight messuages in the parish of S. Rhadegund, and 



JESUS COLLEGE. 359 

lands dispersed in the fields of Cambridge and 
Barnwell. 

It is said that about 1290 the church of S. Rha- 
degund (a) was appropriated to the nuns, reserving 
an annual pension of 40s. to the vicar of All Saints', 
but no evidence exists to this effect. 

In 1312 the prioress was charged 1. 12s. 2f d. 
to a tallage in respect of her moveables and rents 
within the town of Cambridge. 

On the taxation of a ninth to the king in 1340, 
the prioress was charged 6. in respect of the pro- 
perty of the nunnery in the town of Cambridge. 

In 1343 part of the nunnery was destroyed by 
fire. In 1376 another fire broke out. This reduced 
the nuns to such distress that they were forced to beg 
for their subsistence. Edward III. gave a licence 
to purchase lands in mortmain to the value of 5. 
per annum. In 1390 the greater part of the build- 
ings were blown down by a violent tempest. Richard 
II. gave another mortmain licence to the extent of 
10. per annum. 

The nunnery was visited by the commissioners 
of Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, 19th 
September, 1401. 

In 1438, Henry VI. confirmed and amplified the 
grant of a fair to the prioress and nuns. (J) 

(a) It is also said that at this period the parish of S. Rhadegund was 
united to All Saints'. In contemplation of law, however, S. Rhadegund's 
was esteemed a distinct parish till it was suppressed by the Cambridge 
Award Act, 1857. 

(b) This fair, called Garlic fair, was originally held in the Nun's close 
near the spot now occupied by the garden of the master of the college. It 
was subsequently kept in a place long known as Garlic-fair-lane (now pre- 
posterously termed Park street). It was in existence as late as 1808. 



360 JESUS COLLEGE. 

In 1457, William Gray, bishop of Ely, granted 
forty day's pardon to all who should contribute 
to the repair of the church of S. Mary and S. 
Rhadegund. 

The total income of the house appears to have 
been 24. Is. 10|J. in 29 Hen. VI. ; 32. 10s. 2d. in 
30 Hen. VI. ; and 74. 2*. 4 in 39 Hen. VI. 

Soon after this period the society began to decay. 
The nuns were led into habits of extravagance and 
incontinency, and whilst they lost their own credit, 
they wasted the revenues and property of the house 
until it was inadequate to their support. In the 
earlier part of the reign of Henry VII. the nunnery 
was in such a state of desolation that there were 
not more than one or two resident members. It 
was therefore suppressed and converted into a col- 
legiate foundation by John Alcock, bishop of Ely. 

The society consisted of a prioress and eleven nuns 
of the order of S. Benedict. The nuns elected the 
prioress. 

The following is a more complete list of the 
prioresses than has hitherto appeared: 

Letitia occurs about 1208 ; Milicentia ; Amicia le 
Driffield ; Constantia occurs in the mayoralty of 
Roger de Wykes ; Dera occurs about 1258 ; Amicia 
le Chamberlayne occurs about 1278; Helena occurs 
about 1292 ; Agnes Burgulun occurs 1301 ; Christi- 
ana de Braybrok occurs about 1311 ; Cecilia de 
Cressingham occurs 24th June, 1317 ; Mabilia Martyn 
occurs 4th February, 1331-2, and in 1333 ; Alicia 
occurs 1345; Eva Wastene occurs 1358; Margaret 
Clavylle occurs 1363, resigned 2nd February, 1377-8 ; 



JESUS COLLEGE. 



361 



Alicia Pylet, installed 17th February, 1377-8, occurs 
also 1398; Isabella Sudbury occurs 1401 and 1402; 
Margaret Harling occurs 1408 ; Agnes Seyutlow oc- 
curs 1415, died 8th September, 1457; Joan Lan- 
caster elected 27th September, 1457; Elizabeth 
Walton occurs 1472 ; Joan de Cambridge occurs 
1483 ; Joan de Fulbourne occurs 12th October, 1487 
and in 1493. 

THE FOUNDEE. John Alcock, son of William 
Alcock, sometime burgess of Kingston-upon-Hull, 
and Joan his wife, was born at Beverley. After 
being educated in grammar in that town he removed 
to Cambridge, where he took his degrees in arts. 
In 1461 he became rector of S. Margaret, Fish-street, 
London. He was constituted dean of S. Stephen's, 
Westminster, 29th April, 1462. In 1466 he was 
created doctor in canon law in this university. In 
1468 he became prebendary of S. Paul's and Salis- 
bury. He seems also to have been at some period 
suffragan to the bishop of Norwich. In 1470 he 
was of the privy council, and was despatched on 
an embassy to the king of Castile. 

On the 29th April, 1471, he was appointed master 
of the rolls, and in the same year was of the 
privy council to Edward prince of Wales (afterwards 
king Edward V.) and a commissioner to treat with 
the king of Scots. He was consecrated bishop of 
Rochester in 1472. On the 29th September in that 
year the great seal was placed in his hand on account 
of the temporary illness of bishop Stillington, the 
lord chancellor. Bishop Alcock opened the parlia- 
ment on the 6th October, but it was prorogued on 



362 JESUS COLLEGE. 

5th April, 1573 by the lord chancellor, he having then 
recovered from his indisposition. In July, 1473, he 
resigned the vicarage of Caistor in Norfolk, and was 
instituted to the rectory of Wrentham in Suffolk, 
28th May, 1474. 

From April to September 1475, under an arrange- 
ment of which no similar example is known, he was 
lord chancellor conjointly with Rotheram bishop of 
Lincoln. In 1476 he was translated to Worcester, 
and in or about 1478 became lord president of Wales, 
being apparently the first occupant of that office. 
He was removed by the protector Gloucester from 
the situation he held as preceptor to the young king 
Edward V., but appears to have enjoyed his liberty 
during the usurpation of Richard III. 

Soon after the accession of Henry VII. he was 
again lord chancellor for a short period. In 1486 
he was translated to the see of Ely. In July that 
year he was employed in treating with commissioners 
of the king of Scots. He performed whilst bishop 
of Worcester, the baptismal ceremony for Arthur, 
eldest son of Henry VII., as he did when bishop 
of Ely for the princess Margaret, afterwards Queen 
of Scots. His death occurred at Wisbech castle, 1st 
October, 1500, and he was buried in a sumptuous 
chapel which he had erected at the north-east end 
of Ely cathedral, under a tomb with his effigy 
thereon. 

He is the supposed author of an English Metrical 
Comment on the Seven Penitential Psalms, of which 
a fragment exists in MS. Harl. 1704. His published 
writings are: 1. Spousage of a Virgin to Christ, 



JESUS COLLEGE. 363 

1486. 2. Hill of Perfection, 1497, 1499, 1501. 3. 
Sermons upon the 8th chapter of Luke. 4. Galli- 
cantus Johannis Alcock episcopi Eliensis ad fratres 
suas curatos in sinodo apud Bern well, 1498. 5. 
Abbey of the Holy Ghost, 149... 1531. 6. Castle of 
Labour, translated from the French, 1536. 

He was an excellent architect and the comptroller 
of the royal works and buildings under Henry VII. 
Proofs of his architectural skill and taste still exist 
in Great S. Mary's, Cambridge, in this college and 
in his chapel in Ely cathedral. He adorned many 
of his manors with new and costly buildings, and 
erected in his palace at Ely a noble hall and gallery. 
His revenues were spent in hospitality and magni- 
ficence. He, in or about 14T6, founded a free gram- 
mar-school at Hull. In 1481 he visited and reformed 
the priory of Little Malvern, rebuilt the church, 
repaired the convent, and in a great measure dis- 
charged their debts. He enlarged the collegiate 
church of Westbury, and erected and endowed a 
chantry chapel in Trinity church, Hull, wherein his 
parents were buried. He was a benefactor to Peter- 
house, but his most memorable public work was the 
foundation of this college. 

The chapel at Ely wherein this learned, pious 
and munificent prelate was interred, was long allowed 
to remain in a dilapidated and disgraceful condition, 
but was a few years since restored at the cost of 
this college. 

THE FOUNDATION. Henry VII. by letters patent 
dated the l^th of June, in the 12th year of his reign, 
[1497] after reciting that as well by the trustworthy 



364 JESUS COLLEGE. 

relation of John Alcock, bishop of Ely, as by public 
fame, he learnt that the house or priory of religious 
women of S. Radegund, of the foundation and 
patronage of the bishop, in right of his see of Ely, 
and the lands, tenements, rents, possessions, build- 
ings, property, goods, jewels, and other ecclesiastical 
ornaments of the same house and priory, of old 
time piously and charitably given and bestowed, 
by the negligence and improvident and dissolute 
disposition and incontinence (by occasion of the 
vicinity of the university) of the prioress and re- 
ligious women of that house, were so far dilapidated, 
destroyed, devastated, alienated, diminished, and 
subtracted, and they were reduced to such want 
and poverty, that divine service, hospitality, or 
other works of mercy and piety, according to the 
primary foundation and ordinance of their founders 
there used, could not be sustained or discharged 
by them, that their number was reduced to two, 
(one of whom was professed elsewhere, and the 
other was but an infant) so that they must needs 
relinquish the said house or priory ; that the bishop, 
from his great devotion and for- the augmentation 
of divine learning and virtue, had humbly sup- 
plicated the royal licence for the total expulsion 
and amoval of the said women from the said house 
or priory, and that he might there make, found, 
erect, and establish a certain college to endure for 
all time to come : considering the premises and 
the pious and devout intention of the bishop, for 
reverence of God, and from his sincere devotion 
to the Holy and Undivided Trinity, the blessed 



JESUS COLLEGE. 365 

Virgin Mary, the mother of God, S. John the 
Evangelist, S. Radegund the virgin, and all the 
Saints, he give licence to the bishop and his suc- 
cessors, executors, deputies, and assigns, and every 
of them, to convert the said priory or house into 
a college of one master, six fellows, and a certain 
number of scholars, to be instructed in grammar, 
to pray and celebrate divine offices daily within 
the college for the prosperous estate of the king, 
Elizabeth his queen consort, his mother Margaret, 
his sons, Arthur prince of Wales, the duke of York, 
and his other children, during the king's life ; for 
the good estate of the bishop during his life, for 
the king's soul after his death, for the soul of his 
father, Edmund of Richmond, and for the soul of 
the bishop after his death, as also for the souls of 
the first founders of the said house or priory, of all 
the faithful deceased ; and he incorporated the college 
by the name of the master, fellows, and scholars 
of the blessed Mary the virgin, S. John the Evan- 
gelist, and the glorious virgin S. Radegund, near 
Cambridge ; empowered the bishop, when the college 
should be established, to put that body into pos- 
session of the said house or priory, and all and 
singular the lands, tenements, rents, services, por- 
tions, and other possessions, spiritual and temporal, 
of old time given and bestowed on such priory, 
and the jewels and ecclesiastical ornaments thereto 
belonging, all which the master, fellows, and scholars 
and their successors were for ever to hold for. their 
sustenance and for other works of piety and charity, 
according to the ordinances to be made by the 



366 JESUS COLLEGE. 

bishop, his successors, executors, and assigns, in 
free, pure, and perpetual alms. 

Bishop Alcock's instrument of foundation bears 
date the 9th December, 1497. 

The first statutes were given by James Stanley, 
bishop of Ely, and confirmed by pope Julius II. 
They were amended by Nicholas West, bishop of 

Ely. 

From the survey of the possessions of the college 
made by Matthew Parker, D.D., John Redman, D.D., 
and William May, LL.D., the king's commissioners, 
in February 1545-6, it appears that there were then 
a master, six fellows, six scholars, and the master's 
scholar. The commons of the master and fellows 
were 14</. a-week each, and of the scholars Sd. 
a-week each. From particular benefactions the 
master had 6. 13s. 4e?. for stipend; two of the 
fellows stipends of 3. 6s. Sd. each; and two others 
stipends of 3. Os. Sd. each. The lecturer of logic 
and philosophy had 1. per annum; and the divinity 
lecturer 5. 6s. Sd. A preacher for a sermon in 
the college on the day of S. Mark had 6s. Sd. The 
preceptor in grammar had 10. per annum. The 
usher of the school had for commons 1. 14s. 8^., 
for stipend 2., and for livery 5s. per annum. The 
head cook had 1. 13s. 4c?. for wages, and 8d. a-week 
for commons; the under cook 13s. 4J. for wages, 
and Sd. a-week for commons. . The barber had 
13s. 46/.; the laundress 1. 13. 4^.; the steward 1.; 
the auditor 16s. Sd.] and the receiver 2. per annum. 

4. 12s. per annum was expended on the exequies 
of certain benefactors. The chaplain within the 



JESUS COLLEGE. 367 

church of the college had 1. 10s. per annum; the 
annual charge for feasts was 1. 13s. 4c?.; and com- 
munibus annis, the fuel, coal, and wood, came to 
5.; the repairs of the college and its possessions 
to 20.; and the extraordinary expences to 6. 
Margaret Jackson, widow, had for the term of her 
life an annuity of 2. 3s. 4$. 

The college had estates in Cambridge, Barnwell, 
Fulbourn, Bartlow, West Wratting, Abington, Great 
Shelford, Whaddon, Litlington, Croydon, Whitwell, 
Coton, Caxton, Over, Willingham, Trumpington, and 
Babraham in Cambridgeshire; and at Ashdon in 
Essex ; also the manor of Hornecourt, and tenements 
in Southwark, Surrey; and tenements in the parish 
of S. Bartholomew the less, called Lothbury in 
London. 

The clear revenues of the college were 130. 8s. 4^. 
per annum, and the annual expences exceeded the 
revenues by 10. 7s. 4c?. 

Edward VI. gave a licence to purchase lands in 
mortmain to the value of 50. per annum, and 
James I. a similar licence to the extent of 200. 
per annum. 

BENEFACTORS. John Gunthorpe, D.D., dean of 
Wells, and sometime master of King's hall, who died 
1498, gave books to the library; Richard Hastings, 
lord Wells and Willoughby, who died 1503, founded 
a fellowship, and the lady Joan his wife, who died 
1505, contributed to the buildings; Richard Pigot, 
serjeant-at-law, founded a fellowship, and his wife 
Joan was also a benefactor ; Thomas Roberts, of Over 
in the county of Cambridge, founded a fellowship ; sir 



368 JESUS COLLEGE. 

John Risley, knight, constructed the cloisters ; James 
Stanley, bishop of Ely, (1500-14,) gave the rectory 
of Great Shelford ; Eoger Thorney, mercer of London, 
by will dated the 16th of January, 1514-15, founded 
a fellowship ; John Eccleston, D.D., master, who died 
1515-16, augmented the mastership, gave a stipend 
to a fellow, and stipends to the master and usher 
of the college grammar school; sir Eobert Rede, 
chief-justice of the common-pleas, who died 1518, 
gave 100. for the foundation of a fellowship; 
Catharine, widow of sir Reginald Bray, K.G., contri- 
tributed to the fabric, defrayed part of the charges 
of the appropriation of the church of Great Shelford, 
and was a benefactor to the grammar school of the 
college ; Richard Preston gave lands soon after the 
foundation of the college ; John Batmanson, LL.D., 
founded a divinity lecture ; John Andrews, rector of 
Great Waltham in Essex, arid prebendary of S. Paul's, 
gave in 1548 lands for the maintenance of two 
fellows; John Reston, D.D., master, who died 1551, 
founded a fellowship and seven scholarships ; Thomas 
Thirleby, bishop of Ely, (1554-59,) gave the patron- 
age of the vicarages of Fordham, Guilden Morden, 
Whittlesford, Hinxton, Swavesey, and Comberton in 
the county of Cambridge; Edmund Pierpoint, B.D., 
master, who died 1556-7, bequeathed books and 
vestments; John Fuller, LL.D., master, who died 
1558, gave the manor and advowson of Graveley, 
and a fourth part of his goods for the foundation of 
four fellowships; Edward Gascoigne, LL.D., master, 
(1560-63,) bequeathed his books to the library ; 
Thomas Broughton, scholar, bequeathed in 1577, 



JESUS COLLEGE. 369 

books to the library; William Marshall, secretary 
to archbishop Grindal, in 1579 founded a scholarship ; 
Godfrey Foljambe, esq., of Walton in the county 
of Derby, sometime student, left 20. per annum; 
Thomas Sutton, esq., founder of Charterhouse, who 
died 1611, gave the impropriate rectory of Elmstead 
in Essex and the advowson of the vicarage there, 
and bequeathed 500 marks. John Duport, D.D., 
master, who died 1617, gave the rectory of Harlton; 
Joan Owen, widow of Owen Wood, D.D., dean of 
Armagh, and wife of sir James Price, in 1620 
gave a tenement in S. Clement's, Cambridge, for 
the maintenance of two scholars; John Sykes, M.A., 
rector of Kirton in Nottinghamshire, who died 1622, 
bequeathed his books to the library, and made pro- 
vision for an exhibition to a scholar of this college ; 
Henry Caesar, D.D., dean of Ely, in 1636 bequeathed 
1000. for founding two fellowships and four scholar- 
ships, but this money was lost in the civil wars; 
William Petty, sometime fellow, about 1640 be- 
queathed 200. which was however never received; 
Stephen Hall, B.D., fellow, canon of Ely, who died 
1661, bequeathed 80. whereof. 50. to be applied 
to the use of the library ; Lionel Gatford, D.D., some- 
time fellow, who died 1665, founded two scholarships 
for the sons of deceased clergymen ; Christopher lord 
Hatton, who died 1670, gave 100. towards the 
buildings in the front court, besides the free use of 
his quarries at Weldon in Northamptonshire, for such 
stone as might be required for the same ; John Sher- 
man, D.D., archdeacon of Salisbury, and president of 
this college, who died 1671, bequeathed 100. for 

BB 



370 JESUS COLLEGE. 

paving the chapel with marble ; Charles Gibson, M.A., 
fellow, (1662-74) bequeathed 100. ; Margaret, wife 
of sir William Boswell, in 1675 gave a rent charge 
issuing out of lands in Essex, for founding two 
scholarships in commemoration of her husband who 
was sometime fellow of this college (a) ; Edmund 
Proby, D.D., by will dated the 16th of July, 1678, 
gave 1200. for two fellowships or to buy an impro- 
priation to be united to the vicarage, and his brother 
sir Thomas Proby, of Elton in Huntingdonshire, 
added 300. to this benefaction (6) ; Henry Brunsell, 
LL.D., canon of Ely, who died 1678-9, founded three 
exhibitions ; Edmund Boldero, D.D., master, in his 
life-time greatly improved the library, and at his 
death which occurred the 3rd of July, 1679, be- 
queathed all his books thereto ; John Duport, D.D., 
dean of Peterborough and master of Magdalen college, 
who died the 17th of July, 1679, bequeathed 70. to 
purchase books for the library; John Somerville, 
B.A., master of the grammar school at Loughborough, 
in 1682 gave 200. towards the maintenance of two 
scholars ; Richard Sterne, master, archbishop of York, 
who died 1682, founded four scholarships ; Edmund 
Poley, esq., M. A., sometime fellow, (1685-87) be- 
queathed 100 ; Tobias Rustat, esq., master of the 
robes, who died 1693, founded sixteen scholarships 

(a) Lady Boswell directed that these scholarships should be appro- 
priated to students educated at Sevenoaks or Tunbridge schools in Kent, 
and that the election into the scholarships should be by the trustees of 
those schools subject to the approval of the master and fellows of 
this college. 

(6) Legal difficulties having occurred in carrying out these bequests 
they were altered by a private act 3 Geo. III., which was repealed by 
another private act 2 & 3 Will. IV. 



JESUS COLLEGE. 



371 



for the sons of deceased orthodox clergymen, and 
settled an estate for the relief of six widows of or- 
thodox clergymen to be named by the master and 
fellows ; William Saywell, D.D., master, who died 
1701, bestowed 20. in wainscotting the east end 
of the chapel, and left by will 100. for the fabric, 
and 200. to the fund for the purchase of advowsons, 
Elizabeth, his widow, also bequeathed 100. to the 
college ; John Mawhood, D.D., of Arksey in the 
county of York, sometime fellow, by will dated 1703, 
gave lands at Doncaster for the maintenance of a 
poor scholar; Richard Salter, M.A., fellow, who died 
1705, bequeathed 150. ; William Cooke, LL.D., chan- 
cellor of the diocese of Ely, and president of this 
college, who died 1707, besides benefactions to the 
fabric, gave a valuable and extensive law library $ 
600. to purchase an estate, and a silver bason and 
ewer for the fellows' table; Joseph Stillington, M.A., 
fellow, who died 1707, left the choicest portion of 
his library to the college, and 20. for the purchase 
of other books; Lionel Gatford, D.D., sometime 
scholar, archdeacon of S. Alban's, and treasurer of 
S. Paul's, who died 1715, bequeathed his whole 
library, being a choice collection of above 1600 
volumes, also 80. to the fund for the purchase of 
advowsons, and an annuity of 50. payable out of 
the exchequer for the remainder of a term of 99 years ; 
Durban Westbrooke, M.A., fellow, (1702-17) gave by 
will 150. and all the profits of his fellowship due 
at the time of his decease; Charles Humfrey, B.A., 
sometime student in 1718, gave a rent charge of 
6. 8s. Qd. per annum for a scholar ; William Grim- 

BB2 



372 JESUS COLLEGE. 

baldson, M.D., a member of this college, who died 
in 1725, gave by will 500. to be laid out in land 
for the use of the college library ; Robert Marsden, 
B.D., archdeacon of Nottingham, sometime fellow, 
who died in 1748, founded a scholarship; Edmund 
Tew, D.D., rector of Boldon, in the bishopric of Dur- 
ham, sometime fellow, who died 1770, founded a 
scholarship ; Lynford Caryl, D.D., master, who died 
1781, bequeathed 200. whereof 100. to the use 
of the library: he also gave two silver candlesticks 
for the communion table ; the rev. Frederick Keller, 
M.A., formerly fellow, in 1785 left 20. per annum 
for one or more deserving bachelors of arts; the 
rev. Robert Tyrwhitt, M.A., sometime fellow, who 
died 1817, in his life-time gave 1000. whereof 400. 
to be applied to the repairs of the chapel ; Mrs. Sarah 
Jones, of Newport Salop, in 1825 bequeathed 6000. 
for founding three bye-fellowships in memory of the 
rev. Thomas Dummer Ley, of Hingham, Norfolk, 
formerly a member of this college ; William Hustler, 
esq., M.A., fellow, registrary of the university, who 
died 1832, in his life-time erected a handsome and 
costly stained glass window in the chapel, and by 
his will gave 400. to a fund for redeeming leases, 
and thereby augmenting the dividends of the master 
and fellows, also 100. in aid of a fund for the 
restoration of the chapel ; the rev. Joseph Studholme, 
M.A., fellow, who died the same year, bequeathed 
100. towards the last mentioned fund ; the rev. 
Edward Otter, M.A., formerly fellow, in 1840 gave 
money with which, and an augmentation from the 
college funds, a divinity prize of 21. is given every 



JESUS COLLEGE. 373 

alternate year; William French, D.D., master, who 
died in 1849, in addition to many essential services 
rendered to the college, at his own cost, filled the 
triplet at the east end of the chapel with stained 
glass; sir John Sutton, baronet, a member of this 
college, has materially aided in restoring and adorn- 
ing the chapel. 

EMINENT MEN. William Chubbes, (0) D.D., master, 
author of an introduction to logic and a commentary 
on Duns Scotus, died 1505. John Eccleston, (a) D.D., 
master, chancellor of the diocese of Ely, died 1515-16. 
Thomas Alcock, (o) LL.D., master, archdeacon of Wor- 
cester and Ely, died 1523. Robert Shorten, {a) D.D., 
master, successively of S. John's college and Pem- 
broke hall, dean of Stoke by Clare and archdeacon 
of Bath, died 1535. John Edmunds, (a) D.D., fellow, 
master of Peterhouse, died 1544. Sir Thomas Elyot, (a) 
ambassador to Germany, author of the Governor and 
other able works, died 1546. William Capon, (0) D.D., 
master, archdeacon of Anglesey and dean of Ipswich 
college, died 1550. Thomas Goodrich, (a) bishop of 
Ely and lord chancellor of England, died 1554. 
Thomas Cranmer, (a) fellow, archbishop of Canterbury, 
martyred 1555-6. John Fuller, (a) LL.D., master, chan- 
cellor of the dioceses of Ely and Norwich, died 1558. 
Griffith Trygan, (a) LL.D., fellow, famed for his know- 
ledge of the civil law, died about 1562. Richard Good- 
rich, (a) a distinguished common lawyer, died 1562. 
John Bale, (a) bishop of Ossory, died 1563. Richard 
Walker, (0) dean of Chester, died 1567. Edward 
Gascoigne, (a) LL.D., master, chancellor of the dioceses of 

(a) These are noticed in Athena; Cantabrigienses, Vol. I. 



374 JESUS COLLEGE. 

Ely and Norwich, flourished 1568. Francis Newton, (o) 
D.D., fellow, dean of Winchester, died 1572. John 
Ellis, (a) dean of Hereford, died 1576. Thomas Ithell, (0) 
LL.D., master, commissary of the university, died 1579. 
Edward Hawford, (a) D.D., master of Christ's college, 
died 1581-2. John Bell, D.D., master, dean of Ely, 
died 1591. Edmund Scambler, bishop of Norwich, 
died 1594. Hugh Bellot, fellow, bishop of Chester, 
died 1596. 

William Hughes, bishop of S. Asaph, died 1600. 
Sir Edward Loftus, lord chancellor of Ireland, died 
1601. Gabriel Goodman, D.D., fellow, dean of 
Westminster, died 1601. Ambrose Forth, LL.D., 
fellow, master in chancery in Ireland, flourished 1605. 
Thomas Legge, LL.D., fellow, master of Caius college, 
author of two latin dramas, died 1607. Sir Richard 
Swale, LL.D., fellow, master in chancery died 1608. 
Michael Murgatroid, fellow, secretary to archbishop 
Whitgift and author of Memorials of affairs in church 
and state in that prelate's time, died 1608. Richard 
Bancroft, archbishop of Canterbury, died 1610. 
Simon Forman, M.D., the noted astrologer, died 1611. 
William Tabor, D.D., fellow, archdeacon of Essex, 
died 1611. Peter Lilye, D.D., archdeacon of 
Taunton, died 1614. George Lloyd, bishop of 
Chester, died 1615. Sir Henry Fanshawe, antiquary 
and horticulturist, died 1615-16. John Duport, D.D., 
master, one of the translators of the Bible, died 1617. 
Thomas Knivet, lord Knivet, died 1622. William 
Petty, fellow, a distinguished traveller, flourished 
1624. John Hills, D.D., master of S. Catharine's 

(d) These are noticed in Athenae Cantabrigienses, Vol. I. 



JESUS COLLEGE. 375 

hall and archdeacon of Lincoln, died 1626. Fulke 
Grevile, lord Brooke, poet, died 1628. Francis 
Higginson, a celebrated preacher at Leicester and 
in New England, died 1630. George Eland, fellow, 
archdeacon of Bedford, died 1631. Thomas Beard, 
D.D., master of Huntingdon school, author of the 
Theatre of God's Judgments, died 1632. Edward 
Hughes, D.D., fellow, archdeacon of Bangor, died 
1633. Roger Andrews, D.D., master, archdeacon of 
Chichester, one of the translators of the Bible, died 
1635. Thomas Bell, a voluminous writer against 
the roman catholics, died about 1636. Edward 
Grimston, serjeant-at-arms to the house of commons, 
translator of numerous historical and political works, 
died 1640. Thomas Westfield, fellow, bishop of 
Bristol, died 1644. John Dod, fellow, a noted 
puritan divine, called the decalogist, died 1645. 
Sir William Boswell, fellow, ambassador to Holland, 
died 1647. Thomas Dod, D.D., fellow, dean of 
Ripon, died 1647-8. Sir Richard Hutton, justice 
of the common pleas, died 1651. William Beale, 
D.D., successively master of this college and of S. 
John's, and nominated dean of Ely, died 1651. 
John Owen, fellow, bishop of S. Asaph, died 1651. 
John Squire, fellow, the learned and pious vicar 
of S. Leonard's, Shoreditch, author of various works 
in defence of the church of England, died 1653. 
Sir John Brampston, chief-justice of the king's 
bench, died 1654. Peter Vowel, schoolmaster at 
Islington, executed for his adherence to the cause 
of Charles II., 1654. Thomas Young, master, a dis- 
tinguished controversialist, died 1655. Robert Ram, 



376 JESUS COLLEGE. 

prebendary of Ferns and Leighlin, author of Psedo- 
Baptisme, The Soldier's Catechism, and The Country- 
man's Catechism, flourished 1655. Richard Gas- 
coigne, a famous Yorkshire antiquary, died about 
1658. Hugh Peters, a well known political character, 
executed 1660. Nehemiah Eogers, author of sermons 
and commentaries on various parts of scripture, died 
1660. Geoffrey Watts, fellow, author of a Vindi- 
cation of the church and universities of England, 
died 1663. John Machin, fellow, an exemplary and 
pious preacher in Derbyshire, Staffordshire, War- 
wickshire, and Cheshire, died 1664. Lionel Gatford, 
D.D., fellow, author of sermons and miscellaneous 
works, died 1665. Sir Richard Fanshawe, (a) M.P. 
for the university, statesman, diplomatist and poet, 
died 1666. Christopher Hatton, lord Hatton, governor 
of Guernsey, a distinguished patron of literature, died 

1670. Charles Goring, earl of Norwich, a cele- 
brated military commander, died 1670-1. John 
Sherman, D.D., fellow, archdeacon of Salisbury, the 
historian of this college, died 1671. John Worthing- 
ton, D.D., master, prebendary of Lincoln, a great 
scholar and author bf esteemed works, (b} died 1671. 
Sir Edmund Poley, ambassador to Sweden, died 

1671. Griffith Williams, bishop of Ossory, died 

1672. Thomas Hodges, D.D., dean of Rochester, 
died 1672. Robert Morgan, bishop of Bangor, died 

1673. Humphry Henchman, bishop of London, died 

(a) See Memoirs of lady Fanshawe his wife, with extracts from his 
correspondence. Lond. 12mo. 1830. 

(&) Dr. Worthington's Diary and Correspondence is being published 
for the Cheetham Society, by James Crossley, esq. Vol. I. (1847) Vol. II. 
part 1 (1855) have already appeared. 



JESUS COLLEGE. 377 

1675. Thomas Stephens, D.D., fellow, master of 
Bury school, editor of Statius, flourished 1679. 
Eichard Sterne, master, archbishop of York, died 
1683. John North, D.D., fellow, Eegius professor 
of Greek, and master of Trinity college, died 1683. 
John Nalson, LL.D., canon of Ely, compiler of an 
Impartial Collection of affairs of state, died 1685-6. 
John Pearson, master, bishop of Chester, died 1686. 
John Oakes, sometime vicar of Boreham in Essex, 
and afterwards a popular preacher in London, author 
of Sermons and Discourses, died 1688. John Eliot, 
the apostle of the Indians, died 1689. Samuel 
Bantoft, fellow, preacher at Braintree and in London, 
died 1692. Tobias Rustat, (a) the munificent bene- 
factor to this college, the university library, and 
other public institutions, died 1693. Timothy Puller, 
D.D., fellow, rector of S. Mary-le-Bow, London, and 
author of the moderation of the church of England 
considered, died 1693. Joseph Beaumont, D.D., 
Regius professor of divinity, and successively master 
of this college and of Peterhouse, died 1699. 

Charles Leigh, M.D., author of the Natural History 
of Lancashire, died about 1700. William Saywell, 
D.D., master, archdeacon of Ely, died 1701. George 
Evans, D.D., fellow, canon of Windsor, and author 
of valuable collections relating to the history of 
that church, died 1701-2. Matthew Shorting, D.D., 
head master of Merchant Taylor's school, died 1707. 
William Cooke, LL.D., fellow, chancellor of the diocese 
of Ely, died 1707. William Pashley, fellow, com- 

(a) See a Memoir of Mr. Rustat, by William Hewitt, jun. Lond. 8vo. 
1849. 



378 JESUS COLLEGE. 

missary of the university, died 1708. John Hughes, 
fellow, editor of Chrysostom de Sacerdotio, died 
1710. Weyman Bouchery, an excellent Latin poet, 
died 1712. Humphrey Gower, D.D., master suc- 
cessively of this college, and of S. John's, and 
Margaret professor of Divinity, died 1714-15. Lionel 
Gatford, D.D., archdeacon of S. Albaii's, died 1715. 
John Killingbeck, fellow, vicar of Leeds, and author 
of excellent sermons, died 1715-16. Richard Wroe, 
D.D., fellow, warden of Manchester, and author of 
sermons and other works, died 1717-18. Tobias 
Swinden, rector of Cuxton in Kent, author of Ser- 
mons and Theological Treatises, died 1719. John 
Gibbon, Bluemantle pursuivant-at-arms, author of 
Introductio ad latinam blasoniam, died 1719. John 
Flamsteed, astronomer royal, died 1719. Laurence 
Howel, one of the leading non-jurors, died 1720. 
William Grigg, D.D., fellow, master of Clare hall, 
died 1726. Nathaniel Spinckes, a non-juring bishop, 
author of The Sick Man Visited, and controversial 
and other works, died 1727. Edward Russell, earl 
of Orford, who gained the great naval victory off 
La Hogue, died 1727. Hon. Thomas Willoughby, 
M.P. for the university, 1720-27. William Lewis, 
archdeacon of Meath, died 1730. Elijah Fenton, 
poet, died 1730. James Gardiner, subdean of Lin- 
coln, author of poems original and translated, and 
sermons, died 1731-2. Andrew Glen, fellow, rector 
of Hathern, Leicestershire, an excellent botanist, 
died 1732. Roger North, author of able and curious 
biographical, historical, and scientific works, died 
1733-4. John Strype, the ecclesiastical historian, 



JESUS COLLEGE. 379 

died 1737. Charles Reynolds, D.D., fellow, author 
of a valuable treatise on convocation, died 1744. 
John Dudley, archdeacon of Bedford, died 1744. 
Robert Marsden, fellow, archdeacon of Nottingham, 
a writer in the Bangorian controversy, died 1748. 
Richard Warren, D.D., fellow, archdeacon of Suffolk, 
died 1748. Charles Ashton, D.D., master, an ac- 
complished classical scholar, died 1752. Styan 
Thirlby, LL.D., fellow, editor of Justin Martyr, died 
1753. William Gibson, M.D., professor of anatomy, 
died 1753. Thomas Herring, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, died 1757. David Hartley, M.D., fellow, a pro- 
found metaphysician and natural and experimental 
philosopher, died 1757. Peter Allix, D.D., fellow, 
dean of Ely, died 1758. Matthew Hutton, archbishop 
of Canterbury, died 1758. Jacques Sterne, LL.D., 
archdeacon of Cleveland, died 1759. George Rey- 
nolds, LL.D., fellow, archdeacon of Lincoln, died 1762. 
Ellis Farneworth, rector of Carsington in Derbyshire, 
translator of works of Machiavelli, Davilla, Leti, and 
other foreign authors, died 1763. John Jackson, 
master of Wigston's hospital, Leicester, author of 
Chronological Antiquities and various controversial 
works, died 1763. Zachary Grey, LL.D., editor of 
Hudibras and author of able critical and historical 
works, died 1766. Laurence Sterne, author of Tris- 
tram Shandy and the Sentimental Journey, died 1768. 
Ferdinando Warner, LL.D., author of numerous his- 
torical compilations, died 1768. John Jortin, D.D., 
fellow, archdeacon of London, author of various 
esteemed works, died 1770. Sir John Hill, M.D., an 
able but empirical physician, died 1775. Francis 



380 JESUS COLLEGE. 

Fawkes, translator of Anacreon, died 1777. Thomas 
Comber, LL.D., rector of Buckworth and Morbonne, 
Huntingdonshire, author of various political, histo- 
rical, and biographical works, died 1778. Thomas 
Greene, D.D., fellow, dean of Sarum, died 1780. 
Lynford Caryl, D.D., master, registrary of the univer- 
sity, author of valuable collections relating to that 
body, died 1781. Thomas Nevile, fellow, author 
of imitations of Horace Juvenal and Persius, and 
translator of Virgil's Georgics, died 1781. John Hall 
Stevenson, author of humorous poems, died 1785. 
Philip Yonge, master, bishop of Norwich, died 1783. 
Samuel Hallifax, fellow, bishop of S. Asaph, died 1790. 
Ralph Heathcote, D.D., a voluminous miscellaneous 
author, died 1795. Henry Venn, author of the Com- 
plete Duty of Man, and of several sermons and essays, 
died 1796. Richard Warren, M.D., a learned and 
able London physician, died 1797. Thomas Edwards, 
LL.D., fellow, editor of Plutarch on Education, and 
author of a Discourse on Free Enquiry in matters 
of Religion, and tracts on classical literature, flou- 
rished 1798. Felix Vaughan, a barrister distinguished 
for remarkable eloquence, died 1799. 

Gilbert Wakefield, fellow, a great critic and con- 
troversial writer, died 1801. Samuel Berdmore, D.D., 
fellow, head master of Charterhouse school, died 
1802. Robert Pierson, archdeacon of Cleveland, 
an admirable classic and good botanist, died 1805. 
Baptist Proby, D.D., dean of Lichfield, died 1807. 
Hugh Downman, M.D., physician at Exeter, author 
of poetical and dramatic works, died 1809. East 
Apthorpe, D.D., fellow, prebendary of S. Paul's, 



JESUS COLLEGE. 381 

and author of numerous works, died 1816. Kobert 
Tyrwhitt, fellow, who left a large bequest to the 
university for the encouragement of Hebrew litera- 
ture, died 1817. William Pearce, D.D., master, dean 
of Ely and master of the Temple, died 1820. William 
Tooke, author of a Life of Catharine II., a View of 
the History of Russia, and other biographical and 
historical publications, died 1820. Richard Budd, 
M.D., physician to S. Bartholomew's and Christ's hos- 
pitals, London, died 1821. William Dickinson, (some- 
time Rastall) author of the history of Southwell, 
died 1822. Edward Daniel Clarke, LL.D., fellow, 
the celebrated traveller, died 1822. Richard Bea- 
don, master, bishop of Bath and Wells, died 1824. 
Robert Gifford, lord Gifford, master of the rolls, died 
1826. Stephen Luke, M.D. a distinguished London 
physician, died 1829. Charles Warren, fellow, chief- 
justice of Chester, died 1829. William Hustler, 
fellow, registrary of the university, and editor of 
the third edition of Graduati Cantabrigienses, died 
1832. Thomas Robert Malthus, fellow, the distin- 
guished political economist, died 1834. Samuel 
Taylor Coleridge, poet, died 1834. Richard Yates, 
D.D., author of the History of Bury S. Edmunds, 
died 1834. Thomas Comber, rector of Oswald- 
kirk, Yorkshire, author of biographical, historical, 
and miscellaneous works, died 1835. Sir William 
Gell, author of valuable works on classical topogra- 
phy and antiquities, died 1836. John Warren, dean 
of Bangor, died 1838. William Otter, fellow, bishop 
of Chichester, died 1840. William Frend, fellow, 
an able mathematical writer, died 1841. William 



382 JESTTS COLLEGE. 

Noel Hill, lord Berwick, ambassador to Naples, and 
a great genealogical collector, died 1842. William 
Yonge, archdeacon of Norwich, died 1844. Henry- 
Peter Browne, marquess of Sligo, K.T. governor of 
Jamaica, died 1845. John William Smith, a writer 
on the common law, well known for his admirable 
collection of Leading Cases, died 1845. Edward 
Strutt Abdy, fellow, author of a Journal of a tour 
and residence in the United States, died 1846. 
William French, D.D., master, canon of Ely, one of 
the authors of New Translations of the Psalms and 
Proverbs, died 1849. John Marten Cripps, traveller, 
classical scholar, antiquary, and botanist, died 1853. 
Thomas Attwood Walmisley, MUS.B., professor of 
music, and an able composer of anthems and secular 
music, died 1856. 

BUILDINGS. This college is very pleasantly situ- 
ated in a retired position near the banks of the 
Cam, at the eastern entrance of the town. 

King James I., when on a visit to Cambridge, 
observed that if he lived in the university, .he would 
pray at King's, eat at Trinity, and study and sleep 
at Jesus. Sherman states that the same monarch 
used to call this college Musarum Cantabrigiensium 
Musseum. 

The front of the college consists of a line of 
buildings one hundred and eighty feet in length, 
the chapel, anciently the church of S. Rhadeguiid, 
forming a prominent object. 

A broad gravel walk between two walls bound- 
ing the master and fellows' garden, leads from the 
street to the entrance. This walk is facetiously 




m 

g 



JESUS COLLEGE. 



383 




THE ENTEANCE GATEWAY. 



termed the chimney. The two piers at the fore- 
gate were erected in 1703. 

The entrance is by a fine gateway of brick and 
stone, with graduated battlements. It was erected 
soon after the foundation of the college. In a niche 
which was long unoccupied a small statue of bishop 



384 JESUS COLLEGE. 

Alcock the founder was placed a few years since. 
Over the archway are the arms of England and 
France quarterly, and those of the see of Ely and 
bishop Alcock. 

The principal court of three sides is open on the 
west to the meadow, from which it is divided by iron 
palisades. This court is about one hundred and forty 
feet by one hundred and twenty. It was formerly 
called the outer court, and is formed chiefly by 
buildings erected during the mastership of Dr. 
Sterne, (a) and others erected, or, perhaps more strictly 
speaking, rebuilt in 1718. (6) These are for the most 

(a) He became master in 1633. A subscription for the new buildings 
was raised in 1637. The first stone of the fabric was laid by the master 
in 1638, and it was finished about 1643, at which period the university 
fell under the parliamentary visitation. 

We have already mentioned the benefaction of Christopher, lord 
Hatton, towards these buildings. The other benefactors thereto were 
sir John Baker, of Sissenhurst in Kent, 100.; William, lord Allington, 
of Horseheath, 50.; sir Anthony Cage, knight, 30 loads of timber 
valued at 50.; sir Thomas Hatton, hart., lord chief-justice Brampston, 
Mr. Justice Hutton, and John Browning, B.D., sometime fellow, 40. each; 
sir William Boswell, and Dr. Beale, master, 30. each ; Thomas Westfield, 
afterwards bishop of Bristol, sir William Bowyer, of Denham, sir Richard 
Onslow, sir Heneage Proby, sir Ambrose Brown, Phineas Hodgson, D.D., 
chancellor of the church of York, John Squire, Robert Owen, and Thomas 
Buck, esquire bedell, 20. each ; John Boyleston, D.D., and Geoffrey 
Watts, fellows, 20 marks each; sir Richard Everard, sir Robert Hatton, 
sir William Butler, Thomas Dod, D.D., Edmund Proby, D.D., John Twickden, 
D.D., Mr. William Pyott, Francis Vernon, esq., Mr. Thomas Overman, 
Mr. William Short, Mr. Robert Levett, Mr. William Warren, Richard 
Taylor, B.D., rector of Westmill, and Henry Hutton, B.D., 10. each. 
Other sums were also advanced by Dr. William Fairfax, Mr. Henry 
Willis, Mr. John Lynch, Mr. Martin Warren, Mr. William Clarkson, 
Mr. John Gerard, Mr. Abraham Gates, Mr. Edmund Thornton, Mr. Morden, 
rector of Foulmire, and Mr. Westfield, rector of Islip. To which was 
added 332. by the master and fellows. 

(6) The following donations were made towards the expences of the 
buildings erected in 1718 : William, lord Saint John, of Bletsoe, some- 
time student, (B.A., 1712), and the hon. Thomas Willoughby, afterwards M.P. 




JTIBSTUE UdEJE K dHL&JPH&ILi =. 

183O 



JESUS COLLEGE. 385 

part covered with ivy. Unfortunately some of the 
windows in the front of the college were modernized 
in the eighteenth century. (a) 

The second court, which in the more ancient 
college books is termed the cloister yard, is sur- 
rounded by a plain neat cloister erected soon after 
the foundation of the college. In this court are the 
entrances to the chapel, the hall, and the master's 
lodge. The approach to this court from the outer 
court, is by a singularly elegant door-way sur- 
mounted by a cock, the badge of the founder of the 
college, and by his arms and those of the see of Ely. 

The third court consists chiefly of a range of 
buildings erected in 1823, to the north of the 
hall. 

THE CHAPEL. This was the ancient church of 
the nunnery, and is one of the most interesting struc- 



for the university, 50. each ; sir Charles Sidley, bart. 31. 10s.; Charles 
Proby, D.D., fellow, rector of Tewing, 21. ; Thomas Baker, B.D., Samuel 
Brearey, D.D., Benjamin Hollingworth, M.A., fellows, and George Lawson, 
esq., pensioner, 20. each; Nathaniel Hough, D.D., fellow, 15.; Robert 
Newton, D.D., and John Brooke, B.D., fellows, 10. 10s. each ; William 
Grigg, D.D., master of Clare hall, sometime fellow of this college, and 
Andrew Glen, M.A., fellow, 10. each. 

(a) In the last century, measures were contemplated and tenders received 
for beautifying the whole college, by transforming its gothic features into 
as perfect Venetian as might be practicable, but the demands of even 
the most reasonable contractor were so much beyond the means of the 
society, that the design was reluctantly abandoned ; its originators, however, 
changed into sash windows all such as faced the public road, excepting 
those on the ground floor, which were concealed by the garden walls, while 
all the interior windows of the court were left in their primaeval rudeness, 
in order that the cursory glance of the traveller might deceive him into 
an opinion of academic enlightenment, and that posterity might recognize 
their liberality, and imitate their example. Woodham's Application of 
Heraldry to the illustration of various university and collegiate antiquities, 
p. 88. 

VOL. I. CC 



386 



JESUS COLLEGE. 




INTERIOR OF THE TOWER OF THE COLLEGE CHAPEL. 



tures in the university. It is cruciform, having a 
low tower at the intersection of the cross. The 
original norman church appears to have been rebuilt 
in what is known as the early english style of 
architecture. 

It will have been seen that this church suffered 
both from fire and tempest, and it is doubtful whether 
it were ever adequately restored. 

Soon after the foundation of the college, material 
alterations were made. The lateral chapels of the 
presbytery, the greater part of the nave, and the 
aisles of the remainder were pulled down. The 
pier arches which communicated with these chapels 
were filled up, perpendicular windows being in- 
serted in each. The south transept was repaired, 
the gable rebuilt, and a large perpendicular window 
placed therein. A window in the same style was 
also inserted into the east gable of the presbytery, 



JESUS COLLEGE. 387 

and a perpendicular addition was made to the tower. 
A new oak flat roof was constructed, and the original 
character of the whole was thus as completely dis- 
guised as possible. The master's lodge and some 
college rooms occupy a part of the site of the original 
nave. 

William Dowsing, the iconoclast, thus briefly 
records his proceedings here in 1643 : 

Jesus College, Decemb. 28. 

Mr. Boyleston fellow/ ) digged up the steps there, & broke 
down Superstitions of Saints & Angells, 120 at least. 

The saints and angels here mentioned, most 
probably had reference to figures in the stained 
glass in the windows and in the ornaments of the 



In the college accounts for 1644 are the following 
entries : 

In Capella. 

, a. d. 

For levelling y e chappel, tiles, lime, sandj and 

labourers wages p. billam, Nov. 14) 1644 ..365 

To y e glazier for 4 windowes mending ..... 3 16 

To y e glazier for y e other windowes p. billam, Feb. 14, 

1644 ........ ,...,. 700 

For colouring in the chappel at y 6 same time ... 6 

(a) John Boyleston of Christ's college, B.A., 1629-30, was fellow of 
Jesus 1633; M.A. the same year; B.D. 1640; vacated his fellowship in 
or about 1646; and was created D.D. 1656. Sherman calls him dean 
of Ripon. We surmise that he was not an actor in the above proceeding, 
but was merely present when Dowsing carried out the instructions he 
had received. 

(b) From the college accounts, 1580-1, we learn that in the east 
window of the chapel were the figures of Christ and S. Peter, -and that 
the picture of Ignatius was on the north side of the chapel. In 1593-4 
occurs a payment, " To the glazier for new leading y e whole pane where 
the Founder is pictured." 

CC2 



388 JESUS COLLEGE. 

When at the restoration the mischief of the com- 
monwealth was repaired, (a] the ignorance of ecclesias- 
tical architecture and of the arts was so great, and the 
work in consequence so meagrely and imperfectly 
performed, as to secure very little respect from the 
generation which succeeded. Much however was 
at that period done in a reverential spirit, and 
doubtless much was preserved which would be of 
great use to us now, had not an age followed that 
effectually completed the destructive work of the 
great rebellion. 

At the close of the last century the stalls of the 
choir and other remaining portions of the ancient 
furniture of the chapel were taken out and sold ; 
the organ was given to a neighbouring church; the 
roof was ceiled under; the chancel arch was filled 
up; the walls were reduced to one uniform yellow 
colour with a band of black at the base: the stall- 
work was replaced by painted deal seats; and all 
in other respects arranged in conformity with the 
contemporary notions of comfort and neatness. 

Things however did not remain long in this 
state. Although the chapel was ceiled and disguised, 

(a) The benefactions to the works at the chapel at this period were : 
John Pearson, D.D., master, afterwards bishop of Chester, and Thomas 
Buck, esquire bedel, 20. each. Sir John Goodrick and sir John Dawney, 
baronets, sometime fellow-commoners ; Joseph Beaumont, D.D., master ; 
George Evans, D.D., and Henry Beale, fellows ; and Thomas Stephens, D.D., 
sometime scholar, 10. each. Other sums were advanced by Dr. Robert 
Morgan, bishop of Bangor ; sir William Doyley ; sir John Poley ; Dr. 
Edward Wynn; Dr. Henry Hitch; Mr. Leonard Letchford; Mr. Paul 
Laurence; Mr. George Payne; Mr. Hugh Lloyd; Mr. William Martin; 
Mr. John Knight ; and Mr. Edward Blackstone. 

Dr. Edmund Boldero, master, (1663-79) gave a large silver basin and 
chalice, and Mr. Thomas Newcome two silver flaggons. 



JESUS COLLEGE. 389 

and presented very few visible indications of what 
was underneath, some members of the college, about 
forty or fifty years after the period above mentioned, 
made an attempt at restoration. They put in some 
stained glass; had the piscina repaired in cement; 
printed a representation of the choir as it would be 
with the ceiling removed ; made known the existence 
of the beautiful work of the lantern, which was then 
concealed from view by a ceiling; and finally, at 
their deaths, left legacies to help to carry out their 
views, which proved a valuable nucleus for the fund 
afterwards raised by their successors for that purpose. 
Yet it was not until the year 1845 that the design 
was seriously entertained of a thorough restoration 
of the chapel upon true principles; and the con- 
viction that the remains of a very beautiful and 
important structure were in their keeping, moved 
the master and fellows to enter upon the undertaking. 
They applied all their available funds to the work. 
The members of the college, old and young, showed 
their attachment to the place by most ready and 
liberal contributions. A zealous feeling was displayed 
by a large portion of those who had received their 
university education at the college; and thus made 
manifest the value of individual and collegiate feeling. 
No attempt to procure aid beyond the limits of 
the members of the college was made or was ne- 
cessary. One munificent member, who from the 
beginning took a deep interest in the matter, was 
the means of the work being carried out with much 
more completeness and richness than could have 
otherwise been the case. 



390 JESUS COLLEGE. 

A new aisle was built on the north side, on 
foundations that were discovered under the soil, 
to allow of the arches which were walled up to 
be opened to the choir, and to make provision for 
a suitable gallery for an organ. The remains of 
the form and arrangement of the eastern lights were 
discovered in the wall, and the east end was built 
up anew; being probably at least the fourth time 
an east window had been built in that place. A 
new roof, following the pitch of the first pointed roof 
as indicated by the water line on the tower, was 
put on the walls, now lowered to their original height. 
The timber of the founder's roof (o) was employed 
in forming the mouldings, panels, and bosses, which 
compose the visible part of the present roof. Portions 
of the stalls which had been sold were found in a 
neighbouring church; and a settle in the hall of 
the lodge, until then unobserved, composed of portions 
of the ancient stall-ends, furnished the means of 
supplying the design for the present stalls : and it 
is believed that, with the exception of a few unim- 
portant particulars only, there is good reason to 
suppose the present stalls to be an exact counterpart 
of those of the founder. The marble pavement, 
and altar steps, the gift of a commemorated bene- 
factor, were laid down again, intermixed with tiles 
to assimilate the floor to the general character of 
the work. An old litany-desk of the date of 
queen Elizabeth, was discovered in a lumber-room 

(a) This roof being of a flat, late pointed character, and besides in 
bad condition, was not consistent with a restoration of the choir to its 
earlier form. 



JESUS COLLEGE. 391 

of the college, and restored to its place in the 
chapel. 

The funds did not admit of the extension of the 
restoration in the direction of the nave beyond 
the interior of the lantern story of the tower and 
to the arches on which it rests. From time to time, 
however, fresh portions of the work have been under- 
taken, and subscribers found to fill the windows, 
as restored, with stained glass. The present year 
has witnessed the last of these works in the choir 
completed. 

During the restoration of the fabric, steps were 
taken by the principal benefactor above mentioned 
to train a choir for the service of the chapel, and 
in the year 1849, on All Saints' day, the chapel 
was reopened for divine service, said and sung in 
the manner of our cathedral churches, and as was 
the case originally in all the college chapels in the 
university. 

This is a very brief history of the vicissitudes of 
a church in England during nearly seven hundred 
years of its existence. This history corresponds in 
its broad particulars to that of many, if not most, 
of the churches of the land, and it is only to be 
desired that the history of Jesus chapel may be 
borne by many students, privileged to worship 
there, to distant parishes; and may spread far 
and wide a zeal for the restoration of those 
houses of God which are not yet able to record 
a history similar to the account just given of this 
chapel. 

The length of the chapel is about one hundred 



392 



JESUS COLLEGE. 




PISCIXA AND SEDILIA IN THE CHAPEL. 



and twenty-seven feet, whereof the choir is above 
sixty-five. The length of the transepts from north 
to south, is above eighty-one feet. The choir is 
nearly twenty-four feet in width. 

The four arches which support the tower are 
bold and good, and the arcades in the lantern of 
the tower are very beautiful. 

On the eastern side of the north transept are 
considerable remains of a fine triforium. 

The screen of the choir is an excellent specimen 
of wood carving. 

The centre roof of the choir is divided into two 
hundred and forty compartments, the half nearest 
to the altar being more richly ornamented than 
the other portion. 

On the south side are arcades forming sedilia 
and a rich double piscina. 



JESUS COLLEGE. 393 

At the eastern end are five very elegant lancet 
arches, three of them being windows. Over these 
is a rose window. 

The communion-table of elaborate open carved 
work is covered by a magnificently worked frontal 
executed by Mr. Hardman of Birmingham. 

There are five lancet windows on the north side 
of the choir and four on the opposite side. These 
have shafts and rich mouldings of the best character. 
On the southern side are also two perpendicular 
windows. 

All the windows in the choir are filled with stained 
glass, representing scriptural subjects, executed by 
Mr. Hardman. That in the three lights of the eastern 
window was presented by Dr. French, late master. 
That in the four lancet windows on the south side 
was given by the undergraduates, and that in the 
five lancet windows on the north side was a bequest 
of the late rev. Eobert Parker Bowness, M.A., some- 
time fellow. The stained glass in the two perpendi- 
cular windows on the south side represents the offer- 
ing of the wise men and the doctors in the temple. 

The stalls are deserving of much commendation. 

A handsome brass lectern, copied by Mr. Hardman 
from that of S. Mark's at Venice, stands in the 
centre of the choir. 

The organ, which is in a richly decorated case, 
is on the south side. 

The pavement of the choir is of encaustic and 
other tiles, intermixed with marble slabs. 

In the north aisle are three stained glass windows. 
One is by H. Gerente of Paris. Another by Hardman, 



394 JESUS COLLEGE. 

representing S. Cecilia, is the gift of sir John Button, 
bart. Another also by Hardman, was presented by 
the rev. Osmund Fisher, M.A., late fellow. 

In the south transept is a mutilated statue of 
an ecclesiastic. Near this is a stone thus inscribed : 
Moribus ornata jacet hie bona Bertha Rosata/ ) 1261. W 
Another stone has this circumscription : 

Hie jacet Frater Johannes de Pykenham magister sacre 
theologie prior hujus loci cujus aninii propicietur Deus.t") 

At the western end of the nave is a tablet executed 
in the best style of its age, with the following 
inscription : 

Tobias Eustat, yeoman of the Robes to King Charles the 
second, whom he served with all duty and faithfullness in his 
adversity, as well as prosperity; the greatest part of the 
Estate he gather'd by God's blessing, the king's favour, and 
his industry ; he disposed in his life time in works of charity ; 
he found, the more he bestowed upon churches, hospitalls, 
universityes, and colleges, and upon poore widdows of orthodox 
ministers, the more he had at the years end; neither was he 
unmindfull of his kindred and relations, in makeing them 
provisions out of what remained. He died a bachelour the 
15th day of March in the yeare of our Lord God 1693, aged 
87 years. 

This tablet is surmounted with a fine medallion of 
Mr. Rustat. 

On the walls and floor of the nave and transept 
are memorials of Lionel Ducket, B.D., born in West- 

() Weever in his Funeral Monuments, p. 242, gives a similar epitaph 
on the tomb of Bertha, queen of king Ethelbert. 

(6) We suspect the authenticity of this date. 

(c) It has been conjectured that he was prior of the Franciscan friara 
and that this monument was brought hither when the church of the 
Franciscans was demolished in or about 1546. 



JESUS COLLEGE. 395 

moreland, educated in S. John's college, fellow of 
this college, and proctor of the university, 5 April, 
1603, set. 39, (brass); Stephen Hall, B.D., fellow, 
canon of Ely, 18 August, 1661 W ; John Sherman, 
gent., 1 May, 1677; William Davy, fellow, 17 kal. 
Dec. 1667, set. 26; Thomas Murgatroyde, B.A., 24 
May, 1672 ; Robert Paynell, M.A., vicar of Comberton, 
(youngest son of Robert Paynell, esq., of Belaugh, 
Norfolk,) 18 June, 1677; Edmund Boldero, D.D., 
master, 5 July, 1679, set. 72 ; John Pain, esq., fellow- 
commoner, 17 Sep. 1680, set. 18; Thomas Darcy, 
esq., (eldest son of sir Thomas Darcy, of Braxted, 
Essex,) 7 July, 1683 ; John Newel, of Shropshire, 4 
Feb. 1702 ; John Bradshaw, M.A., fellow, 16 kal. Dec. 
1744, set. 45 ; Susanna Maria, wife of Lynford Caryl, 
D.D., master, 1775, set. 64 ; Lynford Caryl, D.D., 
master, 18 June 1781, set. 75 ; William Beadon, 
student, educated in the Charterhouse, prid. non. 
Aug. 1789, set. 18 ; William Mathew, LL.B., fellow, 
born 7 kal. Feb. 1747, died 6 kal. Sept. 1797; 
John Alty, M.A., fellow, 6 id. Mar. 1815, set. 26; 
Charles William Atkinson, 1815, set. 21 ; East 
Apthorpe, D.D., sometime fellow, 16 April, 1816, 
set. 84; Robert Tyrwhitt, M.A., sometime fellow, 
[15 June, 1817] ; William Pearce, D.D., master, dean 
of Ely, born at S. Kevern's in Cornwall, 1744, 
died 1820; Edward Daniel Clarke, LL.D., sometime 
fellow, professor of mineralogy, 9 March, 1822, set. 



(a) This gravestone was put down by bishop Pearson who was master 
of this college for little more than a year. The inscription (in latin) is, 
attributed to him. 



396 JESUS COLLEGE. 

53^; William Smith, 1826, set. 23; Marmaduke 
Ramsay, M.A., fellow, prid. kal. Aug. 1831, aet. 
37, (with medallion); William Hustler, M.A., fellow, 
registrary of the university, 5 id. Mar. 1832, aet. 
45 ; Joseph Studholme, fellow, 4 non. May, 1832, 
aet. 48; Thomas Cautley, M.A., 1835, aet. 73; and 
John Charles Constable, son of John Constable, 
painter, (6) 21 March, 1841, aet. 24, (brass). 

On the floor of the chancel are memorials for 
John Sherman, D.D., president, 27 March, 1671 ; 
William Saywell, D.D., master, 9 June, 1701 ; William 
Cooke, LL.D., president, chancellor of the diocese of 
Ely, and rector of Harlton, 24 October, 1707, aet 74 ; 
and Charles Ashton, D.D., master, 1752, aet. 87. 

On occasion of the removal of the plaister from 
the eastern side of the cloisters, two arches of early 
character were discovered. It is conjectured with 
much probability that these led to a chapterhouse 
to the north of the northern transept. 

THE HALL approached by a flight of steps is a 
handsome building, standing on the walls of the 
refectory of the nunnery. It is fifty-four feet long, 
twenty-seven in breadth, and about thirty in height. 
The timber roof is particularly good. At the north 
eastern angle is an elegant bay window. 

The screen at the lower or western end, and the 
wainscotting around the room, although not in 

(a) There are two memorials to this eminent person. One a stone on 
the floor giving the date of his death. The other is a mural tablet with a 
medallion, erected by the students of the college in 1825. On this tablet 
the date of his death is omitted, and the casual reader would suppose it 
to have taken place in 1825 and not in 1822. 

(6) R.A., the famous landscape painter. 



JESUS COLLEGE. 397 

character with the rest of the structure, are good 
in their kind, and the general effect is by no means 
unpleasant. (a) 

In several of the windows are representations of 
the cock, the founder's badge or device. It also 
appears in the alternate corbels of the roof. 

At the east end are portraits of archbishop Cranmer, 
(a copy by sir Joshua Reynolds, presented by lord 
Carysfort, 1758); Tobias Rustat, esq., (by sir Peter 
Lely); (6) and archbishop Sterne, (presented by Lau- 
rence Sterne, student). 

On the north side is a portrait of the hon. Francis 
Willoughby, lord Middleton, admitted 3rd January, 
1744, (presented by Deborah Keller, widow, 1808) ; 
and on the opposite wall is a portrait of Edward Daniel 
Clarke, LL.D., in his doctor's robes. 

THE COMBINATION ROOM situate at the eastern end 
of the hall, contains a full length portrait on panel 
of the founder in episcopal vestments and with the 
pastoral staff, kneeling before a table on which a 
book and mitre are placed. (c) There are fine old 



(a) In 1703 the hall was paved with freestone and wainscotted, and a 
new cupola was erected. The expense of these works and of the erection 
of the piers at the foregate, were defrayed from 100., a legacy from Dr. 
Saywell, master, and the following special donations: Henry Poley, esq., 
barrister-at-law, and sometime fellow, 50. ; William Cooke, LL.D., 50. ; 
James Gardiner, M.A., subdean of Lincoln, sometime fellow, 30. ; and 
Thomas Willoughby, lord Middleton, 20. 

(6) This fine picture has been engraved by Gardiner, and from it is taken 
the lithographic portrait prefixed to Mr. Hewitt's Memoir of Mr. Rustat. 
There is an older engraving of Mr. Rustat's portrait in mezzotinto. It 
is very scarce. 

(c) In the college accounts for 1596-7 are the following charges, " For 
drawing our Founder's picture 1. 6s. 8d. For a curtain of green 
sarcenet for it 7s." 



398 JESUS COLLEGE. 

portraits on panel of archbishop Cranmer, (a) Henry 
VIII. and Mary queen of Scots ; also portraits 
of Frederick Keller, M.A., fellow; hon. Thomas 
Willoughby, admitted 6 December, 1745, (these 
being both the gift of Deborah Keller, widow, 1808) ; 
Dr. Grower, (i) master; William Harvey, (c) M.D., (the 
gift of Jarvis Kenrick, LL.B., 1805) ; and Dr. French, 
master. A bust of Dr. E. D. Clarke is on the 
eastern side, and on the opposite side is a beautiful 
pencil miniature of Henry Brunsell, LL.D., canon of 
Ely. Around the apartment are engraved portraits 
of Dr. Pearce, master; Thomas Robert Malthus, M.A., 
fellow; Dr. Allen, bishop of Ely; Marmaduke 
Ramsay, M.A., fellow and tutor; Dr. Sparke, bishop 
of Ely ; Dr. Dampier, bishop of Ely ; and Francis 
Maseres, esq., M.A., cursitor baron of the exchequer. 

THE LIBEAKY, westward of the hall, is a large 
low room, dim and ancient. It contains a good 
collection of printed books and a few manuscripts. w 



(a) This picture by Holbein is 17 inches by 12 inches. It was presented 
to the college by lord Middleton, who married one of the -Cartwrights of 
Ossington, Nottinghamshire, who was related to Cranmer by marriage; 
and has been admirably engraved by C. G. Lewis for the Cambridge 
Portfolio. On a scroll at the top is inscribed : Anno Domini MDXLVIII. 
JEtatis suse 57 July 20. 

(6) There is an engraving of Dr. Gower's portrait by Geo. Vertue, 
1719, from a painting by James Fellowes. 

(c) There is a good engraving of this fine portrait by C. G. Lewis at 
p. 474 of the Cambridge Portfolio, which may be compared with another 
portrait of Dr. Harvey at p. 340 of the same work. 

(d) In addition to such donations to the library as occur in our list 
of benefactors the following may be mentioned : 

John Twickden, D.D., ; Charles Bellasis, LL.D.,; John Randall, D.D.,; 
Lionel Ducket, B.D., ; Timothy Puller, D.B., ; Henry Hutton, B.D.,; John 
Machin ; George Evans, D.D., all fellows ; and Kichard Gascoigne, M.A., 
gave each of them books of good value. 



JESUS COLLEGE. 399 



Cocks with inscribed scrolls over them are depicted 
in several of the windows. 

There is a poor portrait of Dr Jortin which is 
said to be very unlike the original, and here is 
deposited a picture by Jean Jouvenet representing 
the presentation in the Temple, given by Dr. Pearce, 
master, as an altar-piece for the chapel. There is 
also a bust of Dr. E. D. Clarke. 

On the staircase leading to the library is a case 
containing a human skeleton. (a) 

Thomas Ansell, D.D., and William Jackson, D.D., fellows; and Mr. 
Thomas Buck, esquire bedel, gave 20. each. 

Ellis Cunliffe, M.A., sometime fellow, gave 20 marks. 

Francis Sterling, M.A., fellow, (1687-92) left by will all his books. 

Joseph Paget, B.A., (1717) gave by will 10. 

William Calverly, B.A., (1726) gave by will 20. 

Frederick Keller, M.A., fellow, gave several of the books of Dr. Ashtoil, 
master, with Dr. Ashton's MS. notes. 

The executors of the Rev. John Jackson, master of Wigston's hospital, 
Leicester, gave his MSS. and books with MS. notes. 

Mrs. Clarke, mother of Col. John Clarke, governor of Senegambia, gave 
a collection of books De Arte Militari. 

(a) Allusion is made to this skeleton in a paper on Jesus college by 
Mr. Benedict Laurence Chapman in the Cambridge Portfolio (p. 355.) 
He observes " There is no legend about it, and we are too honest to invent 
one." In a letter from the Reverend Jeseph Mede, 16th April, 1631, 
is the subjoined passage : " Going on Wednesday from Jesus Colledge 
pensionary with Dr. Ward to his colledge [Sidney] through the closes and 
gardens, and espying a garden dore open, I entred, and saw there a 
hideous sight of the skull and all other bones of a man with ligaments and 
tendons hanging and drying in the sun by stringes upon trees, etc. I asked 
what it meant. They told me it was the pedler they anatomised this Lent, 
and that when his bones were dry, they were to be sett together againe as 
they were naturally, and so reserved in a chest or coffin for their use who 
desired such an inspection. It was the garden of one Seale, a surgeon and 
a chiefe in the dissection. There I learned my former error, and the cause 
thereof, viz., that the dissection was at Jesus Colledg; but it was in 
a garden at the Castle, and the ground of its being at Jesus Colledgje was 
this hanging of the bones in a garden so neere their pensionary." It is 
not unlikely that this skeleton is that of the pedlar to whom Mr. Mede refers, 
and who, no doubt, suffered the extreme penalty of the law at the Castle. 



400 JESUS COLLEGE. 

i 

THE MASTER'S LODGE contains portraits of arch- 
bishop Bancroft, (o) (on panel); Dr. Ashton, (6) master; 
bishop Beadon, sometime master; Dr. Gower, some- 
time master ; archbishop Cranmer (0) ; Dr. Pearce, 
master; bishop Yonge, (d) sometime master; and Dr. 
Caryl, (e) master. 

MASTERSHIP, FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS. The 
mastership of this college is in the gift of the bishop 
of Ely, who is also visitor of the college. 

About 1650 the mastership is stated to have been 
of the annual value of 48. 9s. 4c?, and it was 
proposed to grant an augmentation of 90. per 
annum. 

The original number of fellows was only four. 
By successive benefactions the number was increased 
to twenty. The commissioners empowered by queen 
Elizabeth to visit the university reduced the fellow- 
ships to sixteen. One of these is in the absolute 
gift of the bishop of Ely. On a vacancy occurring 
in any of the other fifteen fellowships, the society 
present two persons to the bishop who selects one 
of them.M 

Besides the sixteen fellowships on the foundation 

(a) Engraved by W. Richardson. 

(6) There are here two portraits of Dr. Ashton, one taken during his 
life, the other after death. 

(c) A copy, said to be by D. Mytens, of Holbein's picture now in the 
Combination Room. 

(d) Supposed to be by sir Joshua Reynolds, or his master Hudson. 

(e) A copy from one by Wright of Derby in the possession of the 
rev. R. Roberts, of Haverhill. 

(/) A list of the rejected might not be uninteresting : On 9th May, 1632, 
the society presented John Cleveland, B.A., of Christ's college, the famous 
poet, and Charles Fotherby, B.A., to bishop White, to occupy the fellowship 
then vacant by the death of John Dod, M.A. The bishop selected Fotherby. 



JESUS COLLEGE. 401 

there are three bye-fellowships called Ley fellowships 
founded by Mrs. Mary Jones. 

There are fifteen foundation scholarships and 
thirty-one other scholarships and exhibitions, in- 
cluding those founded by Mr. Rustat for the orphans 
of clergymen. 

According to the book delivered to queen Elizabeth 
when she visited the university in August, 1564, 
the society consisted of the master, sixteen masters 
of arts, nine bachelors of arts, and eighty-five 
scholars : in all one hundred and eleven. 

Dr. Caius referring to 1573, states that there 
were in the college the master, ten fellows, seventeen 
scholars, and ninety pensioners: in all one hundred 
and eighteen. 

In 1621 there were the master, sixteen fellows, 
and twenty-two scholars : these together with stu- 
dents, &c., making a total of one hundred and 
twenty. 

Fuller states that in 1635, the foundation con- 
sisted of the master, sixteen fellows, and twenty-four 
scholars, besides officers and other students: in all 
one hundred and ten. 

Ninety members of this society contributed 
5. 14s. Od. to a poll-tax in August 1641. 

In 1672 there were the master, sixteen fellows, and 
twenty-six scholars besides officers and servants of 
the foundation, with other students, being in all one 
hundred and twelve. 

Edmund Carter in his History of the University, 
published 1753, states that this college had a master, 
sixteen fellows, and fifteen scholars upon the founda- 
VOL. i. D D 



402 JESUS COLLEGE. 

tion, and twenty-five exhibitioners, and that the 
number of all sorts was about eighty. 

THE COLLEGE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. Degrees in gram- 
mar were anciently conferred in all universities : 
they were considered as public licences to teach 
grammar not merely within the universities, but 
likewise in other places, the universities acting as 
normal schools for the proper education and autho- 
rization of schoolmasters. 

By grammar (grammatica), in the ancient statutes 
of the university, was universally meant the latin 
grammar and language; the greek language being 
very rarely taught before the early part of the 
sixteenth century, and having been introduced 
into this university about the year 1516, by Richard 
Croke, a fellow of King's college, in whose person 
the office of public orator was created in 1521 with 
peculiar privileges, " quia ille primus invexit literas 
ad nos Grsecas et quia regi charus est." Bishop 
Stanley and other benefactors, soon after the death 
of bishop Alcock, founded within this college a 
grammar school with a preceptor in grammar and an 
usher. This school with its appurtenances formed that 
portion of the college which is to the west of the en- 
trance gateway. Considering the great progress of 
classical and general knowledge which was consequent 
upon the invention of printing, the later legislators of 
the university deemed it necessary that all students 
should be acquainted with latin grammar, and able to 
speak that language before they were admitted as 
members of the university ; and we consequently find 
that Elizabeth, in the statutes which she gave to the 



JESUS COLLEGE. 403 

university in the first year of her reign, ordered, 
quod nemo grammaticam (that is, the latin grammar,) 
ullo in collegio doceat, nisi in collegio Jesu tantum 
et in Collegiis Trinitatis et regio quoad choristas : 
but in her subsequent code, given in the 12th year 
of her reign, it was forbidden to teach grammar 
in any college whatever, except to the choristers 
of King's college and Trinity. The grammar- 
school in this college was in consequence suppressed, 
and the buildings converted into chambers for the 
general uses of the college. 

PATEONAGE. The college patronage consists of 
the vicarage of All Saint's and S. Clement in the 
town of Cambridge; the rectories of Graveley and 
Harlton, and the vicarages of Comberton, Fordham, 
Gruilden Morden, Hauxton and Whittlesford in the 
county of Cambridge ; the vicarage of Elmstead in 
Essex; the rectory of Stanley Regis in Gloucester- 
shire; the rectory of Tewing in Hertfordshire; the 
rectories of Cavendish and Whatfield, and the vicarage 
of Hundon in Suffolk. 



END OF VOL i. 



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